Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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2
votes
0answers
133 views

Metric on the set of subsets of the rational primes

Note: this is a revision of an earlier post. It was kindly pointed out that my initial proposed metric was in fact not a metric, so this is a revised version. I was thinking how to say that two sets ...
2
votes
2answers
283 views

Exponential Sum Bound

In http://131.220.77.52/files/preprints/diophantine/bruedern/wpminicubefinal.pdf, Bruedern and Wooley mention the following fact on the bottom of page 6: Let ...
2
votes
2answers
152 views

Reference for Skinner-Urban on the Iwasawa main conjecture for $GL_2$

Does anyone know the existence of an expository paper or a report discussing the work of Skinner-Urban "The Iwasawa main conjecture for $GL_2$"? I am interested in partucular in the case of elliptic ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

Quadratic Gauss sums: Explicit determinations?

Can anyone please tell me (give me a reference, preferably) if there is any explicit determination of sums of the form $g(n,\chi):=\sum_{r=1}^{q}\chi(r)e(\frac{rn+r^2}{q})$ where $\chi$ is a Dirichlet ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

Existence of real modular function with specific behavior as $q\to 0$

I am looking for a real modular function $F(q,\bar{q})$ such that in the limit of small $q,\bar{q}$ it behaves as: $F(q,\bar{q})=(a_0 + a_1 (q + \bar q)+...)\log q \bar q+ (b_0 + b_1 (q + \bar ...
5
votes
3answers
333 views

Bounds on horizontal minima of the Riemann zeta function

It is known that $\zeta(s)$ has an infinity of zeros in the strip $0<\sigma<1$ and that those zeros become closer together as $t\rightarrow\infty$. More precisely, Littlewood showed that there ...
2
votes
1answer
238 views

Does the set of automorphisms of a cyclic group exhibit some sense of randomness?

I prefer to proceed with a concrete example if I may. I appreciate that the answer might well be better explained with group theory, geometry and/or notions from probability theory, which I welcome. ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

On the uncountability of a subset of U-numbers of type $\leq m$

We say that $\xi\in \mathbb{R}$ is an $m$-ultra number if there exists a sequence $(\alpha_n)_n$ of $m$-degree real algebraic numbers, such that $$ |\xi-\alpha_n|<(\exp^{[3]}(H(\alpha_n)))^{-n},\ ...
1
vote
1answer
183 views

Is it possible to sum the divergent series with prime coefficients?

It is known that the series $$ P := \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} p_{n} \qquad \text{where } p_{n} \text{ is the n'th prime} $$ cannot be summed by means of (prime) zeta function regularization. (The result was ...
0
votes
1answer
186 views

A Problem Concerning Odd Perfect Number

Briefly, prove that every odd number having only three distinct prime factors cannot be a perfect number. I know there are results much stronger than the one above, but I am looking for an answer ...
9
votes
3answers
946 views

Finding integer points on elliptic curves via divisibility conditions like $(a+b)^2 \mid (2b^3+6ab^2-1)$

Is the following conjecture correct? Conjecture. The divisibility condition $(\alpha+\beta)^2 \mid (2\beta^3+6\alpha\beta^2-1)$ has no solutions in positive integers $1 \le \beta < \alpha < ...
4
votes
1answer
132 views

Constructing a family of convergents from continued fractions formed by a set of prime partial quotients

For a given real number $x$, the continued fraction representation $x = [a_0; a_1, a_2, \cdots]$ where $(a_n)_{n \geq 0}$is defined by setting $x = \alpha_0$, then $a_i = \lfloor \alpha_i \rfloor$, ...
7
votes
1answer
194 views

Is the sequence of Apéry numbers a Stieltjes moment sequence?

Consider the sequence of Apéry numbers $$ A_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}\binom{n+k}{k}\sum_{j=0}^k \binom{k}{j}^3 = \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}^2\binom{n+k}{k}^2 . $$ In an email, physicist Alan Sokal ...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

What is the relation between the length of period of simple continued fraction expansion of quadratic algebraic numbers $\sqrt{A}$ and the integer $A$

What is the relation between the length of period of simple continued fraction expansion of quadratic algebraic numbers and the integer As we know,$\sqrt{2} = [1;2,2,2,2,…]$; while $\sqrt{14}= ...
2
votes
1answer
175 views

Dynamics in the integers - Floor function

Let $\alpha$ be an irrational with $0<\alpha<1$. Consider the function given by \begin{align*} f: &\mathbb{N}\longrightarrow \mathbb{N}\\ &x\longmapsto [ \alpha\cdot x]\end{align*} where ...
0
votes
0answers
193 views

What does a Turing machine compute? [on hold]

I suspect that it might be necessary to define for a Turing machine how its inputs and outputs are to be interpreted in order to be able to say e.g. that a Turing machine $T$ computes an arithmetical ...
1
vote
2answers
224 views

