Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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2
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0answers
139 views

Possible $\mathsf{NP}$ complete problem from number theory

A candidate $\mathsf{NP}$ complete variant of factoring was posted in http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/questions/4769/an-np-complete-variant-of-factoring, where decision problem ...
26
votes
3answers
955 views

Arranging numbers from $1$ to $n$ such that the sum of every two adjacent numbers is a perfect power

I've known that one can arrange all the numbers from $1$ to $\color{red}{15}$ in a row such that the sum of every two adjacent numbers is a perfect square. $$8,1,15,10,6,3,13,12,4,5,11,14,2,7,9$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

Minimum distance between factorials and powers of 2

Let's define for a positive integer $n$: $$a(n) = \min \{|n! - 2^m| : m \in \mathbb N \}.$$ Does there exist a good asymptotic lower bound for the values $a(n)$ for large $n$? In particular, is the ...
4
votes
0answers
77 views

Is the compositum of all quadratic extensions of the rationals an ample field?

Let $K$ be the compositum of all quadratic extensions of $\mathbb{Q}$, that is $$K = \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d} \ : \ d \in \mathbb{Q}).$$ Is there a (geometrically irreducible) smooth variety ...
-4
votes
1answer
170 views

Two conjectures in number theory [on hold]

Two conjectures in number theory In this topic, I propose a conjecture of generalization of the Lander, Parkin, and Selfridge conjecture; and a conjecture of generalization of the Beal's conjecture. ...
3
votes
4answers
418 views

Integral points on a particular family of curves

This is a follow-up to this question (and comments thereon). Namely, it follows from Felipe Voloch's comment that for any $n>2$ there is a finite set of integral $(x, y),$ such that $$ ...
8
votes
3answers
255 views

“Most Similar Vector Problem” on an Integer Lattice?

I am currently working on problem that I think could be expressed as an integer lattice problem. Given $u \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and a bounded integer lattice $L = \mathbb{Z}^n \cap [-M,M]^n$ I would like ...
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Proofs needed for observations regarding prime-partitionable numbers

Below is the definition of a prime-partitionable integer taken from W. Holsztynski, R. F. E. Strube, Paths and circuits in finite groups, Discr. Math. 22 (1987) 263-272 and is apparently the same in ...
7
votes
2answers
139 views

Random suborbits of a rotation

Let $u_n = x + n\alpha \pmod 1$ with $\alpha$ irrational. We know that $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ is dense in $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$ (equivalently $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ visits every open interval infinitely ...
0
votes
1answer
182 views

A particular interesting elliptic curve

Given the elliptic curve $E:y^2=x^3-4x+4$. (a) How to prove that the group of rational points $E(\mathbb{Q})$ is generated by $P=(2,2)$. (b) If we consider the piece of curve on the region ...
44
votes
3answers
6k views

Is a “non-analytic” proof of Dirichlet's theorem on primes known or possible?

It is well-known that one can prove certain special cases of Dirichlet's theorem by exhibiting an integer polynomial $p(x)$ with the properties that the prime divisors of $\{ p(n) | n \in \mathbb{Z} ...
2
votes
1answer
191 views

Two questions about Whittaker functions

I am watching the video: Modeling p-adic Whittaker functions, Part I. I have two questions about Whittaker functions in the video. From 33:00 to 37:00, it is said that after changing of variables, ...
5
votes
1answer
382 views

Are there effective small intervals in which primes are dense?

As mentioned in Terry Tao's comment to this question, it is constructively known that there are primes between sufficiently large cubes. $\:$ According to wikipedia, "there exists a constant $\: ...
7
votes
1answer
248 views

Integral formula for $\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-3\pi x^{2}}((\sinh \pi x)/(\sinh 3\pi x))\,dx$ by Ramanujan

The following is a re-post from MSE because I did not get any answer even after offering a bounty. Towards the end of G. N. Watson's (one of the joint authors of famous book "A Course of Modern ...
13
votes
2answers
490 views

What are Mean Values of Ideal Densities in Galois Extensions?

In an unfinished (and as of now unpublished) article intended for the encyclopedia of mathematics, Arnold Scholz wrote: "Classifying extensions according to the Galois group of their normal closure ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

reference on Dirichlet theorem on primes in arithmetic progression

I appreciate if you could help me to find a reference (and a proof). Combining Dirichlet theorem on primes in arithmetic progression with Chebotarev densitiy theorem, we know that given two positive ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Sampling from random unimodular matrices of a particular type?

