Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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0
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65 views

Is this factoring algorithm sufficiently efficient for some integers of special kind?

Basically the question is if $m$ is factored over the integers, can it be relatively efficiently factored over $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{n}]$ where $n$ is not factored, but might be of special form? Suppose ...
4
votes
0answers
86 views

Integer sum of distinct reciprocals with no integer subset sum

Question $\def\nn{\mathbb{N}}$ For any $n \in \nn^+$, is there a finite set $S \subset \nn^+$ such that $\sum_{k \in S} \frac{1}{k} = n$ but $\sum_{k \in T} \frac{1}{k} \notin \nn^+$ for any $T ...
6
votes
1answer
237 views

Definition of p-adic modular forms

I have been reading Hida's book "p-Adic automorphism forms on Shimura varieties" and I don't understand a point. He first describes p-adic modular forms of tame level N as functions on the Igusa ...
2
votes
1answer
293 views

Quadratic Diophantine equation in $\mathbb Z[T]$

I am trying to solve the following quadratic diophantine equation in $\mathbb Z[T]$: $$((T+1)X+TY-1-Z)((T+1)X+TY-1+Z)=24XY$$ One has the following trivial solutions: $(X,Y,Z)=(0,Y,\pm(1-TY))$, ...
6
votes
1answer
202 views

A question about $(0,1]$-valued multiplicative functions

Suppose $f:\mathbb{N}\to [0,1]$ is a multiplicative function (i.e. $f(nm)=f(n)f(m)$ whenever $m$ and $n$ are coprime). Suppose $f$ has non-zero mean, which means $$ \lim_{N\to\infty}\frac{1}{N} ...
2
votes
2answers
171 views

Does the Divisor Function $\sigma(n)$ have analogues for other Fuchsian groups?

I have been reading about the divisor function $\sigma = 1 \ast 1$ and proved an elementary identity: $$ \Big[\sum_{d|n} \sigma_0(d)\Big]^2 = \sum_{d|n} \sigma_0(d)^3$$ Here $\sigma_0 = \sum_{d|n} ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

Unique extension of the absolute value

Let $(K,u)$ be a complete valued field, $u$ be its discrete absolute value (corresponds to a discrete valuation on $K$), then: ($\ast)$ Let $E/K$ is a finite separable field extension, then the ...
5
votes
1answer
182 views

Hyperelliptic curves with fixed genus and many rational points

It is a famous theorem of Faltings, previously a conjecture by Mordell, that any algebraic curve of genus at least $2$ defined over the rational numbers have at most finitely many rational points. A ...
2
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0answers
239 views

A variant frobenius problem

From Sylvester's theorem we know that using only coins of sizes $a,b$, we can change exactly $\frac{(a-1)(b-1)}2$ different big coins up to $(a-1)(b-1)$. Denote sets ...
4
votes
2answers
111 views

Expected Cardinality of the First n Coefficients of a Continued Fraction

Is there anything known about the asymptotic expected growth of $card\{a_0,a_1,...,a_n\}$, where the $a_i$ are the first $n$ coefficient of a continued fraction $[a_0; a_1, ... ]$?
4
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0answers
134 views

For which rings $A$ is $A-\{0\}$ Diophantine over $A$?

Let $A$ be a commutative ring. Recall that we call $S\subset A$ a Diophantine subset of $A$ if there exists a polynomial $P(t;x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ with coefficients in $A$ such that: $$ t_0 \in S ~~ ...
3
votes
1answer
224 views

On Heath-Brown's “Prime twins and Siegel zeros”

With a graduate student, I'm going through the paper (Proc. London Math. Soc. (3) 47 (1983), no. 2, 193–224.) We are quite baffled by the proof of Lemma 3 on p. 198. Here's the background and ...
6
votes
0answers
166 views

Criteria for irreducibility using the location of complex roots

I would like to see criteria for the irreducibility of a polynomial over $\mathbb{Z}$ based (mainly) on the location of the roots of the polynomial in the complex plane. An example of such a criterion ...
2
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1answer
178 views

