The operads tag has no usage guidance.

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### comparison between two monadic definitions for an operad

According to May, an operad $\mathcal{C}$ valued in sets is equivalent to a monad in Cat on the endofunctor $C\colon X\mapsto \coprod_i \mathcal{C}(i)\times X^i.$
According to Leinster, an operad is ...

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### Where is the Courant operad discussed?

Where is the Courant operad discussed? And hopefully defined precisely.
By the Courant operad or rather a suitable generalization of operad to accommodate the inner product, the operad whose ...

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### Correspondence between operads and monads requires tensor distribute over coproduct?

In checking the details of the correspondence between operads over a symmetric monoidal category and monads on some associated endofunctor of the category, I cannot make the obvious proof work without ...

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### Model structure for cooperads and for coalgebras

I am studying the homotopy theory of (algebraic) operads and I came up with several questions I am unable to answer to. I would like to stress that I don't have applications in mind, I just would like ...

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269 views

### A question on the definition of operad

The nlab page says
A (Set-based) operad is a monoid in the monoidal category
$(Psh(ℙ),∘,I)$, where $ℙ$ is the category of $\sqcup_{n\ge 0} S_n$.
The monoidal structure is given by the so ...

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### Galois action on $E_n$-operads

Let $E_n$ be the little $n$-cubes operad which acts on $n$-fold loop spaces (up to group completion, an $E_n$-action is precisely the data needed to perform an $n$-fold delooping). I am looking for ...

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### Embedding e_n -> e_m

Let $e_n$ be the operad of (say, rational) chains of the operad of little n-disks. Consider the natural embedding $e_n\to e_m$, where $n<m$ and $n,m>1$ induced by the embedding $\mathbb{R}^n\to ...

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### The spheres operad

I have a rather naive question. Consider the space of all maps
$$ S^{j_1} \times S^{j_2} \times \cdots \times S^{j_k} \to S^n $$
for all possible natural numbers $n, k, j_1, \cdots , j_k$.
This ...

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342 views

### Reference for Stasheff Operad

I want a reference for Stasheff operad, where operad maps are defined explicitly at the point-set level. I would also like to ask the question that what exactly do one mean by Stasheff operad? Is ...

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### How universal is operadic approach to studying algebras?

I have just started to read about operads, so this question might be silly.
So it seems to me that any "reasonable" class of algebras can actually be defined as a class of all algebras over a certain ...

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### A_n operad as configuration spaces

$A_\infty$ operad can be described both in terms of Stasheff polytopes and configuration spaces.$A_n$ operad can be described as subspace of Stasheff operad described using Stasheff polytope. Is there ...

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### Is the definition of Gerstenhaber bracket related to operads?

I was reading these notes by Keller. On the page 19 he defines the Gerstenhaber bracket on the Hochschild cochain complex. But first of all he defines the operation $\bullet$ on the cochains by
$$
...

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### Aspherical operads

Let $O$ be an operad in $\mathtt{SETS}$. Assume that $O(0)$ is empty and $O(1)$ only consists of the identity. Assume for simplicity that $O$ is monochromatic, i.e. we have no labels on the ...

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### Good reference for studying operads?

Can you, please, recommend a good text about algebraic operads?
I know the main one, namely, Loday-Vallette "Algebraic operads". But it is very big and there is no way you can read it fast. Also ...

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### Exact sequence of L-infinity-algebras

We call a sequence of $L_\infty$-algebras (weak) maps
$$0\to L\xrightarrow{f} M\xrightarrow{g} N\to 0$$
is exact if it is exact on the the underlying chain complexes level.
Thought I don't know ...

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### Does abstract nonsense of model categories determine the “nonlinear” morphisms of $L_\infty$ algebras?

Recall that a Lie algebra is a module for the operad $\mathrm{Lie}$, which is freely generated by a binary antisymmetric operation $\beta$ modulo an equation that is quadratic in $\beta$. There is a ...

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### Identifying the little disk operad with parenthesized braids

Let $D_2$ be the topological operad of little disks. This operad can be modelled "combinatorially" in terms of an operad of groupoids called $\newcommand{\PaB}{\mathbf{PaB}}\PaB$, the operad of ...

