If it turns out that a problem is equivalent to a known open problem, then the open-problem tag is added. After that, the question essentially becomes, "What is known about this problem? What are some possible ways to approach this problem? What are some ways that people have tried to attack it ...

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10
votes
0answers
266 views

Is every projective space curve a set-theoretic intersection of two surfaces? What is known about this question?

I am sorry if this question has been already asked, couldn't find anything similar myself. I have recently recalled this long standing open problem of whether every irreducible curve in ...
12
votes
3answers
507 views

Collection of conjectures and open problems in graph theory

Is there something similar to the Kourovka Notebook for graph theory (or anyway an organized, possibly commented, collection of conjectures and open problems)?
3
votes
1answer
229 views

Improving the bound $q < n\sqrt{3}$ for an odd perfect number $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ given in Eulerian form

(Note: This was cross-posted from MSE.) Let $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form (i.e., $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q, n) = 1$). Therefore, ...
5
votes
1answer
292 views

Ruth-Aaron triples, etc

A Ruth-Aaron pair is two numbers $(n,n+1)$ such that their sum of prime factors is equal, counting repeated prime factors. (The name refers to Hank Aaron's 715 homeruns surpassing Babe Ruth's 714!) So ...
50
votes
6answers
10k views

Is Thompson's Group F amenable?

Last year a paper on the arXiv (Akhmedov) claimed that Thompson's group $F$ is not amenable, while another paper, published in the journal "Infinite dimensional analysis, quantum probability, and ...
154
votes
89answers
26k views

Not especially famous, long-open problems which anyone can understand

Question: I'm asking for a big list of not especially famous, long open problems that anyone can understand. Community wiki, so one problem per answer, please. Motivation: I plan to use this list ...
53
votes
23answers
16k views

Open problems with monetary rewards

Since the old days, many mathematicians have been used to attaching monetary rewards to problems they admit are difficult. Their reasons could be to draw other mathematicians' attention, to express ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Long paths in the supercritical percolation.

I have a question on the length of the longest path, denoted by $\ell_n$, in the supercritical percolation on $[0,n]^d$, denoted by $C_n$. We know that $C_n$ has a giant component whose size is of ...
8
votes
1answer
222 views

Subspaces of $l_{1}$ are not Lipschitz complemented in $l_{1}$

I have thought about the following question for several years. This question may be stupid or not interesting. My question is: Is there a subspace $U$ of $l{_1}$ such that the quotient $l_{1}/U$ is ...
4
votes
0answers
115 views

Reduction argument from a general vertex set V(G) to a prime power in Prof. Keevash's proof on the Existence of Designs

The proof flow of the paper "On the Existence of Designs" by Prof. Keevash as I understand it is the following: -- Reduction from the general case to $V = \mathbb{F}_{p^a}$ (Lemma 6.3) -- Covering ...
12
votes
1answer
651 views

Integer-distance sets

Let $S$ be a set of points in $\mathbb{R}^d$; I am especially interested in $d=2$. Say that $S$ is an integer-distance set if every pair of points in $S$ is separated by an integer Euclidean distance. ...
6
votes
1answer
208 views

Inverted pair of complex analytic families

I read the following "problem" in an old set of notes of Morrow and Kodaira which focused on deformations of complex manifolds: Find a pair of complex analytic families $\lbrace M_t\rbrace$ and ...
8
votes
0answers
118 views

Randomly placing nonoverlapping unit cuboids

Suppose one places unit cuboids of dimension $d$ with min-corners uniformly distributed to lie in $[0,n]^d$, but with cuboid (strict) overlap forbidden. At some point, the region is "saturated," ...
38
votes
7answers
5k views

Is there a complex structure on the 6-sphere?

I don't know who first asked this question, but it's a question that I think many differential and complex geometers have tried to answer because it sounds so simple and fundamental. There are even a ...
16
votes
0answers
438 views

Avoidable words

Let $u(x_1,...,x_n)$ be a word, $k\in \mathbb{N}$. We say that $u$ is $k$-avoidable if there exists an infinite word in $k$ letters $\{a_1,...,a_k\}$ which does not contain values of $u$ (i.e. words ...
2
votes
2answers
234 views

Gauss Codes that produce classical knots as opposed to virtual knots

I have been doing some research in Gauss codes and have been reading Kauffman's paper Virtual Knot Theory. In section 3.3, Theorem 2, he states that If $K$ is a virtual knot whose underlying Gauss ...
12
votes
6answers
2k views

Smallest area shape that covers all unit length curve

On a euclidean plane, what is the minimal area shape S, such that for every unit length curve, a translation and a rotation of S can cover the curve. What are the bounds of the shape's area if this ...
40
votes
12answers
2k views

Can a discrete set of the plane of uniform density intersect all large triangles?

