# Tagged Questions

**19**

votes

**1**answer

5k views

### About Goldbach's conjecture

let's consider a composite natural number $n$ greater or equal to $4$. Goldbach's conjecture is equivalent to the following statement: "there is at least one natural number $r$ such as $(n-r)$ and ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Distinct numbers in multiplication table

Consider multiplication table for numbers $1,2,\cdots, n$. How many different numbers are there? That is how many different numbers of the form $ij$ with $1 \le i, j \le n$ are there?
I'm interested ...

**33**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Is the Riemann Hypothesis equivalent to a $\Pi_1$ sentence?

1) Can the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) be expressed as a $\Pi_1$ sentence?
More formally,
2) Is there a $\Pi_1$ sentence which is provably equivalent to RH in PA?
(This is mentioned in P. ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

632 views

### Bound the error in estimating a relative totient function

Let $n=p_1^{e_1}\cdots p_k^{e_k}$ be an integer with $k$ prime factors. We know that the number of integers less than $n$ and coprime to it is
$$\Phi(n)=n-\sum_i\frac n{p_i}\+\sum_{i \lt j}\frac ...

**62**

votes

**4**answers

7k views

### How small can a sum of a few roots of unity be?

Let $n$ be a large natural number, and let $z_1, \ldots, z_{10}$ be (say) ten $n^{th}$ roots of unity: $z_1^n = \ldots = z_{10}^n = 1$. Suppose that the sum $S = z_1+\ldots+z_{10}$ is non-zero. How ...

**30**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Number of elements in the set $\{1,\cdots,n\}\times\{1,\cdots,n\}$

Let $A_n=\{a\cdot b : a,b \in \mathbb{N}, a,b\leq n\}$. Are there any estimates for $|A_n|$? Will it be $o(n^2)$?

**19**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Are the 'semi' trivial zeros of $\zeta(s) \pm \zeta(1-s)$ all on the critical line?

The proof that $\Gamma(z)\pm \Gamma(1-z)$ only has zeros for $z \in \mathbb{R}$ or $z= \frac12 +i \mathbb{R}$ has been given here:
Are all zeros of $\Gamma(s) \pm \Gamma(1-s)$ on a line with real ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

610 views

### Hecke equidistribution

For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$, we can write $p=a^2+b^2=N(a+bi)$. Therefore
$$
a+bi=p^{1/2}e^{i\varphi}
$$
where $\varphi\in [0,2\pi]$. I know that Hecke proved that $\varphi$ is equidistributed. I ...

**189**

votes

**7**answers

94k views

### Philosophy behind Mochizuki's work on the ABC conjecture

Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...

**90**

votes

**3**answers

9k views

### Convergence of $\sum(n^3\sin^2n)^{-1}$

I saw a while ago in a book by Clifford Pickover, that whether $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{n^3\sin^2 n}$ converges is open.
I would think that the question of its convergence is really ...

**23**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Which number fields are monogenic? and related questions

A number field $K$ is said to be monogenic when $\mathcal{O}_K=\mathbb{Z}[\alpha]$ for some $\alpha\in\mathcal{O}_K$. What is currently known about which $K$ are monogenic? Which are not? From ...

**30**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Cliques, Paley graphs and quadratic residues

A question I've thought about, on and off for a long time, is how to improve the best bounds that (seem to be) known for the clique numbers of Paley graphs.
If p=1 mod 4 is a prime, we can define the ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Are most curves over Q pointless?

Fresh out of the arXiv press is the remarkable result of Manjul Bhargava saying that most hyperelliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ have no rational points. Don Zagier suggests the paraphrase : Most ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

912 views

### State of knowledge of $a^n+b^n=c^n+d^n$ vs. $a^n+b^n+c^n=d^n+e^n+f^n$

As far as I understand, both of the Diophantine equations
$$a^5 + b^5 = c^5 + d^5$$
and
$$a^6 + b^6 = c^6 + d^6$$
have no known nontrivial solutions, but
$$24^5 + 28^5 + 67^5 = 3^5+64^5+62^5$$
and
...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Does this infinite sum provide a new analytic continuation for $\zeta(s)$?

