Prime numbers, diophantine equations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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183 views

Implicit constant in Tenenbaum's result

In his famous book 'Introduction to Analytic and Probabilistic Number Theory', Gérald Tenenbaum established the following result (Theorem III.3.5): Let $g$ be a positive multiplicative function and ...
15
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1answer
312 views

Combinatorics problem about sum of natural numbers

Following combinatorics problem is claimed to be an open problem in "The Princeton Companion to Mathematics" (pp. 6) Let $a_1,a_2,a_3,...$ be a sequence of positive integers, and suppose that each ...
1
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0answers
95 views

Ramanujan sum type

I try to show $$\sum _{k=1}^{\infty } \frac{e^{-2 k} k}{e^{-2 k}+1}=\frac{\pi ^2}{48}-\frac{\pi ^2-6 \left(\psi _{e^{\frac{\pi ^2}{2}}}^{(1)}(1)+\psi _{e^{\frac{\pi ^2}{2}}}^{(1)}\left(\frac{-2 i+\pi ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

On attempting a proof for $r > 1$, if $M = {2^r}{b^2}$ is an even almost perfect number which is not a power of two

(Preamble: I first thought that this question might be more appropriate for MSE. However, I posted it here nonetheless in the hope that someone with that brilliant idea can help with answering my ...
6
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0answers
115 views

Is every Polish ring topology on $\mathbb{C}$ defined by an absolute value?

There is a unique up to isomorphism algebraically closed field of characteristic 0 and cardinality of the continuum. Let's call it $K$. We usually call it $\mathbb{C}$, but by this we impose a ...
1
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1answer
243 views

Is this function $\mathbb{Q}$ periodic?

Considering a function $f$ exponentially decreasing at infinity, is the following function $\mathbb{Q}$ periodic ? $$F(x)= \sum\limits_{q =1}^{\infty} \; \sum\limits_{n =1}^{\infty} \; ...
9
votes
2answers
292 views

Neron models and ramification

I encountered this result while reading a few things, and it was stated without reference. I am having a hard time finding a reference for it (or a simple proof), so maybe you can help me: let $E$ be ...
1
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1answer
331 views

Integer Polynomial solutions to functional equation

Recently I came across a functional equation which always has a polynomial with integer coefficients solution. Let $$ L_n(x)=(2 x+1)^2f(x+1)-4x(x+n+1)f(x)-((2 n+1)!!)^2\prod_{i=1}^n(x+i). $$ Problem: ...
5
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2answers
831 views

The number of prime factors of a natural number

It seems to be true that OEIS sequences A001222 and A257091 are closely related. First one is the number of prime divisors of n counted with multiplicity. The second one is the logarithms to the base ...
3
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1answer
182 views

Connected-étale sequence for ordinary CM elliptic curves

Let $E/k$ be an elliptic curve over algebraically closed field of characteristic $p$ with CM, for simplicity, by the maximal order of a quadratic imaginary field $K/\mathbb{Q}$. Suppose that $p$ is ...
3
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0answers
58 views

Can we express the degree 10 and degree 15 Galois resolvents of sextic binary forms in terms of its basic invariants?

Let $V_6$ denote the 7 dimensional $\mathbb{C}$-vector space of binary sextic forms. For $T = \begin{pmatrix} t_1 & t_2 \\ t_3 & t_4 \end{pmatrix} \in \operatorname{GL}_2(\mathbb{C})$, $T$ ...
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2answers
241 views

Is the singular integral that come up in circle method independnet of the representatin of the equations?

Let $F_1(\mathbf{x}), F_2(\mathbf{x}) \in \mathbb{Z}[x_1, ..., x_n]$ be a degree $d$ homogeneous polynomial. For the system of equations $$F_1(\mathbf{x})= F_2(\mathbf{x}) =0,$$ we have the ...
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0answers
112 views

Class field theory, Ideles class

Let $H$ be a totally complex Galois extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ and $g:G_H \rightarrow \bar{\mathbb{Q}}_p$ be a continuous morphism. By class field thoery we have $\mathrm{Hom}(G_H, ...
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1answer
222 views

On $\eta(6z)\eta(18z)$ and the splitting / modularity of $x^3 - 2$

Consider one of the simplest non-abelian examples of modularity. Let $$\eta(6z)\eta(18z) = q\prod_{n=1}^\infty (1 - q^{6n})(1 - q^{18n}) = q - q^7 - q^{13} -q^{19} + q^{25} + 2q^{31} - q^{37} + ...
1
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1answer
151 views

A number theory problem related to graph spectra?

Let $p$ be a prime number. Is there any $n$ such that $2^n-1=p^2$? In general is there any n such that $2^n-1=p^k$ for some integer $k$? If there isn't, Is there any proof for that?
5
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1answer
118 views

Showing the positivity of a singular integral that came up in circle method

Let $F(\mathbf{x}) \in \mathbb{Z}[x_1, ..., x_n]$ be a degree $d$ homogeneous form. Let $$ I(\alpha) = \int_{[0,1]^n} e^{2 \pi i F(\mathbf{x}) \alpha} dx_1...dx_n. $$ Then the singular integral is ...
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1answer
160 views

Do arbitrary $K$-twin primes exist?

