Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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5
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0answers
228 views

Sporadic and Exceptional

I have been reading this recent paper of J.McKay and YH. He (they've written a number of papers recently, including a fun and joking one on 42 which overflow commented on) called "Sporadic and ...
2
votes
2answers
492 views

Abelian varieties with CM

In this site, I looked at a paper of Kazuma Morita claiming the BSD conjecture for the CM case posted on his homepage (he made a mistake three years ago for full BSD). But, I am interested in this ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

A limsup representation for the upper Buck density

The upper Buck density, introduced by R.C.Buck in 1946, is defined to be the function $$ \mathfrak{b}^\star: \mathcal{P}(\mathbf{N}^+) \to \mathbf{R}: X\mapsto \inf_{X\subseteq A:A\in ...
2
votes
0answers
196 views

Elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Q}$ vs over $K$ [duplicate]

I saw the paper claiming the proof of the BSD conjecture for the CM case. Apart from the truth and falsehood of this paper, I noticed that the author says that the congruent number problem can be ...
1
vote
1answer
160 views

A certain invariant of non-singular algebraic surfaces

Let $X \subset \mathbb{P}^3$ be a non-singular surface defined over $\mathbb{Q}$ of degree $d \geq 3$. It is a theorem of Colliot-Thelene (see the appendix to this paper: ...
20
votes
2answers
705 views

Describing the crystalline extension of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ by $\mathbb{Q}_p$

Let $K$ be a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q_p}$. The group $\ker H^1(G_K, \mathbb{Q}_p) \rightarrow H^1(G_K, B_{crys})$ is one-dimensional, which tells us that among all extensions of Galois modules ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

An exponential sum over squares

I have the following exponential sum: $\sum _{M<n\leq N}e\left (x/n^2\right )=\sum f(n),$ say, where $M$ and $N$ are something like $x^{1/4}$ and $x^{1/2}$. My question is basically, how do I ...
3
votes
0answers
277 views

Lifting a real quadratic twist of an Elliptic Curve to the modular curve

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve of conductor $N\cdot p^2$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, defined by the equation $$y^2=x^3+p^2b\cdot x + p^3\cdot c$$ and parametrized by a map $$X_{0}(N\cdot {p}^{2})\rightarrow E$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
104 views

Number of turning points on a nondecreasing $n^2 \times n^2$ matrix

Given a integer value $n$, we generate a $n^2 \times n^2$ integer matrix $M$ in the following way. Each ceil has value range $[1~n]$ In each row, the value is nondecreasing. E.g. $M[i, j] \leq M[i, ...
2
votes
0answers
84 views

Logarithmic bound for Diophantine equation

Let $a_1 \geq a_2 \geq a_3$ be given positive integers and let $N(a_1,a_2,a_3)$ be the number of solutions $(x_1,x_2,x_3)$ of the equation $$\dfrac{a_1}{x_1}+\dfrac{a_2}{x_2}+\dfrac{a_3}{x_3} = ...
3
votes
1answer
486 views

Euler product for sum of multiplicative function times log

(Cross-posted from StackExchange). Let $g$ be a multiplicative function which satisfies $0 \le g(p) \ll 1/p$ and $$ \sum_{p\le x} g(p) = \log \log x + C + O((\log x)^{-10}). $$ Iwaniec and ...
17
votes
1answer
466 views

Why do the $2$-Selmer ranks of $y^2 = x^3 + p^3 $ and $y^2 = x^3 - p^3 $ agree?

I was playing around with sage, when I found that the ranks (over $\mathbf{Q}$) of the elliptic curves $y^2=x^3+p^3$ and $y^2=x^3-p^3 $ almost always agree, for $p$ prime. The first few exceptions ...
5
votes
1answer
90 views

Reference request: normalization of intertwining operators for GL(2, C)

Take $F$ a local field and $\chi_1, \chi_2$ two characters, write $M(\chi_1, \chi_2)$ for the standard intertwining integral $$M(\chi_1. \chi_2).f(g) := \int_{F} f\left( \begin{pmatrix} 0&-1\\ ...
6
votes
2answers
377 views

Adding coprimes to get a coprime

These questions arose in my research. Let $n$ be odd and let $\mathcal{C}_n$ be the set of integers less than $n$ which are coprime with $n$. Question 1: For each integer $\ell: 0 \leq \ell < n$ ...
5
votes
1answer
301 views

Local Langlands correspondence and Galois equivariance

The local Langlands correspondence $\text{rec}$ for $\text{GL}_{n}$ itself is not Galois equivariant (i.e. invariant under automorphisms of its field of definition) but rather its twist by ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Cubic modular equations solutions when decomposition field is not a HCF

I was interested in counting (and more generally having somehow an interesting expression) the numbers of solution of cubic equations modulo a prime $p$. So here are my thoughts. Let take a cubic ...
2
votes
0answers
170 views

Short Kloosterman sum

Let $K(m,n,c)=\sum_{p\in A}\exp(2\pi i(pm+np^{-1}))$, where $m,n\in\mathbb{Z}$, $c\in\mathbb{N}$, and $A\subset (\mathbb{Z}/c\mathbb{Z})^\times$. Does anybody know any nontrivial bound for this kind ...
1
vote
0answers
212 views

Is this a proof of the Hardy-Littlewood inequality? [closed]

V.V. Miasoyedov posted a paper to the arXiv claiming a proof of the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture $\pi(x+y) \le \pi(x)+\pi(y)$. It seems a bit off, and not only because the conjecture is widely believed ...
4
votes
1answer
161 views

Improvement of a bound on divisor distributions from “Divisors” (Hall and Tenenbaum)?