Rationale behind an requirement on Turing machines

Hopcroft and Ullman's definition of a Turing machine seems to be standard. This definition defines a Turing machine to be a 7-tupel $T = \langle Q,\Gamma,b,\Sigma,\delta,q_0,F \rangle$ obeying some ...
-1
votes
0answers
105 views

Primality matrices [on hold]

This question is some kind of a follow-up to my previous thread untitled About Goldbach's conjecture, the content of which follows: 'let's consider a composite natural number $n$ greater or equal ...
6
votes
1answer
210 views

Rational points techniques on curves not using their Jacobian

Let $C/K$ be a curve of genus > 2 over a number field $K$ and suppose there exists a $p \in C(K)$. Then a recurring theme in studying $C(K)$ is using the map $C \to J(C)$ normalized by sending $p$ to ...
8
votes
1answer
751 views

What is the arithmetic Nullstellensatz?

The only precise statement (coming from a reliable source) of the "arithmetic Nullstellensatz" I can find is in Gowers's book, stating that two polynomials with integral coefficients have the same ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Must the radical of polynomial evaluated at integers be small enough at least once?

Basically I am interested if the radical of polynomial evaluated at integers can be small enough at least once. Let $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x], \deg(f)>1$ be squarefree. For integer $a$ and $f(a) \ne 0$ ...
0
votes
1answer
325 views

Counterexample to Pólya's conjecture

It is known that Polya's conjecture is false and the smallest counter-example is about $10^9$. Assuming that we are searching for a counter-example not knowing that it exists. What useful information ...
0
votes
1answer
135 views

Composition of a transcendental function with a rational function [on hold]

The problem is: let $f: \mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ be an analytic transcendental function and let $\psi(x)=\frac{x}{2(1+x^2)}$. Is the function $f(\psi(x))$ transcendental?
46
votes
5answers
3k views

Strange (or stupid) arithmetic derivation

Let us consider the following operation on positive integers: $$n=\prod_{i=1}^{k}p_i^{\alpha_i} \qquad f(n):= \prod_{i=1}^{k}\alpha_ip_i^{\alpha_i-1}$$ (Is it true that if we apply this operation to ...
1
vote
2answers
229 views

Asymptotics on prime divisors

Somewhat inspired from the Zsigmondy's theorem is my question. Suppose Let $a_{1}> a_{2}> \cdots > a_{k}$ be nonzero integers, with $k \geq 2$. Let $a(n) : = a_{1}^{n}+\cdots+a_{k}^{n}$ for ...
8
votes
1answer
265 views

Separation of lattice points on the Mordell elliptic curve

Consider the Mordell equation x^3 – y^2 = k, where x is a non-square positive integer and y^2 is the perfect square nearest to x^3. Noam Elkies (see http://www.math.harvard.edu/~elkies/hall.html) ...
9
votes
1answer
222 views

Repetend digit graphs for $1/n$ in base $b$

Here is a decimal expansion of $\frac{1}{34}$: $$(1/34)_{10}=0.02941176470588235\overline{2941176470588235}\ldots$$ And here is a graphical representation of the 16-digit "repetend," as a directed ...
6
votes
4answers
725 views

Proofs of the Chevalley-Warning Theorem

A well known proof of the Chevally-Warning Theorem is the one listed on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevalley%E2%80%93Warning_theorem Are there any other proofs of this, or ...
2
votes
1answer
191 views

A family Mersenne composite numbers?

I believe that the number $$2^{2^{2t+1}+2t-1}-1$$ is composite for all positive integer $t$. I tested this for many $t$'s, but so far I didn't get a proof. Any idea?
4
votes
1answer
133 views

Estimates on derivatives of Bessel function

In Duke, Friedlander and Iwaniec's Erratum on "Bounds for automorphic L–functions. II" They have the following estimates for derivatives of Bessel functions: For $k \geq 2$ \begin{align} & ...
-1
votes
0answers
167 views

Where is the Flaw in the Argument? [on hold]

Some days ago I have read about the Legendre Symbol. I found that there is no easy method for computation of the symbol. I tried to find out a method for determining the value of ...
1
vote
0answers
74 views

On the computation of Asai L-function

I want so compute some simple twisted Asai L-function. Let $E/F$ be a quadratic extemsion of number fields and $v$ a finite place of $F$. Let $\chi$ be a unitary automorphic character of ...
2
votes
1answer
474 views

Efficient algorithms to determine the roots of: $p(x) = r^x $ in the finite field $GF(q)$, where $r$ a primitive root of the field

I need to make sure that no efficient (i.e., polynomial time) algorithm exists for the following problem: Exponentiating Polynomial Root Problem (EPRP) Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial with $\deg(p) \geq ...
6
votes
2answers
255 views

Smooth sums of coprime smooth integers

Observe that for any $\epsilon > 0$ there are infinitely many triples of $c^\epsilon$-smooth coprime positive integers $a$, $b$ and $c$ such that $a + b = c$. -- Considering triples of the form ...
0
votes
0answers
171 views

Which of the Mochizuki's works are the most closely related to elliptic curves?