Polignac's conjecture states that for any positive even integer $K$, there exist infinitely many pairs of primes such that their difference is $K$. I am interested the status in a much weaker form of ...
4
votes
3answers
653 views

Hypersurface missing just one point

Let $\mathbb F_q$ be a finite field and $n$ an integer. What is the minimal degree $d = d(q,n)$ of a polynomial $f \in \mathbb F_q[X_1,\dots,X_n]$ such that the set $Z(f)$ of zeros of $f$ in the ...
7
votes
2answers
184 views

Obstruction to rationality of del Pezzo surfaces of degree 4

Let $X$ be a del Pezzo surface over a number field $k$. (A del Pezzo surface over $k$ is a smooth, projective, geometrically connected surface whose anti-canonical class $K_X$ is ample.) Let $d := ...
16
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1answer
1k views

Distinctness of products of Fibonacci numbers

Suppose that $S$ and $T$ are sets of Fibonacci numbers greater than $1$. Let $S^*$ be the product of numbers in $S$, and likewise for $T^*$. If $S^*=T^*$, must $S=T$?
5
votes
2answers
360 views

BSD and generalisation of Gross-Zagier formula

The classical Gross-Zagier formula and the modularity theorem leads to a proof of half-BSD (i.e. an inequality and not equality) for elliptic curves of analytic rank 0. The Gross-Zagier formula gives ...
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0answers
100 views

Simple congruence problem

In a paper the author makes a statement which, I think, can only be true if the following holds for all $a,b,m\in\mathbb N$: If $ab\equiv 1\mod(m^2\ )$, then $a\equiv b\mod (m)$. Can somebody tell ...
3
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1answer
182 views

Non-vanishing of L-function of modular form

There is a theorem by Langlands and Shalika (link) that the L-function of a cuspidal automorphic representation does not vanish on the line $\mathrm{Re}( s)=1$ (in their normalization which might be ...
2
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3answers
325 views

Primes in arithmetic progressions in number fields

My general question is how does one prove equi-distribution results for primes in arithmetic progressions in number fields? I am interested in the equi-distribution of prime elements of the ring of ...
4
votes
0answers
114 views

Special fibre of Shimura curves over totally real number fields

The works of Katz-Mazur and Deligne-Rapoport provide a description of an integral model of classical modular curves like X(N), X_0(N) and various variants of X_1(N). In particular, if p is a prime ...
9
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2answers
531 views

Number of polynomials whose Galois group is a subgroup of the alternating group

Let $f = x^n + a_{n-1}x^n + \cdots + a_0$ be a monic polynomial of degree $n \geq 2$ with integer coefficients. By $\text{Gal}(f)$ we mean the Galois group over $\mathbb{Q}$ of the Galois closure of ...
10
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0answers
695 views

Is it worth the efforts to read books/papers written in Weil's algebraic geometry language

There is much important work written in Weil's language of algebraic geometry rather than schemes (besides Weil himself, I can think of Shimura, Neron immediately). My question is: is it worth the ...
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0answers
74 views

Iwasawa lambda Invariant for CM type fields

In the following I will follow the notations as in Chapter $11$, section $3$ of the book 'Cohomology of number fields' by Neukirch and others. Let $k_{\infty}$ be a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension of a ...
2
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1answer
108 views

On the construction of a certain sequence of integers

Let $\alpha \in \mathbb{R}$ be a fixed (positive) number. For each $k \in \mathbb{N}$ we choose $\varepsilon_k >0$ with the property that $\lim_k \varepsilon_k =0$. If $\alpha \in \mathbb{R} ...
4
votes
2answers
697 views

Divergent Series as a topic of research

About a year ago, while studying real analysis, I got very much interested in divergent series. I discussed possible research topics related to divergent series with my teachers but couldn't find any. ...
10
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1answer
447 views

What is the motivation behind Ramanujan's conjecture?

One motivation I have seen given for Ramanujan's conjecture for the estimate $$ |a_p|< C p^{k - \frac{1}{2}} $$ for the Fourier coefficients of a cusp form of weight $2k$ is that it allows one to ...
2
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0answers
115 views

$f(x)$-th largest number of prime factors

Given a sufficiently well-behaved function $1\le f(x)\le x$ and a multiset $S=\{\omega(n): 1\le n\le x\}$, what can be said about the asymptotics of the $f(x)$-th largest member of $S$? In other ...
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0answers
130 views

On the cardinality of the set of right-truncatable primes

We say that the (base ten) prime number $p=a_{n}a_{n-1}a_{n-2}\cdots a_{1}a_{0}$ is right-truncatable if all of the following numbers are prime: \begin{eqnarray*}a_{n},\\a_{n}a_{n-1},\\ ...
7
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1answer
219 views

Integral representation of adjoint L-factor for GL(2)

My question is about a local computation in the paper of Gelbart and Jacquet, "A relation between automorphic representations of GL2 and GL3", from 1978. Let $\sigma$ be an irreducible smooth complex ...
5
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0answers
103 views

Choice of digits for extensions of $\mathbb{Q}_p$

I am interested in writing (in base $p$) elements of the maximal unramified extension $\mathbb{Q}_p^{\mathrm{unr}}$ of $\mathbb{Q}_p$, or (its completion) the field ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

Approximation of real numbers [closed]

Is there any function $f(x)$, such that for all real $\alpha$ and rational $p/q$ $$\left|\alpha-\frac{p}{q}\right|>\frac{1}{f(q)}.$$ or at least ...
1
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0answers
74 views

Why is the kernel of an algebraic Hecke character open in the ideles?