In the classic text referred to in the title of this question, the bound $$ H(x,y,2y) \ll \frac{x}{(\log y)^{\delta}\sqrt{\log \log y}},\quad (3\leq y\leq \sqrt{x}) $$ is given, where ...
1
vote
1answer
169 views

A quantitative Kronecker theorem

I encounter the following question. $\textbf{Problem}$: For almost all Matrix $M\in\mathcal M_{m\times n}(\mathbb R),$ all $y\in \mathbb R^m$ and any $N$, small $\epsilon>0$, there exists a ...
7
votes
1answer
219 views

Is this system always solvable in radicals by quartics, octics, $12$-ics, etc?

While considering this post, it made me wonder about its generalization in another direction and from the perspective of Galois theory. Question: Is it true that, given four constants ...
-1
votes
4answers
180 views

Finding integer zeroes for a particular family of equations [closed]

Given $p,q\in\mathbb Z^+$, and a vector $v=(x_1,\dots,x_{p+q})$ we consider the function $\chi(v)$: $$\chi(v)=x_1^2+\dots+x_p^2-x_{p+1}^2-\dots-x_{p+q}^2$$ We wish to find solutions to $\chi(v)=0$ ...
6
votes
1answer
184 views

Bounds for maximum determinant of circulant matrices

The Hadamard circulant conjecture states that there do not exist circulant Hadamard matrices with more than $4$ columns. An $n$ by $n$ Hadamard matrix where the entries are chosen from $\{-1,1\}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
112 views

Maximizing sum of reciprocals of the elements of a subset of {1,2,..,n} subject to LCM(a,a')>n

In an answer to a previous MO question here, MO user @fedja showed (by way of an upper bound) that if $A\subseteq \{1,\ldots,n\}$ has the property $LCM(a,a')\geq n+1$ for all $a\neq a' \in A$ then the ...
2
votes
0answers
141 views

Number of solutions to pentagonal-pentagonal numbers

Continuing the investigation from this question on CGSE about pentagonal-pentagonal numbers: Defining $p(n)$ as the $n$th pentagonal number (a positive integer of the form $n(3n−1)/2,\ n\geq 1$), and ...
30
votes
2answers
1k views

Estimating the size of solutions of a diophantine equation

A. Is there natural numbers $a,b,c$ such that $\frac{a}{b+c} + \frac{b}{a+c} + \frac{c}{a+b}$ is equal to an odd natural number ? (I do not know any such numbers). B. Suppose that $\frac{a}{b+c} + ...
6
votes
1answer
445 views

Why is $(A^\perp)^\perp = A$?

On page 52 of this paper, Iwasawa considered the bilinear symmetric non-degenerate pairing $\Phi_n \times \Phi_n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}_p/\mathbb{Z}_p$ defined by $$\langle \alpha, \beta \rangle_n := ...
6
votes
1answer
210 views

Adelic and classical modular forms on quaternion algebras

Let $R$ be an Eichler order of an indefinite quaternion algebra $B/\mathbb{Q}$ (suppose B is not the collection of $2\times 2$ matrices) and $S$ the corresponding Shimura Curve. Modular forms of ...
5
votes
1answer
199 views

Estimating size of greatest prime divisor of a sequence of integers

Consider the numbers of the form: $$A_n = \prod_{\pm}\left(\pm 1\pm \sqrt{2} \pm \cdots \pm \sqrt{n}\right)$$ where, the product in taken oven all $2^n$ terms with variations in sign. We know such ...
4
votes
1answer
113 views

Mean value of a function associated with continued fractions

Suppose that an irrational $x$ in $(0,1)$ has convergents $c(k,x)$, and let $$d(x) = \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \mid x - c(k,x)\mid.$$ What is the mean value of $d$?
8
votes
1answer
117 views

The scope of correspondence principle in quantum chaos

My understanding of the so-called correspondence principle in quantum chaos, is that it is a connection between the behaviour of a classical Hamiltonian system (chaotic/completely integrable) and the ...
9
votes
2answers
711 views

Algebraic independance of exponentials

First of all, a happy new year. Be it better than 2015, healthy, wealthy, fruitful and cross-fertilizing for you, familly and friends. In order to cope with families of solutions of evolution ...
3
votes
1answer
144 views

Confusion regarding Riesz Function Definition

According to wikipedia: 'In mathematics, the Riesz function is an entire function defined by Marcel Riesz in connection with the Riemann hypothesis, by means of the power series $$ {\rm ...
1
vote
1answer
185 views

