**53**

votes

**23**answers

17k views

### Open problems with monetary rewards

Since the old days, many mathematicians have been used to attaching monetary rewards to problems they admit are difficult. Their reasons could be to draw other mathematicians' attention, to express ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

145 views

### Are there any interesting open questions having to do with submodularity, specially in the intersection of theoretical machine learning? [closed]

I was interested in knowing about open research topics related with sub modularity, specially within its intersection with theoretical machine learning (and related topics).
It seems to me that much ...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

20 views

### diffusion- stuck [migrated]

In a round room of radius R, a large number of coins N of diameter d are randomly dispersed upon the
floor. A ladybird starts from the centre of the room, crawling at speed v.
Suppose that every time ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

339 views

### Can any finite lattice be realized as an intermediate subgroups lattice?

Let $G$ be a finite group and $H$ a subgroup.
Let $\mathcal{L}(H \subset G )$ be the lattice of all the intermediate subgroups between $H$ and $G$.
Question: Can any finite lattice be realized as ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

161 views

### Reference request: Research done on whether the Euler prime can be the largest factor of an odd perfect number

(Note: This was cross-posted from MSE.) I posted the following reference request in MSE three (3) days ago, but was unable to elicit any responses. I am cross-posting it to MO, hoping that it is ...

**26**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Is Lebesgue's “universal covering” problem still open?

The following problem has been attributed to Lebesgue. Let "set" denote any subset of the Euclidean plane. What is the greatest lower bound of the diameter of any set which contains a subset congruent ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

251 views

### Subspaces of $l_{1}$ are not Lipschitz complemented in $l_{1}$

I have thought about the following question for several years. This question may be stupid or not interesting. My question is: Is there a subspace $U$ of $l{_1}$ such that the quotient $l_{1}/U$ is ...

**160**

votes

**89**answers

27k views

### Not especially famous, long-open problems which anyone can understand

Question: I'm asking for a big list of not especially famous, long open problems that anyone can understand. Community wiki, so one problem per answer, please.
Motivation: I plan to use this list ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

352 views

### Second duals of Grothendieck spaces

The classical example of a Grothendieck space is $\ell_\infty$. It is also known that its even duals $\ell_\infty^{**}$, $\ell_\infty^{(4)}$, $\dots$ are Grothendieck spaces.
(See, e.g., this note ...

**61**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Is it known that the ring of periods is not a field?

I have just learned here that we know numbers that are not periods; is it known meanwhile that the ring of periods is not a field? I know that it is conjectured that $1/\pi$ is not a period, but the ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

285 views

### Counting factors: is this approach in the literature on multiperfect numbers?

Does the following approach (or something near it) exist in the number theory
literature?
I will provide some motivation for $\omega(p^n - 1)$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$
and for this question. First, ...

**41**

votes

**30**answers

5k views

### Fundamental problems whose solution seems completely out of reach [closed]

In many areas of mathematics there are fundamental problems that are embarrasingly natural or simple to state, but whose solution seem so out of reach that they are barely mentioned in the literature ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

312 views

### Improving the bound $q < n\sqrt{3}$ for an odd perfect number $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ given in Eulerian form

(Note: This was cross-posted from MSE.)
Let $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form (i.e., $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q, n) = 1$).
Therefore, ...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is S^2 x S^4 a complex manifold?

As observed by Calabi a long time ago, the manifold $S^2\times S^4$ admits an almost-complex structure (obtained by embedding it in $\mathbb{R}^7$ and using the octonionic product), which however is ...

**30**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Example of a compact Kähler manifold with non-finitely generated canonical ring?

A celebrated recent theorem of Birkar-Cascini-Hacon-McKernan and Siu says that the canonical ring $R(X)=\oplus_{m\geq 0}H^0(X,mK_X)$ of any smooth algebraic variety $X$ over $\mathbb{C}$ is a finitely ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

361 views

### Ruth-Aaron triples, etc

A Ruth-Aaron pair is two numbers $(n,n+1)$ such that
their sum of prime factors is equal, counting repeated prime factors.
(The name refers to Hank Aaron's 715 homeruns surpassing Babe Ruth's 714!)
So
...

**18**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Collection of conjectures and open problems in graph theory

Is there something similar to the Kourovka Notebook for graph theory (or anyway an organized, possibly commented, collection of conjectures and open problems)?

