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29
votes
3answers
2k views

Algebras over the little disks operad

Hello, The so-called "recognition principle" of Boardman-Vogt and May leaves me unsatisfied. My problem is the following: The "recognition principle" says that every "group-like" algebra over the ...
26
votes
5answers
2k views

What are natural questions to ask about an operad?

I just discovered that something I've been working with has the structure of an operad. So I'm wondering what natural basic questions does one ask about operads? For example, if I knew I had the ...
24
votes
7answers
2k views

Why are operads useful?

The question is not about where operads are used, I know that. It is about what makes them useful. For example, van Kampen diagrams are useful in combinatorial group theory because these are planar ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Why should have Peter May worked with CGWH instead of CGH in “The Geometry of Iterated Loop Space”?

This is a follow-up to Dan Ramras' answer of this question. The following correction can be found in the errata to The Geometry of Iterated Loop space (Page 484 here). The weak Hausdorff rather ...
18
votes
1answer
3k views

What's up with Wick's theorem?

Sorry about the dumb title. I'd like to understand Wick's theorem. More specifically, I have seen it pop up in several different contexts and I am really puzzled by the different statements of it ...
16
votes
7answers
2k views

Shuffle Hopf algebra: how to prove its properties in a slick way?

Let $k$ be a commutative ring with $1$, and let $V$ be a $k$-module. Let $TV$ be the $k$-module $\bigoplus\limits_{n\in\mathbb N}V^{\otimes n}$, where all tensor products are over $k$. We define a ...
16
votes
1answer
984 views

Little disks operad and $Gal (\bar {Q}/Q)$

My question is simple: How do the little disks operad and $Gal (\bar {Q}/Q)$ relate? I realize that a huge amount of heavy-machinery can be brought into an answer to this, but I'm struggling ...
15
votes
4answers
1k views

Deligne's conjecture (the little discs operad one)

Deligne's conjecture states that the Hochschild cochain complex of an A-infinity algebra is an algebra over the operad of chains on the topological little discs operad. Of course the conjecture has ...
15
votes
2answers
3k views

Kontsevich's conjectures on the Grothendieck-Teichmüller group?

Reading Kontsevich's "Operads and Motives in Deformation Quantization", I was wondering about the state of the many conjectures concerning the Grothendieck-Teichmüller group in chapter 4. (Also, where ...
15
votes
1answer
662 views

Higher homotopy algebraic structure on the homology of an operad

Given a DGA $A$, then by standard techniques such as homological perturbation theory, the ring structure on the homology $H(A)$ extends to a minimal $A_\infty$-algebra structure such that $H(A)$ is ...
14
votes
3answers
936 views

Good reference for studying operads?

Can you, please, recommend a good text about algebraic operads? I know the main one, namely, Loday-Vallette "Algebraic operads". But it is very big and there is no way you can read it fast. Also ...
14
votes
1answer
435 views

Free Loop-Space Recognition Principle

It is well-known that one can detect based loopspaces using the machinery of operads. Namely, given a group-like space $X$ with an action of $\mathbb{E}_n$-operad, then it is homotopy equivalent as an ...
14
votes
0answers
550 views

Splitting of homomorphism from cactus group to permutation group

We all learned in kindergarten that the category of finite-dimensional (type I, say) $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$-modules is braided monoidal for $\mathfrak{g}$ a complex semisimple Lie algebra. This gives an ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

Relation between monads, operads and algebraic theories

I've begun to interest in algebraic theories and their categorical models: in particular monads, generalized multicategories and operads, lawvere theories and their generalization. Is there any ...
12
votes
3answers
410 views

Is the Amitsur-Levitzki identity essentially unique?

Let us consider the matrix algebra. $Mat_n(\mathbb{C})$. The Amitsur-Levitzki identity states that for any matrices $X_1, X_2, ..., X_{2n} \in Mat_n(\mathbb{C})$ the sum $\Sigma_{\sigma \in S_{2n}} ...
12
votes
2answers
530 views

GL(V)-representation theory for a Lie bracket kernel

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field of characteristic $0$, and let $L_k(V)$ be the degree $k$ part of the free Lie algebra over $V$. There is an exact sequence $$0\to D_n(V)\to L_1(V)\otimes ...
12
votes
2answers
389 views

Introducing division strategically in operads to accommodate formulas like the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

I am not as familiar with operad terminology as I'd like to be, so I might be missing some well-known term in the area. If so, I'd appreciate any pointers to the correct terms. Consider the following ...
12
votes
1answer
937 views

koszul duality and algebras over operads

Given a pair of Koszul dual algebras, say $S^*(V)$ and $\bigwedge^*(V^*)$ for some vector space $V$, one obtains a triangulated equivalence between their bounded derived categories of ...
12
votes
1answer
681 views

Are Lurie's operads special SMCs?