Hecke character and CM elliptic curve

The L-function of CM elliptic curve $E$ over an imaginary quadratic field can be written as the product of the Hecke L-functions (for simplicity, I assume that the base field of the elliptic curve ...
6
votes
1answer
343 views

Factorial-based constant

Am looking for a name for: $$\prod\dfrac{1}{1-\dfrac{1}{n!}}$$ $$=2.529477472079152648180116154253954242$$ Wolfram|Alpha Expanding the formula gives: ...
3
votes
0answers
185 views

Colmez conjecture and endomorphism rings

It is given by the Colmez conjecture that if $A$ has a CM-type $(k, \phi)$ and $\text{End}(A) = \mathcal{O_k}$ $$\displaystyle h_{\text{fal}}(A) = \sum_{\text{irr} \hspace{1 mm}\rho: ...
0
votes
1answer
134 views

Pruning primitive sequences but still attaining Pillai's lower bound on sum of reciprocals

Background: The answer to a previous question I asked here specified a construction to achieve Pillai's bound on reciprocal sums of primitive sequences. A primitive sequence ...
6
votes
1answer
470 views

Is $n=6$ the only integer satisfies ${\sigma}_x(n) \equiv 0\bmod{n}$ for every odd integer $x > 0$ and $2 (\bmod n)$ if $x$ is even integer?

After a few computations in wolfram alpha about the divisor function for some values of $n$ to look the behavior of $\sigma_x(n)\bmod n$ for $\,n=6,\,$ i got this result : $\sigma_x(6)=0 \bmod 6$ for ...
7
votes
0answers
341 views

Lemma in Scholze-Weinstein

In the paper "Moduli of $p$-divisible groups" by Scholze and Weinstein (see http://math.bu.edu/people/jsweinst/Moduli/Moduli.pdf), one finds the following claim in Lemma 5.2.7: Lemma: Let $K$ be a ...
4
votes
1answer
177 views

Well-spacing of the roots of a quadratic congruence

On pages 956-957 of this paper, it is established that for any two $v_1, v_2$ satisfying $v_1^2 + 1 \equiv 0\operatorname{(mod} d_1), v_2^2 + 1\equiv 0\operatorname{(mod} d_2)$, $$\left\lVert ...
5
votes
0answers
211 views

Showing the positivity of $p$-adic density of zeroes of a polynomial

Let $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ and $p$ be a prime. Let $\nu_t(p)$ denote the number of solutions $\mathbf{x} \in ((\mathbb{Z}/p^t \mathbb{Z}))^*)^n$ to the congruence $$ f( \mathbf{x} ) ...
7
votes
0answers
205 views

Quadratic twists of 1-motives

Quadratic twists of elliptic curves (or, more generally, abelian varieties) are familiar objects in arithmetic geometry. I would like to extend that definition to the category of 1-motives over global ...
0
votes
0answers
119 views

Deeply ramified implies non discrete valuation - Almost ring theory

In their book "Almost Ring Theory" (http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0201175), Ofer Gabber and Lorenzo Ramero define a valued field $K$ to be "deeply ramified" if the module of Kähler differentials ...
4
votes
1answer
114 views

Superadditivity of the lower density

Let $\mu^\star$ be a real-valued function defined on the power set of the positive integers $\mathbf{N}^+$ such that for all $X,Y\subseteq \mathbf{N}^+$ the following axioms hold: (F1) ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Generalization of a theorem of Mahler to higher dimensions

A seminal theorem of Kurt Mahler, in his papers Zur Approximation algebraischer Zahlen. I-III., is the following: Let $F(x,y) \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ be a binary form of degree $d \geq 3$ and non-zero ...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

On mid common divisor

Given $a,b\in\Bbb N$ of $n$ bits each and $c,d\in\Bbb N$ of $m$ bits each with $\frac{n}\beta<m<n$ with $\beta>1$ is there a better way to decide if $\exists e\in[c,d]\cap\Bbb N$ such that ...
7
votes
1answer
333 views

On (a generalization of) the Gauss Circle Problem

Most (if not all) references I read about the Gauss Circle Problem that proves a bound below $O(R^{2/3})$ reduces the GCP to the Dirichlet Divisor Problem by the well known expression of $r_2(n)$, the ...
1
vote
1answer
163 views

Reduced resultant of monic polynomials

Let $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ be coprime monic polynomials in $\mathbf{Z}[X]$ of positive degrees $m$ and $n$ respectively. It seems that in this case their reduced resultant can be obtained from the ...
2
votes
2answers
317 views

Is $\liminf \frac{\sigma_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}{\phi_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}$ finite for every $k$?

I would like to check if this limit :$$\liminf \frac{\sigma_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}{\phi_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}$$ finite for every $k$? where :$\phi_{k}$ is iterating Euler - totient function ...
0
votes
1answer
396 views

The $\zeta-$word [closed]

I was wondering about classical notations in number theory. I will not ask here about special functions in general but about the more ubiquitous number theory functions. That which made me wonder ...