Let S be a discrete subset of the Euclidean plane such that the number of points in a large disc is approximately equal to the area of the disc. Does the complement of S necessarily contain triangles ...
24
votes
4answers
4k views

Are nontrivial integer solutions known for $x^3+y^3+z^3=3$?

The Diophantine equation $$x^3+y^3+z^3=3$$ has four easy integer solutions: $(1,1,1)$ and the three permutations of $(4,4,-5)$. Elsenhans and Jahnel wrote in 2007 that these were all the solutions ...
13
votes
6answers
2k views

Convex hull in CAT(0)

Let $X$ be complete $\mathop{CAT}(0)$-space and $K\subset X$ be a compact subset. Is it true that convex hull of $K$ is compact? Comments: Convex hull of $K$ = intersection of all closed convex ...
13
votes
1answer
957 views

The determinant of the sum of normal matrices

Given two normal matrices $A,B\in M_n({\mathbb C})$ whose respective spectra are $(\alpha_{1},\ldots,\alpha_{n})$ and $(\beta_{1},\ldots,\beta_{n})$, is it true that $\det(A+B)$ belongs to the ...
27
votes
3answers
818 views

Is the fixed point property for posets preserved by products?

Recall that a partially ordered set (poset) $P$ has the fixed point property (FPP) if any order preserving function $f:P\longrightarrow P$ has a fixed point. Theorem. Suppose $P$ and $Q$ are posets ...
39
votes
4answers
6k views

Do there exist chess positions that require exponentially many moves to reach?

By "chess" here I mean chess played on an $n\times n$ board with an unbounded number of (non-king) pieces. Some care is needed if you want to generalize some of the subtler rules of chess to an ...
4
votes
0answers
207 views

Stability of analytic Zariski structures

Noetherian Zariski structures are introduced by Hrushovski and Zilber(1996). An analytic Zariski structure is a generalization of Noetherian Zariski structures, introduced by Zilber and Peatfield. ...
13
votes
0answers
302 views

Does $S^4$ have a “symplecto-homeomorphic” structure?

The 4-sphere cannot be a symplectic manifold. In particular, it does not admit an atlas whose transition maps are symplectomorphisms ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

reduction to np hard ordering problem

I am trying to show a reduction from a problem of ordering problem to an np-hard problem that has approximation poly-time algorithm. My problem is: I have M auctions and in each auction I have N ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

A possible minimal aperiodic set of corner Wang Tile

From one of my previous question Aperiodic set of corner Wang Tile (although it is put on hold), I realize there is a systematic way to construct aperiodic corner type of Wang tile from edge type ...
75
votes
4answers
4k views

If $2^x $and $3^x$ are integers, must $x$ be as well?

I'm fascinated by this open problem (if it is indeed still that) and every few years I try to check up on its status. Some background: Let $x$ be a positive real number. If $n^x$ is an integer for ...
6
votes
2answers
278 views

Update on list of open problems for Cherednik/Symplectic Reflection Algebras

Background: There are two lists of open problems about Cherednik or Symplectic Reflection Algebras from 2007: Ian Gordon's Problems, Chapter 9 in Symplectic Reflection Algebras, and Ginzburg & ...
5
votes
3answers
502 views

Is the Manickam-Miklós-Singhi Conjecture solved?

This arXiv paper is claimed to contain a proof for the MMS conjecture. But it seems that this manuscript is not yet peer reviewed by other mathematicians. I personally tried to follow the paper, but ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

What's the current state of Yang Mills Mass Gap question?

What's the current state of Yang Mills Mass Gap question, is there any place that does this problem? Especially I want to know if there is any progress (out of that mentioned in the introduction ...
2
votes
0answers
151 views

Both NP-hard but different [closed]

What's the fundamental difference between the Knapsack problem and the travelling salesman (TSP) problem both of which are NP-hard, while the reality is that TSP could be solved much much faster?
27
votes
2answers
891 views

Is there an associative metric on the non-negative reals?

