# Tagged Questions

**8**

votes

**1**answer

217 views

### $p | f(x)$ if and only if $p^k | x$.

Given a prime number $p$ and a positive integer $k$. Consider integer-valued polynomials $f$ satisfying the property that $p | f(x) \Leftrightarrow p^k | x$.
Question. What is the smallest degree of ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

473 views

### Dissecting Ramanujan´s Cuboid: 1729 = 19 x 13 x 7

Consider the cuboid of dimensions 19 x 13 x 7 whose volume is 1729, the Hardy-Ramanujan number. What is the least number of smaller cuboids into which it can be dissected so that the resulting pieces ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is there a nice explanation for this curious fact about cyclic subgroups?

Here's something that I noticed that quite surprised me.
Let $G$ be a finite abelian group. Consider the following expression.
$$
\nu(G) = \sum_{\substack{H \leq G \\ H \text{ is cyclic}}} |H|
$$
It ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### In what range can we find diophantine approximations using the LLL-algorithm?

Let $\alpha_1, \ldots, \alpha_n$ be $\mathbb{Q}$-linearly independent real numbers. I want to show that for all $x_1, \ldots, x_n\in\mathbb{Z}$, $|x_i|<N$ we have some lower bound for $\left|\sum ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

152 views

### Generating function for numbers divisible by some primes

Consider the first $k$ primes $p_1 = 2, p_2 = 3, \dots, p_k$. Let $A_k$ be the set of numbers that are divisible by at least one $p_i$. We can represent this set as a generating function:
$$G_k(x) = \...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

106 views

### Normalizer of non-split tori

Let $\mathbb{G}$ be a connected reductive group over $\mathbb{C}$. Let $G:=\mathbb{G}(\mathbb{C}(\!(t)\!))$. Let $T$ be a maximal torus in $G$.
Question: What do we know about the normalizer $N_G(T)$...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

57 views

### Is there a generalized Mac-Lauren summation formula for this sum?

Let $\chi$ be a Dichlet character and $f$ be a derivable function $k+1$ times. Is there a generalized Mac-Lauren summation formula for this sum $\sum_{n \leq x}\chi(n) f(n)$ i.e is there an ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

145 views

### Researching the irrationality of a number [closed]

I am conducting a little research on checking if a number, written in positional numeral system is irrational.
Let $h^p_n$ be the most right non-zero digit of number $n!$ written in numeral system ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Prescribed norm residue symbol in number field

Suppose $F$ is a number field, and $a, b$ are non-zero elements. Does there always exist $x \in F$ such that the norm residue symbols (=cup products) are $(a, x)= 0 = (x, b) \in H^2(F, \mathbb{F}_2)$ ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

188 views

### Density of set of unique sums

Set $U_1 = \{1,2\}$, and for $n\in\mathbb{N}$ with $n\geq 1$ we set $U_{n+1} = U_n\cup A_n$ where $A_n$ is the set of elements of $\mathbb{N}$ that are not in $U_n$ but can be uniquely written as a ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

299 views

### Groupoid cardinality and Egyptian fraction representations of 1

It is well-known that any rational number can be represented using a sum of distinct Egyptian fractions (that is, rational fractions of the form $1/n$ with $n\in\mathbb{N}$). This may be proven by ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

158 views

### How many the distinct linear factors of $f(x)-f(y)$ can be for f in Q[x]?

Let $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$.
Let $S(f)$ denote the number of distinct linear factors
of $f(x)-f(y)$.
$S(f)$ is bounded by $\deg(f)$.
Q1 Is $S(f)$ bounded by constant?
Q2 Is it possible $S(f)&...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

262 views

### What is an example of a non-mixed $\ell$-adic sheaf?

$\def\FF{\mathbb{F}}\def\cG{\mathcal{G}}\def\QQ{\mathbb{Q}}\def\CC{\mathbb{C}}$I've been attending a reading seminar at Michigan on Kiehl and Weissauer's book Weil conjectures, perverse sheaves and l’...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

228 views

### On the quadratic reciprocity law? [closed]

In the Quadratic Reciprocity Law
$$\exists x\in\Bbb{N}\quad x^2\equiv p\pmod q\iff\exists y\in\Bbb{N}\quad y^2\equiv q\pmod p$$ if $p\equiv q\equiv 1\pmod4$.
Is there any relation between $x$ and $y$ ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

302 views

### étale cohomology of rings of integers of number fields and Shafarevich-Tate groups

Let $K$ be a number field, $A$ an abelian variety over $K$.
Let $\mathcal{O}$ be the ring of integers of $K$, $\mathcal{A}$ the Néron model abelian scheme of $A$ over $\text{Spec}(\mathcal{O})$.
For ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

181 views

### Main term in the number of sign changes of $\psi(x) - x$

Define $N_\Delta(T)$ to be the number of sign changes of $\psi(x) - x$ in the interval $[1, T]$.
Landau's Theorem says $N_\Delta(T)$ is $\Omega(\log T)$ [1].
But perhaps that estimate is too crude. ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

96 views

### Irreducible binary quartic form with prescribed $I$ and $J$-invariants

Let $F(x,y) = ax^4 + bx^3y + cx^2y^2 + dxy^3 + ey^4$ be a binary quartic form with integer coefficients. It is well-known that $F$ has two algebraically independent invariants under the action of $\...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

406 views

### Learning roadmap for algebraic number theory

I have read some elementary number theory from David Burton's text and I know groups and rings from Herstein's book Topics in Algebra and some field theory from different sources online. I am ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

94 views

### What is the precise relationship between primitive Hida families and the connected components of the ordinary locus of the eigencurve?