**10**

votes

**0**answers

286 views

### Is every projective space curve a set-theoretic intersection of two surfaces? What is known about this question?

I am sorry if this question has been already asked, couldn't find anything similar myself. I have recently recalled this long standing open problem of whether every irreducible curve in ...

**50**

votes

**6**answers

10k views

### Is Thompson's Group F amenable?

Last year a paper on the arXiv (Akhmedov) claimed that Thompson's group $F$ is not amenable, while another paper, published in the journal "Infinite dimensional analysis, quantum probability, and ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

63 views

### Long paths in the supercritical percolation.

I have a question on the length of the longest path, denoted by $\ell_n$, in the supercritical percolation on $[0,n]^d$, denoted by $C_n$.
We know that $C_n$ has a giant component whose size is of ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

127 views

### Reduction argument from a general vertex set V(G) to a prime power in Prof. Keevash's proof on the Existence of Designs

The proof flow of the paper "On the Existence of Designs" by Prof. Keevash as I understand it is the following:
-- Reduction from the general case to $V = \mathbb{F}_{p^a}$ (Lemma 6.3)
-- Covering ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

709 views

### Integer-distance sets

Let $S$ be a set of points in $\mathbb{R}^d$; I am especially interested in $d=2$.
Say that $S$ is an integer-distance set if every pair of points in $S$ is separated
by an integer Euclidean distance.
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

213 views

### Inverted pair of complex analytic families

I read the following "problem" in an old set of notes of Morrow and Kodaira which focused on deformations of complex manifolds:
Find a pair of complex analytic families $\lbrace M_t\rbrace$ and ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

127 views

### Randomly placing nonoverlapping unit cuboids

Suppose one places unit cuboids of dimension $d$ with min-corners
uniformly distributed to lie in $[0,n]^d$, but with cuboid (strict) overlap forbidden.
At some point, the region is "saturated," ...

**40**

votes

**7**answers

6k views

### Is there a complex structure on the 6-sphere?

I don't know who first asked this question, but it's a question that I think many differential and complex geometers have tried to answer because it sounds so simple and fundamental. There are even a ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

442 views

### Avoidable words

Let $u(x_1,...,x_n)$ be a word, $k\in \mathbb{N}$. We say that $u$ is $k$-avoidable if there exists an infinite word in $k$ letters $\{a_1,...,a_k\}$ which does not contain values of $u$ (i.e. words ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

247 views

### Gauss Codes that produce classical knots as opposed to virtual knots

I have been doing some research in Gauss codes and have been reading Kauffman's paper Virtual Knot Theory. In section 3.3, Theorem 2, he states that
If $K$ is a virtual knot whose underlying Gauss ...

**12**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Smallest area shape that covers all unit length curve

On a euclidean plane, what is the minimal area shape S, such that for every unit length curve, a translation and a rotation of S can cover the curve.
What are the bounds of the shape's area if this ...

**40**

votes

**12**answers

2k views

### Can a discrete set of the plane of uniform density intersect all large triangles?

Let S be a discrete subset of the Euclidean plane such that the number of points in a large disc is approximately equal to the area of the disc. Does the complement of S necessarily contain triangles ...

**25**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Are nontrivial integer solutions known for $x^3+y^3+z^3=3$?

The Diophantine equation
$$x^3+y^3+z^3=3$$
has four easy integer solutions: $(1,1,1)$ and the three permutations of $(4,4,-5)$. Elsenhans and Jahnel wrote in 2007 that these were all the solutions ...

**13**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Convex hull in CAT(0)

Let $X$ be complete $\mathop{CAT}(0)$-space and $K\subset X$ be a compact subset.
Is it true that convex hull of $K$ is compact?
Comments:
Convex hull of $K$ = intersection of all closed convex ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

971 views

### The determinant of the sum of normal matrices

Given two normal matrices $A,B\in M_n({\mathbb C})$
whose respective spectra are $(\alpha_{1},\ldots,\alpha_{n})$ and
$(\beta_{1},\ldots,\beta_{n})$, is it true that $\det(A+B)$ belongs to
the ...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

844 views

### Is the fixed point property for posets preserved by products?

Recall that a partially ordered set (poset) $P$ has the fixed point property (FPP) if any order preserving function $f:P\longrightarrow P$ has a fixed point.
Theorem. Suppose $P$ and $Q$ are posets ...