Recall that a function $f\colon X\times X \to \mathbb{R}_{\ge 0}$ is a metric if it satisfies: definiteness: $f(x,y) = 0$ iff $x=y$, symmetry: $f(x,y)=f(y,x)$, and the triangle inequality: $f(x,y) ...
195
votes
7answers
12k views

Polynomial representing all nonnegative integers

Lagrange proved that every nonnegative integer is a sum of 4 squares. Gauss proved that every nonnegative integer is a sum of 3 triangular numbers. Is there a 2-variable polynomial $f(x,y) \in ...
4
votes
0answers
172 views

Packing space by cones: Translates best?

Let $C$ be a right circular cone, the convex hull of a unit-radius disk and a point directly above the disk center at height $h$.                 Is the ...
10
votes
1answer
255 views

A special case of the integer Hodge conjecture

Let $X$ be a projective complex manifold of dimension $n$. Are torsion cohomology classes in $H^{2n-2}(X,\mathbb{Z})$ algebraic? (We may assume, without loss of generality, that $n=3$, because of the ...
10
votes
1answer
237 views

Is there a non-zero ghost map between finite suspension spectra?

A morphism $f\colon X\to Y$ of spectra such that for every integer $n$ the induced map $\pi_n(f)\colon\pi_n(X)\to\pi_n(Y)$ on stable homotopy groups is zero is called a ghost map. Not every ghost map ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

What is Chern-Simons theory expected to assign to a point?

Let $G$ be a compact, connected, (simply connected?) Lie group and let $k \in H^4(BG, \mathbb{Z})$ be a cohomology class. Witten showed, at a physical level of rigor, that this data determines a ...
38
votes
11answers
2k views

Important open problems that have already been reduced to a finite but infeasible amount of computation

Most open problems, when formalized, naturally involve quantification over infinite sets, thereby obviating the possibility, even in principle, of "just putting it on a computer." Some questions ...
37
votes
5answers
3k views

Can $N^2$ have only digits 0 and 1, other than $N=10^k$?

Pablo Solis asked this at a recent 20 questions seminar at Berkeley. Is there a positive integer $N$, not of the form $10^k$, such that the digits of $N^2$ are all 0's and 1's? It seems very ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Zero divisor conjecture for finite fields

I believe that the most attractive "zero-divisor" conjecture is the existence of non-trivial zero-divisors in a group ring $\mathbb{C}[G]$ for a torsion free group $G$. For the sake of knowledge let ...
3
votes
2answers
193 views

Conjecture of a subset of Wang tile which might be decidable

From the two papers proving the undecidability of Wang tile in 1966 by Berger and in 1971 by RM Robinson, the tiles used in proving undecidability has a general common feature: The left color and ...
7
votes
0answers
380 views

Saito-Wright definition of Rickart C*-algebras

A C*-algebra is Rickart if for each $x\in A$ there is a projection $p\in A$ so that $R(x)=pA$. Here the right-annihilator $R(S)$ of $S\subset A$ is defined as $R(S)=${$a\in A\mid xa=0\, \forall ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there an uncountable, non-discrete, Hausdorff Toronto space?

We call a topological space $X$ a Toronto space if for any subspace $Y \subseteq X$ such that $Y$ and $X$ have the same cardinality it follows that $Y$ is homeomorphic to $X$. Does anybody know what ...
0
votes
0answers
153 views

Is there a “natural” reformulation of Hodge conjecture in terms of L-functions?

I just glanced at the Wikipedia article about the Hodge conjecture, and a (probably very naive, due to my huge lack of knowledge of the subject) question just came to my mind: can one associate ...
7
votes
1answer
397 views

Is there a precise notion of “almost all” such that almost all finite groups are Galois groups of extensions of the rationals?

I vainly tried to define a notion of "almost solvable group" such that every "almost solvable group" is the Galois group of a finite extension of the rationals, but I can't figure out the right way to ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

simple cycle analog in 2D (with application in tiling)

We know that any closed cycle of a graph could be decomposed into sum of simple cycles. To translate this theorem into tiling of 1D (Wang tile). We know that any 1D periodic tiling could be ...
11
votes
0answers
270 views

Generating random finite groups

I would like a method to efficiently generate a random finite group of a given order $n$. If there are $g(n)$ non-isomorphic groups of order $n$, ideally each group would occur with probability ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

relationship between corner tile and edge tile of wang tile

It is clear that any corner type of Wang Tile could be converted to edge type of Wang Tile by defining the edge color according to the corner color. However, could we convert edge type of Wang Tile ...
36
votes
1answer
1k views

improving known bounds for Pierce expansions; cash prize

Here's a problem that I thought of back in 1978 or so, and only a little progress has been made on it since then. I still think about it from time to time, but probably not that many people have ...