Algebras of operators on Hilbert space, C^*-algebras, von Neumann algebras, non-commutative geometry

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### Norms of Commutators

If an $n$ by $n$ complex matrix $A$ has trace zero, then it is a commutator, which means that there are $n$ by $n$ matrices $B$ and $C$ so that $A= BC-CB$. What is the order of the best constant ...

**45**

votes

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### vector balancing problem

I believe the solution posted to the arXiv on June 17 by Marcus, Spielman, and Srivastava is correct.
This problem may be hard, so I don't expect an off-the-cuff solution. But can anyone suggest ...

**33**

votes

**8**answers

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### How to quantify noncommutativity?

If I have two operators or finite-dimensional matrices $A$ and $B$, how can I quantify the amount to which they commute or don't commute? (I would consider it a big plus if it is computable easily for ...

**32**

votes

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### Moving one family of commuting self-adjoint operators to another without losing commutativity on the way

This is actually not a question of mine, so I'll be short on motivation and say nothing beyond that if this were true, a few fancy harmonic analysis techniques that a colleague of mine used in proving ...

**30**

votes

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### Why should algebraic objects have naturally associated topological spaces? (Formerly: What is a topological space?)

In this question, Harry Gindi states:
The fact that a commutative ring has a natural topological space associated with it is a really interesting coincidence.
Moreover, in the answers, Pete L. ...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

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### Are the norms of graphs dense in any interval?

It is known that there is a gap between 2 and the next largest norm of a graph.
Is there an interval of the real line in which norms of graphs are dense?

**30**

votes

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### Quantum mechanics formalism and C*-algebras

Many authors (e.g Landsman, Gleason) have stated that in quantum mechanics, the observables of a system can be taken to be the self-adjoint elements of an appropriate C*-algebra. However, many ...

**28**

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### tr(ab) = tr(ba)?

It is well known that given two Hilbert-Schmidt operators $a$ and $b$ on a Hilbert space $H$, their product is trace class and $tr(ab)=tr(ba)$. A similar result holds for $a$ bounded and $b$ trace ...

**28**

votes

**5**answers

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### How to define a differential form on a fractal?

It is well known how to construct a Laplacian on a fractal using the Dirichlet forms (see e.g.
the survey article by Strichartz). This implies, in particular, that a fractal can be "heated", i.e. one ...

**27**

votes

**6**answers

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### A remark of Connes

In an interview (at http://www.alainconnes.org/docs/Inteng.pdf) Connes remarks that
I had been working on non-standard analysis, but after a while I had found a catch in the theory.... The point ...

**25**

votes

**4**answers

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### Reference for the Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras

The Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras states that the following three categories are equivalent:
(1) The opposite category of the category of commutative von Neumann ...

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**0**answers

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### Subalgebras of von Neumann algebras

In the late 70s, Cuntz and Behncke had a paper
H. Behncke and J. Cuntz, Local Completeness of Operator Algebras, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

418 views

### Can nuclearity be determined by tensoring with a single C*-algebra?

A C*-algebra is nuclear if the algebraic tensor product $A\odot B$ ($B$ is any other C*-algebra) admits a unique C*-norm. This definition requires testing the condition for nuclearity with `all' ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

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### Szőkefalvi-Nagy's unitarizability theorem in the Calkin algebra?

Here's a research problem, which I think interesting.
Suppose that $t$ is an invertible element in the Calkin algebra $\mathcal{Q} = \mathcal{B}(\ell_2)/\mathcal{K}(\ell_2)$ which satisfies $\sup_{n ...

**21**

votes

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### Finite subgroups of unitary groups

Let $n$ be an integer. Camille Jordan showed that there exists some $m \in {\mathbb N}$ (depending on $n$), such that for any pair of $n \times n$-unitaries $u,v \in U(n)$ which generate a finite ...

**20**

votes

**5**answers

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### Why are subfactors interesting?

I get asked this question a lot, and am not very happy with any of the answers.
Vaguely I think of subfactor theory as a generalization of representation theory of groups. That is, if you have a ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

637 views

### Nonseparable disintegration theory: references

I mean a theorem of the following kind. Let $A$ be a C*-algebra, and let $\pi: A\to B(H)$ be its representation. Then there exist a set $P$ with a positive measure $\mu$, a field of Hilbert spaces ...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

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### When are two C*-algebras isomorphic as Banach spaces?