It is well known that the infinite sum:
$$\displaystyle \zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}$$
only converges for $\Re(s)>1$.
The Dirichlet 'alternating' sum:
$$\displaystyle \zeta(s) = ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

613 views

### Odd-bit primes ratio

Say that a number is an odd-bit number if
the count of 1-bits in its binary representation is odd.
Define an even-bit number analogously.
Thus $541 = 1000011101_2$ is an odd-bit number,
and $523 = ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

737 views

### Would the following conjectures imply $\lim\inf_{n\to\infty}p_{n+k}-p_{n}=O(k\log k)$?

Assume Goldbach's conjecture. Then for every $n\ge 2$ there exists at least one non-negative integer $r\le n-2$ such that both $n+r$ and $n-r$ are primes. Let's write $r_{0}(n):=\inf\{r\le n-2, ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

457 views

### A possible consequence of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression

EDIT : I copy-paste the beginning of a previous question since Gerry Myerson suggested this question should be self-contained.
"let's consider a composite natural number $n$ greater or equal to $4$. ...

**58**

votes

**9**answers

7k views

### Why should I believe the Mordell Conjecture?

It was Faltings who first proved in 1983 the Mordell conjecture, that a curve of genus 2 or more over a number field has only finitely many rational points.
I am interested to know why Mordell and ...

**41**

votes

**9**answers

6k views

### Learning Class Field Theory: Local or Global First?

I've noticed that there seem to be two approaches to learning class field theory. The first is to first learn about local fields and local class field theory, and then prove the basic theorems about ...

**33**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Geometric / physical / probabilistic interpretations of Riemann zeta(n>1)?

What are some physical, geometric, or probabilistic interpretations of the values of the Riemann zeta function at the positive integers greater than one?
I've found some examples:
1) In MO-Q111339 ...

**39**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### How would one even begin to try to prove that a simple number-theoretic statement is undecidable?

This question is closely related to this one: Knuth's intuition that Goldbach might be unprovable. It stems from my ignorance about non-standard models of arithmetic. In a comment on the other ...

**31**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Is there an “elementary” proof of the infinitude of completely split primes?

Let K be a Galois extension of the rationals with degree n. The Chebotarev Density Theorem guarantees that the rational primes that split completely in K have density 1/n and thus there are infinitely ...

**48**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### What is the status of the Gauss Circle Problem?

For $r > 0$, let $L(r) = \# \{ (x,y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 \ | \ x^2 + y^2 \leq r^2\}$ be the number of lattice points lying on or inside the standard circle of radius $r$. It is easy to see that $L(r) ...

**41**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Algebraic Attacks on the Odd Perfect Number Problem

The odd perfect number problem likely needs no introduction. Recent progress (where by recent I mean roughly the last two centuries) seems to have focused on providing restrictions on an odd perfect ...

**36**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What fraction of the integer lattice can be seen from the origin?

Consider the integer lattice points in the positive quadrant $Q$ of $\mathbb{Z}^2$.
Say that a point $(x,y)$ of $Q$ is visible from the origin if the
segment from $(0,0)$ to $(x,y) \in Q$ passes ...

**29**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Are most cubic plane curves over the rationals elliptic?

%This is a new version of the original question modified in the light of the answers and comments.
The word 'most' in the title is ambiguous. The following is one way of making it precise.
...

**19**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### Asymptotic density of k-almost primes

Let $\pi_k(x)=|\{n\le x:n=p_1p_2\cdots p_k\}|$ be the counting function for the k-almost primes, generalizing $\pi(x)=\pi_1(x)$. A result of Landau is
$$\pi_k(x)\sim\frac{x(\log\log ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### On a Conjecture of Schinzel and Sierpinski

Melvyn Nathanson, in his book Elementary Methods in Number Theory (Chapter 8: Prime Numbers) states the following:
A conjecture of Schinzel and Sierpinski asserts that every positive rational number ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Is there a simple way to compute the number of ways to write a positive integer as the sum of three squares?

It's a standard theorem that the number of ways to write a positive integer N as the sum of two squares is given by four times the difference between its number of divisors which are congruent to 1 ...

**10**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Rational points on a sphere in $\mathbb{R}^d$

Call a point of $\mathbb{R}^d$ rational if all its $d$ coordinates are rational numbers.
Q1.
Is the unit sphere $S :\; x_1^2 +\cdots+ x_d^2 = 1$ dense in rational points, i.e. does $S$ include a ...

**34**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### A question on maps from $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ to itself

Let $p\geq 3$ be a prime number, and let $u:\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}\to \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ be a map such that, for all $l\in \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$,$l\neq 0$, the map $k\mapsto u(k+l)-u(k)$ is a ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### Proof of the weak Goldbach Conjecture

What are the main ideas of Harald Helfgott's proof that all odd $n \geq 5$ is the sum of 3 primes?