I'm very much interest about algebraic geometry and number theory along with cryptography, but I have a special interest about the elliptic curves. I have heard a lot of interesting things about ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Proof that $G(3)\le 7$ [migrated]

Let $G(k)$ be the minimal $n$ s.t. every sufficiently large integer is the sum of $n$ nonnegative $k$th powers. Does anybody know where I can find Vaughan's proof that $G(3)\le 7$? I can't find a ...
0
votes
0answers
80 views

Arthur's refinement of parameters for unitary automorphic representations

In his work on the classification of automorphic representations of a group $G$, Arthur has conjectured that the parameterization of such representations involves a homomorphism $\rho : SL_2 \times ...
1
vote
1answer
143 views

For a defined set $M$ (see problem) do there exist $a,b$ natural numbers so that $a,ab+1 \in M$

Let $\rho \in \mathbb{R}\setminus \mathbb{Q}$ be a irrational nuber, and let $\varepsilon>0$ be arbitrarily small. Define $M=\{m \in \mathbb{N}: \exists k \in \mathbb{N}\hbox{ so that} |\rho m -k ...
0
votes
0answers
86 views

A System of Diophantine Equations [closed]

$p^2+1=2y^2$ $p+1=2x^2$ $p$ is prime and $x,y$ are integers. I conjecture that this only has solution for $p=7$
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Extension of the product formula for valuations to a simultaneous completion

It is well known that $\mathbb{C}$ and $\mathbb{C}_p$ are "algebraically" isomorphic (that is, ignoring the topology), but an isomorphism depends on the axiom of choice and there is no canonical way ...
17
votes
1answer
777 views

If $\left(1^a+2^a+\cdots+n^{a}\right)^b=1^c+2^c+\cdots+n^c$ for some $n$, then $(a,b,c)=(1,2,3)$?

Question : Is the following conjecture true? Conjecture : Let $a,b(\ge 2),c,n(\ge 2)$ be natural numbers. If $$\left(\sum_{k=1}^nk^a\right)^b=\sum_{k=1}^nk^c\ \ \ \ \ \cdots(\star)$$ for some $n$, ...
4
votes
0answers
105 views

Without Skolem–Mahler–Lech Theorem? [closed]

Using Skolem–Mahler–Lech theorem one can easily prove the $\displaystyle \lim_{n\to +\infty}\left|\Re\left(\frac{1+i\sqrt{7}}{2} \right)^n\right| =+\infty$. Is there a "simple way" to prove this ...
7
votes
5answers
582 views

Small values of a polynomial evaluated at roots of unity

The MO answer http://mathoverflow.net/a/98176/11926 notes the following: Let $\gamma$ be an algebraic number that is not a root of unity. Then Baker's theorem implies that there is a constant ...
10
votes
0answers
369 views

divisibility of Tamagawa numbers

Let $E/\mathbb{Q}$ be an elliptic curve of conductor $N$. Let $p\ge11$ be a prime of good ordinary reduction for $E$ and assume that $p$ does not divide the degree of a minimal modular parametrization ...
1
vote
2answers
304 views

Practical use of estimates for the Gauss Circle Problem

This question is related to this and this ones. The Gauss Circle problem asks for the number $N(r)$ of integer points within a sphere of radius $r$ centered at the origin. It is well known that $N(r) ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

On the pole of local L-function

Let $F$ be a number field and $v$ a finite place of $F$. Let $\chi_v$ be a unramified unitary character of $F_v$. Then we define local L-function $L_v(s,\chi_v):=\frac{1}{1-\chi_v(\omega)q^{-s}}$ ...
4
votes
0answers
158 views

Non-hyperelliptic families of curves with trivial Ceresa class (or Gross-Schoen class)

Suppose X/K is a curve over a field K, which we want to think of as non-algebraically closed, and let x be a point of X(K). The Ceresa cycle is defined as follows; you can embed X in Jac(X) by sending ...
10
votes
5answers
2k views

Rational points on a sphere in $\mathbb{R}^d$

Call a point of $\mathbb{R}^d$ rational if all its $d$ coordinates are rational numbers. Q1. Is the unit sphere $S :\; x_1^2 +\cdots+ x_d^2 = 1$ dense in rational points, i.e. does $S$ include a ...
0
votes
0answers
86 views

Collatz property implying infinite “fall below” trajectories, is it known?

(this was discovered analyzing Collatz empirically.) a key aspect of resolving Collatz involves looking at the number of iterations for trajectories to "fall below" the initial value. consider ...
3
votes
1answer
515 views

Possibly an easy application of Tate-Nakayama duality and local CFT

Let $F$ be a non-archimedian local field and $F^{ur}$ the maximal unramified extension. Let $T$ be a torus defined over $F$ such that $T$ splits over a tamely ramified extension and is anisotropic ...