We may consider each $C^*$-algebra as a Banach space (by forgetting the multiplication and adjoint). I wonder how drastic this step is, i.e., which properties of the $C^*$-algebra are reflected by its ...

**20**

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**0**answers

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### Finite-dimensional subalgebras of $C^\star$-algebras

Let $A$ be a unital $C^\star$-algebra and let $a_1,\dots,a_n$ be a finite list of normal elements in $A$ which (together with their adjoints) generate a norm-dense $\star$-subalgebra $B \subset A$. ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

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### What is about nonassociative geometry ?

At the end of a conference given by Alain Connes in 2000 (here is a video in French), a member of the audience asked a question. I transcribed and translated it for you below:
Audience: You showed ...

**18**

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**2**answers

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### Is the Invariant Subspace Problem interesting?

There's an amusing comment in Peter Lax's Functional Analysis book. After a brief description of the Invariant Subspace Problem, he says (paraphrasing) "...this question is still open. It is also an ...

**18**

votes

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764 views

### Does left-invertible imply invertible in full group C*-algebras (discrete case)?

The following question/problem has been bugging me on and off for some time now: so I thought it might be worth broaching here on MO, as a case of "ask the experts".
Let $G$ be a discrete group. ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

452 views

### “Minimal” group C*-algebra?

Let $\Gamma$ be a discrete group (though this could be asked for general locally compact groups) and consider the Banach $*$-algebra $\ell^1(\Gamma)$. We have two natural $C^*$-algebra completions: ...

**17**

votes

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### Simplest examples of rings that are not isomorphic to their opposites

What are the simplest examples of
rings that are not isomorphic to their
opposite rings? Is there a science to constructing them?
The only simple example known to me:
In Jacobson's Basic Algebra ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

728 views

### Commutators in the reduced C*-algebra of the free group

Is it known whether any element of trace 0 in the reduced $C^*$-algebra of a non-abelian free group, is a limit of sums of (additive) commutators?

**17**

votes

**1**answer

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### On complemented von Neumann algebras

Edit: according to Narutaka Ozawa, question 3) is still open in the type $\mathrm{II}_1$ case. In other terms, it is not known whether every topologically complemented type $\mathrm{II}_1$ factor in ...

**17**

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387 views

### Which groups are the unitary group of a $C^*$-algebra

Which groups are the unitary group of a $C^*$-algebra?
Does anyone know anything in this direction?

**16**

votes

**3**answers

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### Can we recover a von Neumann algebra from its predual?

By definition, a von Neumann algebra is a C*‑algebra A
that admits a predual, i.e., a Banach space Z such that
Z* is isomorphic to the underlying Banach space of A.
(We require that isomorphisms in ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

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### Commuting unitaries

Is the following true:
For every unit vectors $x_1,..., x_n$, $y_1,..., y_n$ in $\mathbb{C}^k$
there exist a Hilbert space $H$, unitary operators $U_1,...,U_n$ and $V_1,...,V_n$ in $B(H)$ and unit ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

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### Relative commutants of abelian von Neumann algebras

This question arose from the discussion over at the question Centralizers in $C^*$-algebras.
Which von Neumann algebras $N$ satisfy the property that $A' \cap N = B' \cap N \implies A = B$, for all ...

**15**

votes

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902 views

### Reference request for translating from Top to C*-alg

Some recent questions on MO (for example, Do subalgebras of C(X) admit a description in terms of the compact Hausdorff space X?) have been about Gelfand duality-- namely, that the categories of ...

**15**

votes

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### Noncommutative smooth manifolds

Connes defined a noncommutative analog of a closed oriented Riemannian spin^c manifold using spectral triples.
Using his definition it is unclear how to separate the smooth structure from the metric.
...

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**2**answers

416 views

### automorphisms of C*-algebras and partial isometries

Let $A$ be a $C^*$-algebra, let $p$ and $q$ be Murray-von Neumann equivalent projections in $A$, i.e. there is a partial isometry $v$ such that $v^*v = p$ and
$vv^* = q$. Suppose $\alpha \in Aut(A)$ ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

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### Operator Valued Kadison--Singer Problem

The Paving Conjecture, which is equivalent to the famous Kadison--Singer Problem, was spectacularly settled in the affirmative by Marcus--Spielman--Srivastava (arxiv:1306.3969). Let $E$ denote the ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

798 views

### Convolution algebras for double groupoids?

There is a lot of work of course on convolution algebras of measured groupoids, and this gives "Noncommutative geometry". However there is a lot of interest in algebraically structured groupoids, for ...

