Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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47
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3k views

The topology of Arithmetic Progressions of primes

The primary motivation for this question is the following: I would like to extract some topological statistics which capture how arithmetic progressions of prime numbers "fit together" in a manner ...
46
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0answers
3k views

Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture

(1) In "Esquisse d'un programme", Grothendieck conjectures Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture: the morphism $$ G_{\mathbb{Q}} \longrightarrow Aut(\widehat{T}) $$ is an isomorphism. Here ...
35
votes
0answers
1k views

What does the theta divisor of a number field know about its arithmetic?

This question is about a remark made by van der Geer and Schoof in their beautiful article "Effectivity of Arakelov divisors and the theta divisor of a number field" (from '98) (link). Let me first ...
35
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0answers
1k views

To what extent does Spec R determine Spec of the Witt vector ring over R?

Let $R$ be a perfect $\mathbb{F}_p$-algebra and write $W(R)$ for the Witt ring [i.e., ring of Witt vectors -- PLC] on $R$. I want to know how much we can deduce about $\text{Spec } W(R)$ from ...
33
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0answers
2k views

Constructing non-torsion rational points (over Q) on elliptic curves of rank > 1.

Consider an elliptic curve E defined over Q. Assume that the rank of E(Q) is >=2. (Assume the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture if needed, so that analytic rank = algebraic rank.) How do you construct ...
31
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726 views

“Gross-Zagier” formulae outside of number theory

The Gross-Zagier formula and various variations of it form the starting point in most of the existing results towards the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture. It relates the value at $1$ of the ...
29
votes
0answers
534 views

The exponent of Ш of y^2 = x^3 + px, where p is a Fermat prime

For $d$ a non-zero integer, let $E_d$ be the elliptic curve $$ E_d \colon y^2 = x^3+dx. $$ When we let $d$ be $p = 2^{2^k}+1$, for $k \in \{1,2,3,4\}$, sage tells us that, conditionally on BSD, $$ \# ...
29
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0answers
818 views

(Approximately) bijective proof of $\zeta(2)=\pi^2/6$ ?

Given $A,B\in {\Bbb Z}^2$, write $A \leftrightarrows B$ if the interior of the line segment AB misses ${\Bbb Z}^2$. For $r>0$, define $S_r:=\{ \{A, B\} | A,B\in {\Bbb Z}^2,||A||<r,||B||<r, ...
26
votes
0answers
2k views

A generalisation of the equation n = ab + ac + bc

In a result I am currently studying (completely unrelated to number theory) I had to examine the solvability of the equation $n = ab+ac+bc$ where $n,a,b,c$ are positive integers $0 < a < b < ...
25
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383 views

Degree 17 number fields ramified only at 2

The number $17$ is the smallest odd number that occurs as the degree of a number field $K/\mathbb{Q}$ for which the only finite prime that ramifies is $2$. The non-existence for $n < 17$ follows ...
25
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1k views

Peano Arithmetic and the Field of Rationals

In 1949 Julia Robinson showed the undecidability of the first order theory of the field of rationals by demonstrating that the set of natural numbers $\Bbb{N}$ is first order definable in $(\Bbb{Q}, ...
24
votes
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706 views

Derivative of Class number of real quadratic fields

Let $\Delta$ be a fundamental quadratic discriminant, set $N = |\Delta|$, and define the Fekete polynomials $$ F_N(X) = \sum_{a=1}^N \Big(\frac{\Delta}a\Big) X^a. $$ Define $$ f_N(X) = ...
23
votes
0answers
726 views

Does a proof of Selberg's 3.2 inequality exist?

A well-known inequality of Montgomery and Vaughan (generalizing a result of Hilbert) states that $$ \left |\sum_{r \neq s} \frac{w_{r} \overline{w_{s}} }{\lambda_r - \lambda_s} \right| \leq \pi ...
22
votes
0answers
364 views

Is there an Ehrhart polynomial for Gaussian integers

Let $N$ be a positive integer and let $P \subset \mathbb{C}$ be a polygon whose vertices are of the form $(a_1+b_1 i)/N$, $(a_2+b_2 i)/N$, ..., $(a_r+b_r i)/N$, with $a_j + b_j i$ being various ...
22
votes
0answers
910 views

Ramanujan's $\tau(n)$ and continued fractions

In D.H. Lehmer's paper "Ramanujan's function $\tau(n)$, (Duke J. Math v. 10 1943, pp. 483-492), Lehmer states the Ramanujan conjecture $|\tau( p )|< 2p^{11/2}$, so that $p^{-11/2}\tau( p ...
21
votes
0answers
716 views

Monstrous Moonshine for Thompson group $Th$?