**39**

votes

**4**answers

6k views

### Do there exist chess positions that require exponentially many moves to reach?

By "chess" here I mean chess played on an $n\times n$ board with an unbounded number of (non-king) pieces. Some care is needed if you want to generalize some of the subtler rules of chess to an ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

212 views

### Stability of analytic Zariski structures

Noetherian Zariski structures are introduced by Hrushovski and Zilber(1996).
An analytic Zariski structure is a generalization of Noetherian Zariski structures, introduced by Zilber and Peatfield.
...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

315 views

### Does $S^4$ have a “symplecto-homeomorphic” structure?

The 4-sphere cannot be a symplectic manifold. In particular, it does not admit an atlas whose transition maps are symplectomorphisms ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

88 views

### reduction to np hard ordering problem

I am trying to show a reduction from a problem of ordering problem to an np-hard problem that has approximation poly-time algorithm.
My problem is: I have M auctions and in each auction I have N ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

78 views

### A possible minimal aperiodic set of corner Wang Tile

From one of my previous question Aperiodic set of corner Wang Tile (although it is put on hold), I realize there is a systematic way to construct aperiodic corner type of Wang tile from edge type ...

**76**

votes

**4**answers

5k views

### If $2^x $and $3^x$ are integers, must $x$ be as well?

I'm fascinated by this open problem (if it is indeed still that) and every few years I try to check up on its status. Some background: Let $x$ be a positive real number.
If $n^x$ is an integer for ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

294 views

### Update on list of open problems for Cherednik/Symplectic Reflection Algebras

Background:
There are two lists of open problems about Cherednik or Symplectic Reflection Algebras from 2007: Ian Gordon's Problems, Chapter 9 in Symplectic Reflection Algebras, and Ginzburg & ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

528 views

### Is the Manickam-Miklós-Singhi Conjecture solved?

This arXiv paper is claimed to contain a proof for the MMS conjecture. But it seems that this manuscript is not yet peer reviewed by other mathematicians. I personally tried to follow the paper, but ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What's the current state of Yang Mills Mass Gap question?

What's the current state of Yang Mills Mass Gap question, is there any place that does this problem? Especially I want to know if there is any progress (out of that mentioned in the introduction ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

153 views

### Both NP-hard but different [closed]

What's the fundamental difference between the Knapsack problem and the travelling salesman (TSP) problem both of which are NP-hard, while the reality is that TSP could be solved much much faster?

**27**

votes

**2**answers

895 views

### Is there an associative metric on the non-negative reals?

Recall that a function $f\colon X\times X \to \mathbb{R}_{\ge 0}$ is a metric if it satisfies:
definiteness: $f(x,y) = 0$ iff $x=y$,
symmetry: $f(x,y)=f(y,x)$, and
the triangle inequality: $f(x,y) ...

**197**

votes

**7**answers

12k views

### Polynomial representing all nonnegative integers

Lagrange proved that every nonnegative integer is a sum of 4 squares.
Gauss proved that every nonnegative integer is a sum of 3 triangular numbers.
Is there a 2-variable polynomial $f(x,y) \in ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

189 views

### Packing space by cones: Translates best?

Let $C$ be a right circular cone, the convex hull of a unit-radius disk
and a point directly above the disk center at height $h$.
Is the ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### A special case of the integer Hodge conjecture

Let $X$ be a projective complex manifold of dimension $n$.
Are torsion cohomology classes in $H^{2n-2}(X,\mathbb{Z})$ algebraic?
(We may assume, without loss of generality, that $n=3$, because of the ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

253 views

### Is there a non-zero ghost map between finite suspension spectra?

A morphism $f\colon X\to Y$ of spectra such that for every integer $n$ the induced map $\pi_n(f)\colon\pi_n(X)\to\pi_n(Y)$ on stable homotopy groups is zero is called a ghost map.
Not every ghost map ...

**17**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### What is Chern-Simons theory expected to assign to a point?

Let $G$ be a compact, connected, (simply connected?) Lie group and let $k \in H^4(BG, \mathbb{Z})$ be a cohomology class. Witten showed, at a physical level of rigor, that this data determines a ...

**38**

votes

**11**answers

3k views

### Important open problems that have already been reduced to a finite but infeasible amount of computation

Most open problems, when formalized, naturally involve quantification over infinite sets, thereby obviating the possibility, even in principle, of "just putting it on a computer."
Some questions ...