In Higher Operads, Higher Categories, Leinster nicely characterizes operads among monoidal categories (as PROs). Roughly speaking, a monoidal category comes from an operad if its set of objects is ...
12
votes
1answer
595 views

Are G_infinity algebras B_infinity? Vice versa?

What is the relationship between $G_\infty$ (homotopy Gerstenhaber) and $B_\infty$ algebras? In Getzler & Jones "Operads, homotopy algebra, and iterated integrals for double loop spaces" (a paper ...
12
votes
1answer
433 views

Condition on a Hopf operad for tensor product in the base category to be a (categorical) coproduct for algebras

A Hopf operad will be an operad endowed with a coproduct $P(n) \longrightarrow P(n) \otimes P(n)$ which is compatible in the obvious sens with operad laws (no more structure is assumed a priori. ...
11
votes
1answer
755 views

On Tamarkin's proof of Etingof-Kazhdan quantization of Lie bialgebra

This question is motivated by the desire to understand better the interplay between Drinfeld associators, algebraic structures up to homotopy and related results. Recall that a Lie bialgebra is a Lie ...
11
votes
1answer
309 views

What is this operad-like structure called?

I'd like to know what's the name (if any) of the following categorical structure, and also references where it has been considered. Given a category $C$, let $O=\{O(n)\}_{n\geq 0}$ be a sequence of ...
10
votes
2answers
467 views

Correspondence between operads and $\infty$-operads with one object

Given a simplicial operad one can form its category of operators. This is a simplicial category with a functor to the category of finite pointed sets which is a bijection on objects and whose ...
10
votes
1answer
294 views

Tensor product of dendroidal sets: counter-examples

For any smal category $A$, I shall write $\widehat A$ for the category $[A^{\text op}, \mathbf{Set}]$ of presheaves on $A$, and $y_A\colon A \to \widehat A$ for the Yoneda embedding relative to $A$. ...
9
votes
1answer
215 views

Tensor products over operads and bar constructions

Let $O$ be an operad in spaces, $A$ an $O$-algebra and $R$ an right $O$-module. One can define $R \otimes_O A$ as the coequalizer of the two maps $ROA$ to $RA$. One can also define $B(R,O,A)$ (as in ...
9
votes
1answer
257 views

Non-$\Sigma$ $E_n$ algebras?

Any symmetric operad can be considered as an non-$\Sigma$ operad by throwing away permutations. Does anyone know what sort of structure one gets for algebras over $C_n$ the little n-cubes operad, or ...
9
votes
2answers
298 views

When do PROP-morphisms induce adjunctions?

If (C,tensor,1) is a symmetric monoidal category and f:A-->B is a morphism of PROPs (or monoidal cats = colored PROPs), one gets a forgetful functor f^*:B-Alg(C)-->A-Alg(C) (where ...
9
votes
1answer
345 views

$k$-Disk algebras versus $E_k$ algebras

Background: The little $k$-cubes operad is the $(\infty,1)$-operad defined by embedding disjoint unions of $k$-dimensional open cubes rectilinearly into one another, that is using maps ...
9
votes
1answer
648 views

Compatibility of the KZ connection with operadic composition

In what sense is the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection compatible with the operadic composition in the little discs operad and/or the operad of $\overline{M}\_{0,n}$'s? Here are (some) details, ...
9
votes
0answers
206 views

Does the $(\mathbb Z/2)$-graded isomorphism $E_n \cong E_{n+2}$ have any nice properties?

This question assumes everything is dg. Let's decide to work over the "field" $\mathbb Q[\mu,\mu^{-1}]$ where $\mu$ has homological degree $+2$. Then chain complexes are just $\mathbb Z/2$-graded. ...
9
votes
0answers
178 views

Are pivotal categories the algebras for a cartesian monad?

It seems to be "known" but not written down that the following are more-or-less equivalent: ...
8
votes
4answers
1k views

Why are operads so closely connected to mathematical physics?

Mark Sapir's question inspired me to ask the question in the title. A lot of mathematicians who have done work related to mathematical physics (e.g Kontsevich, Stasheff, Getzler, Manin, etc.) have ...
8
votes
2answers
538 views

Delooping and unreduced operads

Suppose I have an operad $P(n)$ in topological spaces in the sense of the book by Markl, Shnider and Stasheff, i.e. there is no space $P(0)$. In agreement with some of the answers to this question, I ...
8
votes
2answers
567 views

Is the cohomology of a topological operad a cooperad?