I. As a background, in Traces of Singular Moduli (p.2), Zagier defines the modular form of weight 3/2, $$g(\tau) = \frac{\eta^2(\tau)}{\eta(2\tau)}\frac{E_4(4\tau)}{\eta^6(4\tau)}=\vartheta_4(\tau)\, ...
21
votes
0answers
1k views

Permutations of $(Z/pZ)^*$

Let $p$ be a prime integer, and let $(\mathbb Z/p\mathbb Z)^*$ be the set of non-zero elements of $\mathbb Z/p \mathbb Z$. Denote by $S((\mathbb Z/p \mathbb Z)^*)$ the group of permutations of ...
21
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0answers
1k views

Name of amateur who gave a new proof of the Ramanujan-Nagell theorem?

In an article by George Johnson in the New York Times back in 1999, it says that an amateur mathematician from India once sent Ian Stewart a proof of the Ramanujan-Nagell theorem that the Diophantine ...
20
votes
0answers
925 views

Orders in number fields

Let $K$ be a degree $n$ extension of ${\mathbb Q}$ with ring of integers $R$. An order in $K$ is a subring with identity of $R$ which is a ${\mathbb Z}$-module of rank $n$. Question: Let $p$ be an ...
19
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660 views

Non-linear expanders?

Recall that a family of graphs (indexed by an infinite set, such as the primes, say) is called an expander family if there is a $\delta>0$ such that, on every graph in the family, the discrete ...
19
votes
0answers
1k views

What are the possible singular fibers of an elliptic fibration over a higher dimensional base?

An elliptic fibration is a proper morphism $Y\rightarrow B$ between varieties such that the fiber over a general point of the base $B$ is a smooth curve of genus one. It is often required for the ...
19
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0answers
1k views

Trigonometry related to Rogers--Ramanujan identities

For integers $n\ge2$ and $k\ge2$, fix the notation $$ [m]=\sin\frac{\pi m}{nk+1} \quad\text{and}\quad [m]!=[1][2]\dots[m], \qquad m\in\mathbb Z_{>0}. $$ Consider the following trigonometric ...
18
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501 views

Base change for $\sqrt{2}.$

This is a direct follow-up to Conjecture on irrational algebraic numbers. Take the decimal expansion for $\sqrt{2},$ but now think of it as the base $11$ expansion of some number $\theta_{11}.$ Is ...
18
votes
0answers
316 views

Bounding failures of the integral Hodge and Tate conjectures

It is well know that the integral versions of the Hodge and Tate conjectures can fail. I once heard an off hand comment however that they should only fail by a "bounded amount". My question is what ...
18
votes
0answers
561 views

Eichler-Shimura over Totally Real Fields

By Eichler-Shimura over totally real fields I mean the following conjecture. Conjecture. Let $K$ be a totally real field. Let $f$ be a Hilbert eigenform with rational eigenvalues, of parallel weight ...
18
votes
0answers
351 views

probability of zero subset sum

Almost 17 years ago, I asked the following question on USENET, motivated by a method in numerology (I kid you not). Pick integers $n \ge 2$, $k \ge 1$. Toss $n$ $k$-sided dice. The sides of each die ...
17
votes
0answers
845 views

When does a modular form satisfy a differential equation with rational coefficients?

Given a modular form $f$ of weight $k$ for a congruence subgroup $\Gamma$, and a modular function $t$ with $t(i\infty)=0$, we can form a function $F$ such that $F(t(z))=f(z)$ (at least locally), and ...
17
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0answers
669 views

Could unramified Galois groups satisfy a version of property tau?

This is an experiment: there is a question I want to mention in an article I'm writing, and I am not sure it's a sensible question, so I will ask it here first, in the hopes that if it's insensible ...
16
votes
0answers
414 views

function field analogy and global/absolute geometry

The "function field analogy" seems to be a topic that is considerably bigger than any one existing writeup conveys. There are several old question on MO and and MathSE that ask for details. One of the ...
16
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0answers
729 views

Does this variant of a theorem of Hasse (really due to Gauss) have an “elementary” proof?

BACKGROUND Here are 3 theorems of varying difficulty. Let $M$ be the $Z/2$ subspace of $Z/2[[x]]$ spanned by $f^k$, with the $k>0$ and odd, and $f=x+x^9+x^{25}+x^{49}+\cdots$. For $g$ in $M$, let ...
16
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0answers
468 views

Erdos-Kac for squarefree numbers

In its usual form, the Erdos-Kac Theorem states that if $f(n) : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a strongly additive function with $|f(p)| \le 1$ for all primes $p$, then $$\frac{|\{n \le x : ...
16
votes
0answers
563 views

Can one compare integral structures on de Rham and crystalline cohomology?