In the references I've found discussing this question, I have not found any statements that I can understand and that are as precise as I would like. I'm more familiar with Hida families than with the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

58 views

### A non-surjective coboundary map induced by a central extension

Let $k$ be a number field and
$$ 1\to A \to B \to C \to 1$$ be a central extension of finite groups over $\mathcal{O}_k$ (the ring of integers of $k$), with $B$ non-commutative. Consider the induced ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

273 views

### Breaking the RSA encryption based on a $(e,N)$ given an integer $w \neq 0$ such that $e^w = 1 \mod(N)$?

In his book 'Forcing with Random Variables and Proof Complexity' Jan Krajíček claims (p.154) that it is possible to break the RSA encryption with public key $(e,N)$ if one has has an integer $w \neq ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

202 views

### horocycle flow and the prime number theorem

Looking at Zagier's Eisenstein Series and the Riemann Zeta Function, we get a proof of the prime number theorem using horocycles. I would really love it if there were a geometric proof like this.
...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

194 views

### Lower bound for the number of representations of integers as sum of squares

Let $k\geq 4$. As usual, let $r_k(n)$ denote the number of ways to represent $n$ as the sum of $k$ squares. Is this true that for every $\varepsilon>0$, one has $r_k(n) \gg n^{\frac{k}{2}-1-\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

474 views

### What is the best currently proven bounds on prime gaps?

I did some digging around on the internet but I found tons of different equations on both lower and upper bounds for the largest possible prime gap g(n). I was wondering what are currently the best ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

237 views

### Universal Property of Fontaine's Period Ring $B_{dR}^+$

In the introduction to his Asterisque Expose "Le Corps des Periodes p-Adiques",
Fontaine announces a characterization of $B_{dR}^+$ by some universal property. Unfortunatly,
at least for $B_{dR}^+$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

156 views

### s(n) = kn or s(n) = n/k? [closed]

This is not an important question, just for fun.
Definition:
$\sigma (n)$ = sum of the positive divisors of $n$.
$s(n)$ = sum of the proper positive divisors of $n$.
For $s(n) = kn$ , where $k$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

244 views

### Density of Sophie Germain $3\bmod 4$ primes

Is there any reason to expect the density of primes $p$ such that $2p+1$ is also a prime where $p=3\bmod4$ holds would be different from case of $p=1\bmod4$?
What if $2p+1$ is replaced by $2p-1$ and ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

187 views

### Divisibility of Dirichlet L-functions

Let $k$ be an even integer and $p$ a prime number such that $p-1|k$.
Suppose that $p$ does not divide $L(1-k,\chi)$ and $L(1-k,\psi)$, where $\chi$ and $\psi$ are quadratic characters.
Can we deduce ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

152 views

### Density of prime divisors of $a^n + b$

Suppose $a > 1, b \neq 0$ be two rational numbers. Is it known in general that the set of prime divisors of (the numerator of) $a^n + b$ has a positive relative density?

**6**

votes

**0**answers

164 views

### Solving polynomial equations modulo $1$

Let $P\in \mathbb{R}\lbrack x\rbrack$ be given. (In practice, the coefficients could be given as, say, decimals to sufficient precision.) Let $M\geq 1$, and let $I$ be an interval in $\mathbb{R}/\...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

227 views

### On property of monic polynomial with integer coefficients

For a monic polynomial with integer coefficients $f$ where $\partial f = 2$, we have
$$
\textrm{inf}(f(x)) > 0 \implies
\textrm{inf}(f(x)) \geq \frac{3}{4} .
$$
Could we generalize this (for ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

110 views

### Finding out $p$-torsion elements of an elliptic curve $E$ over $\mathbb{Q}_p$

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Q}$.
Then how to compute the $p$-torsion elements of $E$ over the $p$-adic field $\mathbb{Q}_p$ using SAGE or any other means ?
At least can we say whether ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

99 views

### Number of solutions to a modular congruence

What methods are there for determining the number of solutions to modular congruences of the form $a^m \equiv b^n k \pmod{p}$ with $1 \leq a,b \leq p-1$ where $p$ is a prime?
In the case $m,n$ are ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