For cohomology with coefficients in a field $F$ the map $H^\cdot(X;F) \otimes H^\cdot(Y;F) \to H^\cdot(X \times Y;F)$ of the Kunneth theorem is an isomorphism of algebras over $F$. I am correct in ...
8
votes
2answers
504 views

Model structure for cooperads and for coalgebras

I am studying the homotopy theory of (algebraic) operads and I came up with several questions I am unable to answer to. I would like to stress that I don't have applications in mind, I just would like ...
8
votes
1answer
547 views

Seeking errata for Berger-Moerdijk Axiomatic Homotopy Theory for Operads

The paper I'm referring to can be found here. It came out in 2003. I've been told by professors before that I should be careful relying on things from this paper, because it contained errors. Is ...
8
votes
2answers
628 views

Right actions of operads and monads

Given an operad $A$, there is an associated monad $M_A$ given by $M_A(X) = \coprod_n A(n) \otimes X^{\otimes n}$ such that being an $A$-algebra and being an algebra over the monad $M_A$ is the same ...
8
votes
1answer
217 views

Generating the graded S_n-module associated to an operad

Suppose I have a symmetric operad $\mathcal{P}$ defined over $\text{Vect}_{\mathbb{K}}$ with generators and relations in degrees at most $l$. Now suppose I already know $\mathcal{P}(k)$ as an ...
8
votes
1answer
409 views

Is there a “derived” Free $P$-algebra functor for an operad $P$?

Recall that an operad (in vector spaces, say) $P$ consists of a collection of vector spaces $P(n)$ for $n\geq 0$, such that $P(n)$ is equipped with an action by the symmetric group $S_n$, with maps ...
8
votes
1answer
273 views

When is a quasicategory over $N(\Delta)^{op}$ a planar $\infty$-operad?

In Lurie's DAG II, a notion of monoidal $\infty$-category is given that differs from the notion given in his later book Higher Algebra. In the former, the relevant structure is a cocartesian ...
8
votes
1answer
280 views

Is the operadic butterfly symmetric?

The operadic butterfly is a diagram in the category of operads in vector spaces. It extends the short exact sequence relating commutative, associative and Lie operads. $$\begin{array}{ccccc} & ...
8
votes
0answers
192 views

Homotopy transfer in the opposite direction

Let $X\rightleftarrows Y\circlearrowleft$ be a strong deformation retraction of chain complexes (a.k.a. contraction), i.e. $X\rightarrow Y\rightarrow X$ is the identity, $Y\rightarrow Y$ is a homotopy ...
8
votes
0answers
306 views

Galois action on $E_n$-operads

Let $E_n$ be the little $n$-cubes operad which acts on $n$-fold loop spaces (up to group completion, an $E_n$-action is precisely the data needed to perform an $n$-fold delooping). I am looking for ...
8
votes
0answers
259 views

The spheres operad

I have a rather naive question. Consider the space of all maps $$ S^{j_1} \times S^{j_2} \times \cdots \times S^{j_k} \to S^n $$ for all possible natural numbers $n, k, j_1, \cdots , j_k$. This ...
8
votes
0answers
298 views

When can I assure that the representation theory of a PROP is faithful?

Recall that a PROP is a symmetric monoidal category whose object-set is freely $\otimes$-generated by a single object $x\in P$. A representation or algebra for a prop $P$ in a symmetric monoidal ...
8
votes
0answers
273 views

Question about $A_\infty$ maps

Given $A_\infty$-spaces $X$ and $Y$, Boardman and Vogt defined an $A_\infty$-map from $X$ to $Y$ to be a map $f: X \to Y$ of underlying based spaces and an $A_\infty$-structure on the reduced mapping ...
7
votes
4answers
383 views

How universal is operadic approach to studying algebras?

I have just started to read about operads, so this question might be silly. So it seems to me that any "reasonable" class of algebras can actually be defined as a class of all algebras over a certain ...
7
votes
2answers
419 views

What are algebras for the little n-balls/n-cubes/n-something operads exactly?

As a non expert in the theory of topological operads, I find it pretty hard, to understand what algebras for little balls/cubes/something operads are. For all the other famous operads I know (like ...
7
votes
3answers
354 views

Koszul duality for modular operads

Has anyone defined what it means for a modular operad to be Koszul, or what the Koszul dual of a modular operad is? In particular, is it meaningful to say that a modular operad is quadratic? Merkulov, ...