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### Correspondence between operads and $\infty$-operads with one object

Given a simplicial operad one can form its category of operators. This is a simplicial category with a functor to the category of finite pointed sets which is a bijection on objects and whose ...

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### Introducing division strategically in operads to accommodate formulas like the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

I am not as familiar with operad terminology as I'd like to be, so I might be missing some well-known term in the area. If so, I'd appreciate any pointers to the correct terms.
Consider the following ...

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### Seeking errata for Berger-Moerdijk Axiomatic Homotopy Theory for Operads

The paper I'm referring to can be found here. It came out in 2003. I've been told by professors before that I should be careful relying on things from this paper, because it contained errors.
Is ...

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### Generating series of free PROs

Let
\begin{equation}
G := \biguplus_{p \geq 0} \: \biguplus_{q \geq 0} G(p, q)
\end{equation}
be a bigraded set of generators and $\mathcal{F}(G)$ be the free PRO generated by $G$ (see [1] for a net ...

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### Are Lurie's operads special SMCs?

In Higher Operads, Higher Categories, Leinster nicely characterizes operads among monoidal categories (as PROs). Roughly speaking, a monoidal category comes from an operad if its set of objects is ...

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### Which E_∞-spaces are homotopy colimits of k-truncated E_∞-spaces?

This question is closely related to my previous question about modules over truncated sphere spectra, in particular, it has the same motivation.
Recall that every space (or ∞-groupoid) can be ...

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### Is the operadic butterfly symmetric?

The operadic butterfly is a diagram in the category of operads in vector spaces. It extends the short exact sequence relating commutative, associative and Lie operads.
$$\begin{array}{ccccc}
& ...

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### Repertory of the different sorts of operads

Many different types of operads have emerged in recent years (symmetric, shuffle, cyclic, anticyclic, coloured, etc.).
I would like, for any of these, list the following data:
Description of the ...

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### Non-$\Sigma$ $E_n$ algebras?

Any symmetric operad can be considered as an non-$\Sigma$ operad by throwing away permutations. Does anyone know what sort of structure one gets for algebras over $C_n$ the little n-cubes operad, or ...

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### On Tamarkin's proof of Etingof-Kazhdan quantization of Lie bialgebra

This question is motivated by the desire to understand better the interplay between Drinfeld associators, algebraic structures up to homotopy and related results.
Recall that a Lie bialgebra is a Lie ...

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### PROPs representations, free module analog

Ordinary operad with one ouput can be obviously regarded as free module on itself. Is there are analogous construction for operad with many outputs (PROP)? This must be difficult question, but what is ...

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### A (too?) simple notion of “closed multicategory”

Suppose I define a multicategory $M=(Ob(M),Hom_M)$ to be simply closed if
for every sequence $S=(b_1,\ldots,b_n;x)$ of $n+1$ objects in $M$, we provide an object $Exp(S)\in Ob(M)$, and
for every ...

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### Maps between operads of different arities

Is there a category of operads which allows morphisms which take operations to operations with more or fewer arguments? One example should be when you fix arguments to obtain maps with fewer inputs. ...

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### Delooping and unreduced operads

Suppose I have an operad $P(n)$ in topological spaces in the sense of the book by Markl, Shnider and Stasheff, i.e. there is no space $P(0)$. In agreement with some of the answers to this question, I ...

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### How to define the equivalence of Maurer-Cartan elements in an $L_{\infty}$-algebra?

First let $L^{\bullet}$ be a pro-nilpotent differential graded Lie algebra (dgla). We have the set of Maurer-Cartan elements in $L^{\bullet}$ ($MC(L^{\bullet})$) which are $\alpha \in L^1$ such that ...

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### Koszul duality for modular operads

Has anyone defined what it means for a modular operad to be Koszul, or what the Koszul dual of a modular operad is? In particular, is it meaningful to say that a modular operad is quadratic? Merkulov, ...