I've been reading about algebraic Hecke characters, and how one obtains one dimensional $p$-adic representations from them. I have a question about why the kernel of a map defined on the ideles is ...
21
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0answers
224 views

Does every ring of integers sit inside a monogenic ring of integers?

Given a number field $K/\mathbf{Q}$ whose ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ is, in general, not of the form $\mathbf{Z}[\alpha]$ (not monogenic), does there exist an extension $L/K$ which has ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Distribution of decomposition types of primes in non-Galois extensions of number fields

Let $L/K$ be an extension of number fields. If $p$ is a prime of $K$ that is unramified in $L/K$ and $(f_1, \dots, f_r)$ is a partition of $n = [L:K]$, say that $p$ has "decomposition type" $(f_1, ...
5
votes
2answers
591 views

Langlands program vs Shimura-Taniyama-Weil conjecture

Edward Frenkel said that "we can see Langlands program as a generalization of Shimura-Taniyama-Weil conjecture in the case of elliptic curves" I hope I'm not distorting his phrase, can someone ...
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0answers
146 views

What is the ring of integers in $\mathbb Q^c\otimes_K K_\mathfrak p$? [closed]

Let $K$ be a number field with ring of integers $\mathcal O_K$ and $\mathfrak p$ a prime of $K$. Let $\mathbb Q^c$ be the algebraic closure of $\mathbb Q$ in $\mathbb C$. If $L$ is a number field ...
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0answers
99 views

$z^n-t^m=x^3+y^3$ and Vojta's more general abc conjecture

In A more general abc conjecture, p. 7 Paul Vojta conjectures: If $x_0,\ldots x_{n-1}$ are nonzero coprime integers satisfing $x_0 + \cdots x_{n-1}=0$ $$ \max\{|x_0|,\ldots |x_{n-1}|\} \le C ...
5
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1answer
240 views

Average size of $p$-part of the Tate-Shafarevich group for elliptic curves

Let $E/\mathbb{Q}$ be an elliptic curve defined over $\mathbb{Q}$. For a given prime $p$, the $p$-Selmer group $\operatorname{Sel}_p(E)$ of $E$ and the $p$-part of the Tate-Shafarevich $Ш_E[p]$ group ...
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1answer
90 views

The exponential Diophantine equation $a^n-b^m=x^3+y^3$ for arbitrary large $n,m$

Let $a,b$ be coprime integers, neither a perfect power, $n,m$ naturals and $x,y$ integers. Consider the exponential Diophantine equation $$ a^n-b^m=x^3+y^3 \qquad (*) $$ Nontrivial solution ...
3
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1answer
143 views

4-th order diophantine equation

I met in many places the equation $(a^4-b^4)(c^4-d^4)=\square$ It is well known that this was investigated by Euler. But I was unable to find the general solution of this equation. Could you please ...
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58 views

General Solution of Quadratic Diophantine Equation System

I am looking for the general solution of: $x^2-y^2=\square$ $x^2-z^2=\square$ $y^2-z^2=\square$ I have found a solution in tpiezas site. But not really sure if this is the general solution.
1
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1answer
93 views

Is it possible to have an even superperfect number and an odd superperfect number whose product is an almost perfect number?

A number $n \in \mathbb{N}$ is said to be superperfect if $$\sigma(\sigma(n)) = 2n.$$ A number $m \in \mathbb{N}$ is said to be almost perfect if $$\sigma(m) = 2m - 1.$$ Here is my question: Is ...
1
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1answer
91 views

Formula for negative polylogarithms

Theorem. We have that $\displaystyle \underbrace{x\left(\dfrac{d}{dx}\left(\cdots x \left(\dfrac{d}{dx} \left( \dfrac{x}{1-x}\right)\right)\cdots\right)\right)}_{\text{$x \frac{d}{dx}$ $m$ ...
3
votes
1answer
174 views

Find a subset such that its sum is divisible by $n$

It is said that the following proposition is true. $\forall S \subset \mathbb{Z}, |S| = 2n-1.\ \exists A \subset S, |A| = n$ which satisfies $$ n \ | \ \sum_{a \in A}a. $$ Could someone gives a ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

Is there a bijection $f: N \times N \rightarrow U \subset N$ with $f(x,y)+f(u,v)=f(x+u,y+v)$ and $f(x,y) \cdot f(u,v)=f(x \cdot u, y \cdot v)$?

Is there a subset of natural numbers that has the same additive and multiplicative structure as the set of ordered pairs of natural numbers under the classical operations of addition and ...