Suppose $\mathfrak{X}$ is a smooth projective scheme of finite type over $\mathbb{Z}_p$, with generic fibre $X$. Then there are comparison theorems relating de Rham and crystalline cohomology, ...
16
votes
0answers
659 views

Most “natural” proof of the existence of Hilbert class fields

Assume that you have proved the two inequalities of class field theory, and that you want to show that the Hilbert class field, i.e., the maximal unramified abelian extension, of a number field $K$ ...
16
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0answers
556 views

Smooth proper schemes over Z with points everywhere locally

This is a variation on Poonen's question, taking Buzzard's fabulous example into account. It was earlier a part of this other question. Question. Is there a smooth proper scheme ...
15
votes
0answers
415 views

The lonely molecule

Suppose $n$ air molecules (infinitesimal points) are bouncing around in a unit $d$-dimensional cube, with perfectly elastic wall collisions. Let $k=n^{\frac{1}{d}}$. For example, in 3D, $d=3$, with ...
15
votes
0answers
238 views

Are there any integers which can't be written as a sum of two fourth powers minus a cube?

To be precise, I am asking: Does there exist an integer $k$ such that there do not exist (possibly negative) integers $x,y,z$ satisfying $x^4+y^4=z^3+k$? Heuristically the answer must be yes, in ...
15
votes
0answers
317 views

Spencer's “six standard deviations” theorem - better constants?

This question is about Joel Spencer's famous "six standard deviations" theorem. The theorem says that when $$ L_i(x_1,\dots,x_n) = a_{i1} x_1 + \dots + a_{in} x_n, \quad 1 \leq i \leq n, $$ are $n$ ...
15
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0answers
294 views

$\zeta(n)$ as a mixed Tate motive

I am trying to understand why there exists, for each $n \geq 2$, a mixed Tate motive $M$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ such that $M \in Ext^1_{MT(\mathbb{Q})}(\mathbb{Q}(0), \mathbb{Q}(n))$ and $\zeta(n)$, ...
15
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0answers
732 views

Polynomial bijection from ZxZ to Z?

It is known that the polynomial $f(n,m)=\frac{1}{2}(n+m)(n+m+1)+m$ defines bijection $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N}$ (Put pairs of $\mathbb{N}$ into the semi-infinite matrix and count them ...
15
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0answers
786 views

Defining $\mathbb{Z}$ in $\mathbb{Q}$

It was proved by Poonen that $\mathbb{Z}$ is definable in $\mathbb{Q}$ using $\forall \exists$ formula. Koenigsmann has shown that $\mathbb{Z}$ is in fact definable by universal formula. What is the ...
15
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0answers
563 views

K-theory and rings of integers

From the works of Borel and Quillen there is a connection between the $K$-theory of the ring of integers $\mathfrak{o}_K$ in a number field $K$ and the arithmetic of the number field. In fact, it is ...
15
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0answers
725 views

Deciding whether a given power series is modular or not

The degree 3 modular equation for the Jacobi modular invariant $$ \lambda(q)=\biggl(\frac{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{(n+1/2)^2}}{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{n^2}}\biggr)^4 $$ is given by $$ ...
15
votes
0answers
717 views

Fake CM elliptic curves

Suppose one has an elliptic curve $E$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ with conductor $N < k^3$ for some (large) positive $k$, with the property that its Fourier coefficients satisfy $$ a_p=0, \; \mbox{ for all ...
15
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0answers
399 views

Division fields of abelian varieties over function fields

Let $k$ be a finitely generated field (for example a finite field or a number field) and $K/k$ a finitely generated regular extension with $trdeg(K/k)=1$. Let $A/K$ be a principally polarized abelian ...
15
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0answers
643 views

Computation of low weight Siegel modular forms

We have these huge tables of elliptic curves, which were generated by computing modular forms of weight 2 and level Gamma_0(N) as N increased. For abelian surfaces over $\mathbf{Q}$ we have very ...
15
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0answers
394 views

Cohomological characterization of CM curves

In his 1976 classical Annals paper on $p$-adic interpolation, N. Katz uses the fact that if $E_{/K}$ is an elliptic curve with complex multiplications in the quadratic field $F$, up to a suitable ...
14
votes
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666 views

Is there an infinite field of characteristic 2 whose multiplicative group is torsion free and (direct-sum) indecomposable?

Let $F$ be a infinite field of characteristic 2 whose multiplicative group $F^*$ is torsion free. I would like to conclude that $F^*$ is decomposable or find an example where $F^*$ is indecomposable. ...
14
votes
0answers
330 views

Integer-valued power towers

$$\text{Let }f_n(a)=\underbrace{2^{2^{.^{.^{.^{2^a}}}}}}_{\text{$n$ 2s}}.$$ Obviously, $f_n(a)$ is an integer for every positive integer $n$ and non-negative integer $a$. Are there any positive ...
14
votes
0answers
394 views

Torsion points of abelian varieties in the perfect closure of a function field

The following is a problem, which was recently brought to my attention by H. Esnault and A. Langer. Let $K$ be the function field of a smooth curve over the algebraic closure $k$ of the finite field ...
14
votes
0answers
561 views

Galois theory: Generalization of Abel's Theorem?

Let $L$ stand for the field obtained by adjoining to ${\Bbb Q}$ all roots of all polynomials of the form $x^n+ax+b$, $a,b\in {\Bbb Q}$. What polynomials $p$ don't split over $L$? In particular, ...