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### What is the definition of “the $L_\infty$ part of a $G_\infty$ morphism”?

We know that in Tamarkin's proof of Kontsevich's formality theorem, he defined the $G_\infty$ structure on the Hochschild cochain complex $C^\cdot(A,A)$ and constructed a $G_\infty$ morphism from ...

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### Are pivotal categories the algebras for a cartesian monad?

It seems to be "known" but not written down that the following are more-or-less equivalent:
...

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### Generating the graded S_n-module associated to an operad

Suppose I have a symmetric operad $\mathcal{P}$ defined over $\text{Vect}_{\mathbb{K}}$ with generators and relations in degrees at most $l$. Now suppose I already know $\mathcal{P}(k)$ as an ...

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### How strong is the condition that an operad splits, i.e. O(n)=O(s)xO(n-s)?

I recently proved something for the operad $Comm$ valued in a model category $M$ and am trying to generalize it to other symmetric operads. I'm very new to operads, so please forgive me if there are ...

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### Boardman Vogt W construction for modules over an operad

The W construction of Boardman and Vogt gives a cofibrant replacement for operads. In http://arxiv.org/abs/math/9907073, Salvatore describes a cofibrant replacement for algebras over an operad. Is ...

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### Is there a cheap proof that (homotopy) endomorphisms are functorial?

This is, in some sense, the homotopy version of this question.)
If $C$ is a category with $iC$ the subcategory of isomorphisms, there is a functor $X \mapsto End(X)$ from $iC$ to the category of ...

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### $A_{\infty}$ structure questions

Hello,
I would like explanation or clear source for some things related to $A_{\infty}$-spaces, via Stasheff's polytopes.
I tried not to think about them, because they seem too complicated for me; I ...

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### Compatibility of the KZ connection with operadic composition

In what sense is the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection compatible with the operadic composition in the little discs operad and/or the operad of $\overline{M}\_{0,n}$'s?
Here are (some) details, ...

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### When can I assure that the representation theory of a PROP is faithful?

Recall that a PROP is a symmetric monoidal category whose object-set is freely $\otimes$-generated by a single object $x\in P$. A representation or algebra for a prop $P$ in a symmetric monoidal ...

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### []-infinity algebra and Projective representation

This is a very vague question.
We know that some algebra structures can be viewed as modules of some fantastic stuff, call T. Such examples include: Abelian groups are $\mathbb{Z}$-modules, chain ...

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### Where does the definition of “Tower of Algebras” come from?

A tower of algebras is a sequence of algebras
$$A_0 \hookrightarrow A_1 \hookrightarrow \cdots \hookrightarrow A_n \hookrightarrow \cdots$$
with embeddings $A_n \otimes A_m \hookrightarrow A_{n+m}$ ...

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### Homotopic monoids and $A_\infty$ spaces

Informally, an $A_\infty$-space is a monoid whose laws are only satisfied up to homotopy.
Let’s define now what I will call a "homotopic monoid" to be a space $M$ together with a point $e\in{}M$ and ...

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### Why are operads so closely connected to mathematical physics?

Mark Sapir's question inspired me to ask the question in the title. A lot of mathematicians who have done work related to mathematical physics (e.g Kontsevich, Stasheff, Getzler, Manin, etc.) have ...

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### Why are operads useful?

The question is not about where operads are used, I know that. It is about what makes them useful. For example, van Kampen diagrams are useful in combinatorial group theory because these are planar ...

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### Is there a “derived” Free $P$-algebra functor for an operad $P$?

Recall that an operad (in vector spaces, say) $P$ consists of a collection of vector spaces $P(n)$ for $n\geq 0$, such that $P(n)$ is equipped with an action by the symmetric group $S_n$, with maps ...

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### Relation between monads, operads and algebraic theories

I've begun to interest in algebraic theories and their categorical models: in particular monads, generalized multicategories and operads, lawvere theories and their generalization. Is there any ...

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### Monad arising from operad

It's known that from every operad arises a cartesian monad whose algebras are the algebras for the operad. Leinster proved that there are different operads from which arise the same monad, in this way ...