Is there a nice way to parametrize unimodular matrices of form $$\begin{bmatrix} a1& a2& 0& 0\\ b1& b2& a1& a2\\ c1& c2& b1& b2\\ 0& 0& c1& c2 ...
15
votes
3answers
212 views

Lower bounding the probability that $\gcd(t,N)≤B$, for a random $t$ and fixed (large) $N$

$\newcommand{\Prb}[1]{\mathcal{P}_{#1}}$ I have the following number theory problem, related to Odlyzko's improvement on Shor’s factoring algorithm (see this cstheory.sx question for details). Let ...
0
votes
1answer
268 views

Particular case of Beal's Conjecture

Is it known that there exist no coprime positive integers $A$, $B$ and $C$ such that $A^3+B^4=C^3$? This is a particular case of Beal's Conjecture.
1
vote
0answers
90 views

Finding a lower bound in terms of given integers

Given four positive integers $n,$ $m,$ $l$ and $k \geq 2.$ I want to find a lower bound for this expression $$|\sqrt[k]{n}+\sqrt[k]{m}-\sqrt[k]{l}|$$ in terms of these integers. Many thanks
26
votes
2answers
2k views

Is this Riemann zeta function product equal to the Fourier transform of the von Mangoldt function?

Mathematica knows that: $$\log(n) = \lim\limits_{s \rightarrow 1} \zeta(s)\left(1 - \frac{1}{n^{(s - 1)}}\right)\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; (1)$$ The von Mangoldt function should then be: ...
4
votes
1answer
478 views

Weierstrass form of genus one $y^{10} z^{30} - 8000 y^{4} z^{20} + 12800000 z^{20} + 1600 y^{2} z^{10} - 64=0$

Related to the n-conjecture. We are looking for Weierstrass form and map from it of the genus one curve: $$ y^{10} z^{30} - 8000 y^{4} z^{20} + 12800000 z^{20} + 1600 y^{2} z^{10} - 64=0 $$ It is ...
34
votes
1answer
2k views

Optimization problem arising from the study of zeta zeros

Motivation: The following problem arose in [1] while studying the vertical distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. At the time, my collaborators and I were unable to solve it and I ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Did Gauss know Dirichlet's class number formula in 1801?

Let $h_d$ be the number of $SL_{2}(\mathbb{Z})$ classes of primitive binary quadratic forms of discriminant $d$. It's natural to impose the hypothesis that $d$ is not at square, as we do below. In ...
7
votes
0answers
123 views

Modular factorization of Dedekind zeta functions

It is well known that for abelian number fields, the factorization of its Dedekind zeta function goes like this: $$\zeta_K=\zeta\prod_\chi L(s,\chi)$$ with the Dirichlet characters distinct and ...
8
votes
2answers
586 views

Hilbert Class Field Galois over Q?

So if we have a Galois extension $K/\mathbb{Q}$, then the Hilbert Class Field $H$ of $K$ is certainly Galois over $\mathbb{Q}$. But is the converse true? I know many examples of nongalois ...
16
votes
3answers
2k views

Fermat's proof for $x^3-y^2=2$

Fermat proved that $x^3-y^2=2$ has only one solution $(x,y)=(3,5)$. After some search,i found only proofs using factorization over the ring $Z[\sqrt{-2}]$. My question is: Is this Fermat's ...
16
votes
3answers
757 views

Cases where the number field case and the function field (with positive characteristic) are different

In number theory there is often an analogue between statements which holds over a number field (that is, a finite field extension $K/\mathbb{Q}$) and function fields (that is, finite extensions of the ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Root number of an anticyclotomic twist

Let $\lambda$ be a self-dual Hecke character over a CM field $K$ with root number $-1$. How to show the existence of a finite order anticyclotomic Hecke character $\chi$ over $K$ such that the twist ...
0
votes
1answer
140 views

Chinese remainder theorem for cyclic subfactor planar algebras

This post was inspired by an exchange with the indian woman mathematician Ajit Iqbal Singh. The chinese remainder theorem can be stated as follows: Let $n_1, \dots, n_r \ge 2$ be positive integers ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Any formula for the partial sum of a remainder series?

Let $N \ge 1$ be an integer, and there is a series $ \{ N \mod 1, N \mod 2, ... , N \mod i, ... \}$. Obviously when $i \gt N+1$, the series will become $\{N, N, N, ..., \}$. So only take $i \le N$ ...
0
votes
1answer
217 views

Are there infinitely many $k$ for which $\frac{\sigma(k)}{k}=n^p$ and $p$ is an odd prime? [on hold]

I would like to know if there are infinitely many $k$ for which $$\sigma(k)/k=n^p$$ such that $m=k{n}^{p-1}$ with $m,n>0$ and $p$ is an odd prime? Note: $\sigma(\frac{m}{{n}^{p-1}})$ is the sum of ...
18
votes
5answers
4k views

number of zeroes in 100 factorial.

I was on math.stackexchange the other day and i found a question that said How many zeroes are there in 100!. I quickly factored it out and said that there where 24 zeroes. However thats only the ...
11
votes
2answers
306 views

Automorphisms of finite order in $Out(\widehat{F_2})$

Let $\widehat{F_2}$ be the pro-$\ell$ completion of the free group of rank 2, where $\ell$ is some prime. Every outer automorphism of $F_2$ induces an outer automorphism of $\widehat{F_2}$, hence an ...
3
votes
1answer
874 views

Does anyone have an electronic copy of Waldspurger's “Sur les coefficients de Fourier des formes modulaires de poids demi-entier”?