**25**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Solve in positive integers $n!=m(m+1)$

Is anybody know a solution of this problem? (Sorry, I've missed one summand in the previous post.)

**13**

votes

**3**answers

652 views

### Reference Request: Unit Fraction, equally spaced denominators not integer

I've been looking at unit fractions, and found a paper by Erdos "Some Properties Of Partial Sums Of The Harmonic Series" that proves a few things, and gives a reference for the following theorem:
...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

590 views

### Groups generated by 3 involutions

Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$.
Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition
$\tau_{r_1(m_1),r_2(m_2)}$ be the ...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### What is known about the sum x^{n^2}/n?

It follows from a general theorem of Honda that the formal group with the logarithm
$$
x+x^{2^s}/2+x^{3^s}/3+x^{4^s}/4+\cdots
$$
has integer coefficients. I became interested in it because its ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is the Euler product formula always divergent for 0<Re(s)<1?

It is known that the Euler product formula converges for Re(s)>1.
(which represents the Riemann zeta function.)
My question: Is the Euler product formula always divergent for
0 < Re(s) < 1 ?
...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

604 views

### Integral orthogonal group for indefinite ternary quadratic form

I have the indefinite quadratic form $q(x,y,z) = 19 x^2 + 5 y^2 - z^2.$ It's not my fault. I find, on reflection, that I have no idea how to describe the orthogonal group of this over the integers. ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

476 views

### Is there a connection between the closed forms of these two infinite products?

Take the following two infinite products that have closed forms.
Assume: $\gamma_n > 0 \in \mathbb{R};s,a,x \in \mathbb{C}; x \ne 0,a \pm ix\gamma_n \ne 0$
The first product:
$$\displaystyle ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### What is the best known upper bound for the number of twin primes?

A quantitative form of the twin prime conjecture asserts that the the number of twin primes less than $n$ is asymptotically equal to $2\, C\, n/ \ln^2(n)$ where $C$ is the so-called twin prime ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

442 views

### Lower bound for a prime gap occurring infinitely often

In his striking paper of may 2013, Zhang showed the existence of an even integer $g\lt 70,000,000$ such that $g$ is a prime gap occurring infinitely often. What is the best unconditional lower bound ...

**56**

votes

**22**answers

15k views

### What's the “best” proof of quadratic reciprocity?

For my purposes, you may want to interpret "best" as "clearest and easiest to understand for undergrads in a first number theory course," but don't feel too constrained.

**44**

votes

**9**answers

10k views

### Galois Groups vs. Fundamental Groups

In a recent blog post Terry Tao mentions in passing that:
"Class groups...are arithmetic analogues of the (abelianised) fundamental groups in topology, with Galois groups serving as the analogue of ...

**44**

votes

**28**answers

25k views

### Applications of the Chinese remainder theorem

As the title suggests I am interested in CRT applications. Wikipedia article on CRT lists some of the well known applications (e.g. used in the RSA algorithm, used to construct an elegant Gödel ...

**36**

votes

**9**answers

9k views

### Irreducibility of polynomials in two variables

Let $k$ be a field. I am interested in sufficient criteria for $f \in k[x,y]$ to be irreducible. An example is Theorem A of this paper.
Does anyone know of similar results in the same vein? How about ...

**45**

votes

**14**answers

5k views

### What is the high-concept explanation on why real numbers are useful in number theory?

The utopian situation in mathematics would be that the statement and the proof of every result would live "in the same world", at the same level of mathematical complexity (in a broad sense), unless ...

**37**

votes

**3**answers

8k views

### Proof that pi is transcendental that doesn't use the infinitude of primes

I just taught the classical impossible constructions for the first time, and in finding my class a reference for the transcendence of pi, I found a dearth of distinct proofs. In particular, those ...

**43**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### How to recognise that the polynomial method might work

A couple of days ago I was at a nice seminar given by Christian Reiher, during which he told us about a short proof of the following special case of a theorem of Olson.
Theorem. Let ...

**44**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Are all zeros of $\Gamma(s) \pm \Gamma(1-s)$ on a line with real part = $\frac12$ ?

The function $\Gamma(s)$ does not have zeros, but $\Gamma(s)\pm \Gamma(1-s)$ does.
Ignoring the real solutions for now and assuming $s \in \mathbb{C}$ then:
$\Gamma(s)-\Gamma(1-s)$ yields zeros at:
...