# Tagged Questions

An ordinal is the order type of a well-ordered set. The first few ordinals are $0, 1, 2, \dots, \omega, \omega+1, \dots$ where $\omega$ is the order type of $\mathbb{N}$, and $\omega+1$ is the order type of $\mathbb{N}$ together with a maximum element.

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### What countable ordinals are called $\kappa_\alpha$?

Jervell has a notation for countable ordinals up to the small Veblen ordinal using trees: • Herman Ruge Jervell, How to wellorder finite trees and get good ordinal notations, Berkeley Logic ...
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### What are the minimal requirements for the definable hyperreal field plus transfer?

It is interesting that to prove the transfer principle for the definable hyperreal field, one requires no more choice than for proving, for instance, the countable additivity of the Lebesgue measure. ...
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### Nice sign-expansions of special surreal numbers

What is the "right" surreal generalization of the fact that a real number $r$ is rational if and only if its sign-expansion is eventually periodic? I can think of more than one natural way to ...
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### Does the rank (=height) of a well partial order bound its type (=length, =stature)?

Terminology and context (This should all be standard, but is recalled because terminology sometimes varies, and also to put the question into perspective.) A partially ordered set is called well-...
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### Computing the ordinal of a rational language well-partially-ordered by the subword relation

Let $\Sigma$ be a finite set or "alphabet", $\Sigma^*$ the free monoid on $\Sigma$ or set of "words". If $w,w'\in \Sigma^*$, write $w\leq w'$ when $w$ is a "subword" of $w'$, i.e., can be obtained by ...
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### Is there a modern account of Veblen functions of *several* variables?

Veblen $\phi$ functions extend the $\xi \mapsto \phi(\xi) := \omega^\xi$ and the $\xi \mapsto \phi(1,\xi) := \varepsilon_\xi$ functions on the ordinals by repeatedly taking fixed points (I won't ...
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### Reference request, proof about well-ordering of ordinals

I am looking for a second order proof that ordinals are well-ordered up to $\epsilon_0$. So, starting with encoding those ordinals in numbers, defining the < relation on those encoded ordinals and ...
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### Ordinals separate from set theory

Is there an exposition and development of ordinals theory separate from set theory? That is, some first-order theory where terms are interpreted as ordinals, with constant $0$ (and maybe $\omega$), ...
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### Ordinals in constructive mathematics ? (references)

I'm looking for references presenting a constructive treatment of the theory of ordinals. By constructive I mean valid in the internal logic of a topos (so no axiom of choice and no law of excluded ...
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### Are Conway's omnific integers the Grothendieck group of the ordinals under commutative addition?

This is a question in two parts. Say that $\mathbf{On}$ is the proper class of all ordinal numbers in ZFC. We can define a binary operator over $\mathbf{On}$ which corresponds to the commutative ...
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### Functions in “gaps” in Hardy hierarchy

Recall the definition of Hardy's hierarchy: $H_0(n)=n+1\\ H_{\alpha+1}(n)=H_\alpha(n+1)\\ H_\alpha(n)=H_{\alpha[n]}(n)$, where the last rule applies if $\alpha$ is limit ordinal, and $\alpha[n]$ ...
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### Transcendence degree of the surreals over the subfield generated by the ordinals

Consider the Grothendieck ring $K[\Omega]$ of the semiring $\Omega$ of all ordinals under the operations of natural sum and product. Its quotient field $K(\Omega)$ is naturally a subfield of the ...
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### Which ordinals can be proof-theoretic ordinals of a reasonable theory?

When talking to a friend recently he asked a question - are there any reasonable first-order theories which have proof theoretic ordinal equal to small or large Veblen ordinal? I have then extended ...
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### Peano arithmetic vs. fast-growing hierarchy with pathological fundamental sequences

Fundamental sequence for a countable limit ordinal $\alpha$ is an increasing sequence $\{\alpha[i]\}$ of ordinals of length $\omega$ such that $\lim_{i\rightarrow\omega}\alpha[i]=\alpha$. There are ...
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### Upper bound on ranks of well-founded trees in $SKI\Omega$ calculus

All ideas explained below are due to A.P.Goucher, and defined here. First of all, $SKI\Omega$ calculus is an extension of standard SKI calculus, with additional type of combinator, called oracle ...
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### Mapping graphs to ordinals

Robertson-Seymour theorem implies that graph minor relation is a well-quasi-ordering, which means (among other things) that this relation can be extended to a well-order, and other result says that ...
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### Transfinitely extending $\sf PA$ — can we get stronger than $\sf ZFC$?

Let $\sf PA$ denote the theory of natural numbers with constants $(0, 1)$ and binary operators $(+,\times)$ based on the first-order predicate calculus with equality, having the following axioms, ...
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### Formula for the Ordinal Number of k-Sets of Positive Integers

Background of my question is, that I would like to store flags indicating the relation between a pairs of non-adjacent edges of a graph (that relation could for example be, whether the edges cross, i....
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### Why isn't this a computable description of the ordinal of ZF?

In a previous MO question, I was told by several commenters that (a) it's known that there exists a computable ordinal $\alpha_{ZF}$ that "encodes the strength of ZF set theory" (i.e., a least ...
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### Is there a computable ordinal encoding the proof strength of ZF? Is it knowable?

In comments on Quora (see, for example, here, here, here), Ron Maimon has repeatedly expressed the strong opinion that Hilbert's program was not killed by Gödel's results in the way typically ...
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### Can Gentzen-style proofs give omega-consistency and beyond?

In 1936, Gentzen famously showed that Primitive Recursive Arithmetic, plus the assumption that the ordinal $\epsilon_0$ is well-founded, is able to prove Con(PA). But of course, Con(PA) doesn't yet ...
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### Consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic)

Is there a proof of the consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic), which is similar to Gentzen's proof of the consistency of arithmetic? Update: Which (different) methods can be used to ...
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### Nontrivial upper bounds on proof-theoretic ordinals of strong theories: do we have any?

Motivated by Consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic) and Proof-Theoretic Ordinal of ZFC or Consistent ZFC Extensions?, I have the following question: Are there any examples of strong ...
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### The Theory of Transfinite Diophantine Equations [closed]

The theory of Diophantine equations is one of the main stream research areas in number theory. There are many known results and unknown conjectures about the existence of non-trivial solutions for ...
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### Prime numbers and limit ordinals

As a set, i.e. as a von Neumann ordinal, the $\omega$-th limit ordinal $\omega^2$ is fairly complex and not so easy to visualize (for the novice). But as an explicit well-ordering of $\mathbb{N}$, ...
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### What is the order type of $L$ with Godel's well ordering?

In some sense $Ord$ is a "proper class" ordinal. Unfortunately the notion of a proper class ordinal is not a straight forward generalization of the notion of "set" ordinals because the proper classes ...
Ordinal numbers are generalizations of natural numbers. In this sense the "proper class" of all ordinals ($Ord$) is very similar to "infinite" set of all natural numbers ($\omega$). In the other ...