127 views

### The average number of a class of reduced, primitive, positive definite binary quadratic forms

Let $f(x,y) = ax^2 + 2bxy + cy^2 \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ be a positive definite binary quadratic form with even discriminant. We say that $f$ is primitive if $\gcd(a,2b,c) = 1$ and it is reduced if $0 &...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

235 views

### Number of prime divisors of p^2-1 for a prime p

Let $n$ be an integer and $n=p_1^{a_1}\dots p_s^{a_s}$ be its factorization into primes. Denote by $\Omega(n)$ the sum of $a_i$. Does there exist a constant $k$ such that there are infinitely many ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

410 views

### Relation of these two Dirichlet $L$-functions

Let $\chi$ and $\psi$ be two quadratic Dirichlet characters and let $L(s,\chi)$ and $L(s,\psi)$ their associated Dirichlet $L$-functions.
Is there a realtion between these two Dirichlet $L$-functions:...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

148 views

### Ask for a special function related to the error function

I am wondering whether anyone knows the following integration has a named special function or a reference
$$
F_{a,b}(z) :=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} \int_0^z \text{erf}(a+b y)\: e^{-y^2} \text{d}y
$$
for ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

313 views

### How many integer solutions of $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+n$ are there?

Are there any references to study the integer solutions (existence and how many) of Diophantine equations like $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+2$, $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+3$, $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+5$...? Actually, I can prove ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### Is the analogue of the Simple Continued Fraction in p-adic number fields useful?

Is there an analogue of the Simple Continued Fraction in p-adic number fields? Is it useful and does it have relations to best rational approximation in the p-adic sense? In the analytic case there is ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

844 views

### Clarification on the weak BSD conjecture

It is usually told that Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer developped their famous conjecture after studying the growth of the function
$$
f_E(x) = \prod_{p \le x}\frac{|E(\mathbb{F}_p)|}{p}
$$
as $x$ tends to ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

118 views

### Clarification request on sign changes of Hecke eigenvalues

In their paper 'Sign changes of Hecke eigenvalues', Matomaki and Radziwill established in Lemma 6.2 the following result: There exists absolute positive constants $c$ and $\eta$ such that uniformly in ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

508 views

### On progress towards inverse Galois problem over rationals

I have heard that Progress towards the Inverse Galois problem over $\mathbb{Q}$
is very well documented for sporadic groups ($M_{23}$ is the only case open) and for $PSL_n(q)$.
From where I can read ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

124 views

### Simultaneous $\pmod{p}$ congruences of two ternary quadratic forms

Let
$$\displaystyle f(x_1,x_2,x_3) = a_1 x_1^2 + a_2 x_2^2 + a_3 x_3^2,$$
$$\displaystyle g(x_1, x_2, x_3) = b_1 x_1^2 + b_2 x_2^2 + b_3 x_3^2$$
be two integral ternary quadratic forms with $f$ ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

177 views

### Effective prime number theorem

The prime number theorem implies that for every $ϵ>0$, there is $n_\epsilon$ such that for all $n≥n_\epsilon$ the number of primes in $[n,cn]$ is at least $\frac{(c−1−\epsilon)n}{\log n}$ and at ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

284 views

### Frobenius at ramified primes

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve defined over $\mathbf{Q}$, fix an odd prime $p>3$, let $T_p$ denote the $p$-adic Tate module of $E$, and let $V_p = T_p \otimes \mathbf{Q}_p$.
If the action of $G_\...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

184 views

### Number of solutions to $x_1x_2=x_3x_4\bmod n$

In https://www.math.ksu.edu/~cochrane/research/xyuvmodp.pdf it is shown $x_1x_2=x_3x_4\bmod p$ where $p$ is a prime has $\frac{|\mathcal B|}p+O(\sqrt{|\mathcal B|}\log^2p)$ solutions $(x_1,x_2,x_3,...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

279 views

### Proof for new deterministic primality test possible?

Conjecture:
Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $n$ odd.
Then the number $N=2^2 + n^2$ is prime, if and only if $N$ divides $2^{(N-1)/2} + 1$.
Thanks.

**13**

votes

**3**answers

459 views

### Infiniteness of the Galois cohomology over a number field with coefficients in a finite Galois module

Let $k$ be a number field and $M$ be a nonzero finite discrete $\mathrm{Gal}(\bar k/k)$-module. Is it true that $H^1(k,M)$ is infinite?
This would complete the answer of Daniel Loughran. There is a ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

115 views

### Primitive element for a number field, and ramification

Let $K=\mathbb Q(\theta)$ be a number field with integral primitive element $\theta$, and let $f(x)$ be the minimal polynomial of $\theta$. Let $p$ be a rational prime. It's well known that if $p$ ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

103 views

### Globalizing local field extensions with controlled ramification

Let $K_1/k_1, \ldots, K_r/k_r$ be "separable cyclic" extensions of degree $n$ where each $k_i$ is a local field of characteristic 0 (archimedean or not). By separable cyclic of degree $n$, I mean the ...