Is there an electronic copy of Waldspurger's paper "Sur les coefficients de Fourier des formes modulaires de poids demi-entier" floating around the internet somewhere? This appeared in J. Pures Math. ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Divisibility among discriminants

Let $f(x)$ be an algebraic function over the field $\mathcal F$ of algebraic numbers over $\mathbb{Q}$. Suppose that $r \in \mathcal F$. Does the discriminant of $f(r)$ divide the discriminant of ...
2
votes
1answer
100 views

degeneration of reductive group

If $A$ is a mixed characteristic complete DVR (I'm only actually interested in $\mathbf{Z}_p$) and $G/A$ is a closed subgroup scheme of $GL(n)$ whose generic fibre is connected reductive and split, is ...
1
vote
0answers
122 views

Probability of correlated residues

Given $N,c\in\Bbb N$, where $c\ll(\log N)^{1/b}$ for any $b>1$ is fixed, what is the probability that given $A_1,A_2,A_3\in\Bbb N$ with ...
2
votes
0answers
95 views

binomial coefficients and irrationals

The following, probably either currently impossible to deal with, or having a negative solution, arose from an ergodic theory question, presumably itself currently intractible. I am not a number ...
6
votes
1answer
380 views

Pure motives and compatible systems of $\ell$-adic representations

I am trying to understand the statement of the conjectures of Deligne on special values of certain $L$-functions, from his article titled, "Valuers de Fonctions L et periodes d'integrales" which ...
3
votes
1answer
301 views

Varieties with few monomials and the n-conjecture

The n-conjecture is a generalization of abc and basically says that the if $a_1 + \ldots + a_n=0$, no proper subsum vanishes and $a_i$ are coprime, then the radical of $a_1\cdots a_n$ can't be too ...
10
votes
2answers
593 views

Upper density of the set of $n$'s such that $p(n)$ is prime, where $p$ is polynomial

The starting point for this question is the following (false) statement $\forall n\in \mathbb{N} (n^2 + n + 41 \text{ is prime}).$ Given a polynomial function $p:\mathbb{N} \to ...
8
votes
2answers
908 views
+50

Is there a fixed integer $x>1$ satisfing ${\sigma}^{k}(x)\equiv 0\pmod{x}$ for all positive integers $k$?

This question related to this question from SE. I'm interested to know if there exists an integer $x>1$ that satisfies $${\sigma}^{k}(x)\equiv 0\pmod{x}$$ for all positive integers $k$. Note. ...
4
votes
1answer
398 views

Estimate on radical of $2^n \pm 1$

Not sure if this belongs to MO or not. Are there any lower bound on radical of $2^n \pm 1$ (Recall that radical of integer $rad(k)$ is a product of primes which divide integer $k$)? As an example If ...
2
votes
0answers
154 views

Is the twisted symmetric fifth power $L$-function holomorphic?

Let $\pi$ be a Maass cusp form for SL($2,\mathbb Z$). Let $\omega$ be a primitive Dirichlet character. Let us consider the $L-$ function $$L(s,Sym^5 \pi \times \omega)$$ or $L(s,Sym^6 \pi \times ...
2
votes
1answer
190 views

Counting function for prime pair with bounded gaps between them [duplicate]

I'll start by noting that I am not at all an expert on number theory. However I do use it in a proof and would like your assistance if possible. Yitang Zhang breakthrough result established that ...
17
votes
1answer
1k views

Quantitative lower bounds related to Zhang's theorem on bounded gaps

Let $\mathcal{H}=\left\{ h_{i}\right\} _{i=1}^{k}$ be an admissible set, and define $$\pi_{\mathcal{H}}(x)=\left|\left\{ n\leq x\ :\ \exists\ i,j\leq k,\ i\neq j\ \text{such that both }n+h_{i},\ ...
13
votes
1answer
547 views

Elementary Proof of Infinitely many primes $\mathfrak{p} \in \mathbb{Z}[i]$ in the sector $\theta < \arg \mathfrak{p} <\phi $

A quick look at the primes in $\mathbb{Z}[i]$ suggests they might be evenly distributed by angle if we zoom out on a coarse enough scale. I would like ask about the much weaker statement forgetting ...
5
votes
2answers
267 views

Iwasawa's mu-invariant for noncyclotomic $\mathbf{Z}_p$ extensions of cyclotomic fields?

Let $p$ be an odd prime number, $m$ a positive integer with $p\mid m$. Put $k=\mathbf{Q}(\mu_m)$. (1) Is there any example where certain noncyclotomic $\mathbf{Z}_p$-extension $k_\infty/k$ has ...
-1
votes
0answers
162 views

Straight line complexity of $k!a$ where $(a,p)=1$

In Qi Cheng's paper, an algorithm is provided to calculate $k!a$ at some random $a∈ℕ$ ($a$ is not input to algorithm, only $k$ is), what is the probability that given a prime $p$ such that ...