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votes

**1**answer

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### Explicit path in the unitary group of a $C^*$-algebra

For $G$ a discrete group, there is a canonical inclusion $g\mapsto u_g$ of $G$ into the unitary group of the reduced $C^*$-algebra $C^*_r(G)$. Denote by $[u_g]$ the class of $u_g$ in the (topological) ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

562 views

### Standard polynomials applied to matrices

The standard polynomial in $r$ non-commuting indeterminates $x_1,\ldots,x_r$ is defined by
$${\mathcal S}_r(x_1,\ldots,x_r):=\sum_{\sigma\in S_r}\epsilon(\sigma)x_{\sigma(1)}x_{\sigma(2)}\cdots ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

853 views

### Realizing universal C*-algebras as concrete C*-algebras

How do I in general realize a universal C*-algebra generated by some generators and relation as concrete C*-algebras? For example, I know that universal C*-algebra generated by a single unitary is ...

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votes

**2**answers

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### About the category of von neumann algebras

I am looking for one (or more) reference about properties of the category of von Neumann algebra.
More precisely, in an answer of a previous question, Dmitri Pavlov mentions
that the $W^*$ category ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

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### “Explicit” embedding of $\ell^1$ as a closed subalgebra of a direct sum of matrix algebras

For sake of brevity let $A$ denote the Banach algebra formed by equipping $\ell^1({\mathbb N})$ with pointwise multiplication. This algebra is clearly not isomorphic as a Banach algebra to any uniform ...

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votes

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### What's a noncommutative set?

This issue is for logicians and operator algebraists (but also for anyone who is interested).
Let's start by short reminders on von Neumann algebra (for more details, see [J], [T], [W]):
Let $H$ ...

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votes

**1**answer

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### A possible extension of a determinant inequality

It is well known that if $A, B$ are positive semidefinite matrices, then $$\det (A+B)\ge \det A+\det B.$$
I am considering a possible extension of this result. Let $\mathbb{M}_m(\mathbb{M}_n)$ ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

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### Denseness of inner automorphisms inside automorphisms of hyperfinite type III_1 factor

Let $R$ be the hyperfinite type $III_1$ factor,
and let $Aut(R)$ be its group of automorphisms, equipped with the $u$-topology
(topology of pointwise convergence on the predual).
An automorphism ...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

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### The Mackey Topology on a Von Neumann Algebra

Every von Neumann algebra $\mathcal M$ is the dual of a unique Banach space $\mathcal M_* $. The Mackey topology on $\mathcal M$ is the topology of uniform convergence on weakly compact subsets of ...

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### Examples of noncommutative analogs outside operator algebras?

Theo's question made me wonder if there are other "noncommutative analogs" outside of operator algebras. Some noncommutative analogs from operator algebras include:
A $C^\ast$-algebra is a ...

**13**

votes

**4**answers

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### Are almost commuting hermitian matrices close to commuting matrices (in the 2-norm)?

I consider on $M_n(\mathbb C)$ the normalized $2$-norm, i.e. the norm given by $\|A\|_2 = \sqrt{Tr(A^* A)/n}$.
My question is whether a $k$-uple of hermitian matrices that are almost commuting (with ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

698 views

### P-adic C* algebras

I understand that there is a definition of p-adic Banach algebras and that a significant amount of functional analysis can be developed in the non-archimedean setting. Is there a p-adic version of ...

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### Is the group von Neumann algebra construction functorial?

Let $G$ be a group and $CG$ the complex group algebra over the field $C$ of complex number. The group von Neumann algebra $NG$ is the completion of $CG$ wrt weak operator norm in $B(l^2(G))$, the set ...

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### Groups which are only defined up to conjugation

I'm trying to understand what the right way is to think about "groups which are only well-defined up to conjugation." Since this is somewhat vague let me clarify it by pointing out the main examples ...

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### Regarding Cayley Graphs of Property (T) Groups

A well-known application of Kazhdan's Property (T) is the construction of expander graphs. Background on this is discussed, for example, in this post on Terry Tao's blog. Essentially, Cayley graphs of ...