Finite sequences which happen to be the sequence of orders of elements of a simple group

Let $n\in \Bbb N$. Any finite group $G$ with $|G|=n$ has a solution for the Diophantine equation $$\sum_{d|n}x_d\phi(d)=n~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(1)$$ where $\phi$ is the Euler's totient function, $d$ ...
-4
votes
1answer
180 views

Gauss-Wantzel theorem, Fermat primes and solvability of S_n [closed]

Gauss-Wantzel theorem asserts that a polygon with $n$ sides is constructible if and only if $n$ is a product of a power of $2$ and distinct prime Fermat numbers, where the Fermat number of index $k$ ...
4
votes
0answers
111 views

Additivity of upper densities with respect to arithmetic progressions of integers

Let $\mathsf{d}^\star$ be the asymptotic upper density, defined on the power set of positive integers $\mathbf{N}^+$, so that $$ \mathsf{d}^\star\colon \mathcal{P}(\mathbf{N}^+) \to\mathbf{R}\colon ...
3
votes
1answer
247 views

Bateman-Horn conjecture, continued

In this question, we needed to compute the Hardy-Littlewood constant for the Bateman-Horn conjecture. Is there a simple argument to show that the infinite product actually converges? Also, is there a ...
3
votes
2answers
260 views

Is it normal surface of general type to have infinitely many positive rank elliptic curves?

Cross-posted from MSE. I am not good at algebraic geometry and almost surely am misunderstanding something. Got an alleged argument against Bombieri-Lang conjecture and would like to know what the ...
1
vote
0answers
83 views

Question about expression of a sum of two Hecke eigenvalues

I did some computations but I am stuck in finding the exression of the sum $$\lambda_f(n^2)+\lambda_f(n)^2 $$ in terms of $\lambda_f(n),$ where $f$ is a modular form for the full modular group. Any ...
5
votes
2answers
320 views

Finding the inertia group

Set $h(x) = x^5+x^4+x^3+x^2+x-1$, let $L$ be the splitting field of $h$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, and let $p$ be a prime of $L$ lying over $2$. What is the isomorphism class of the inertia group $I_p$, ...
3
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0answers
153 views

The sum of greatest common divisors

Let $$ G_n=\sum_{i=1}^n\sum_{j=1}^n \gcd(i,j). $$ What is the asymptotics of $G_n$? (As much of it as it's known to date, preferably.)
6
votes
0answers
173 views

The p-adic valuation of a linear recurrence

Let $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ be an integer-valued linear recurrence of order $k \geq 1$. Precisely, $$u_n = a_1 u_{n-1} + \cdots + a_k u_{n - k} \quad \forall n \geq k ,$$ for some $a_1, \ldots, a_k \in ...
2
votes
4answers
276 views

Prime divisors of values of a polynomial on an infinite set

This may be a well known problem: Let $f$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients. Is it possible for the set of prime divisors of values of $f$ on an infinite set of integers, to be finite? I ...
1
vote
1answer
182 views

Will a tilting sheaf over Z which is a generator over Q be a generator modulo every prime?

Assume you have a smooth quasi-projective scheme $X$ (you can actually assume $X$ is projective over an affine scheme of finite type) defined over $\mathbb Z$ (or if you prefer, a discrete valuation ...
4
votes
0answers
235 views

Motivic fundamental group of the moduli space of curves?

Suppose I have a smooth projective family of varieties of varieties over $\mathcal M_g$ - i.e. a universal functor, commuting with deformations, from curves to smooth projective varieties. Can I ...
17
votes
0answers
394 views

Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief:   When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that $$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$ gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...
2
votes
0answers
130 views

Table of LCM's vs. table of products

In 2004 Kevin Ford established sharp asymptotics on Erdős' problem on the number of different products $a\cdot b$, $a,b\in \{1,\dots,n\}$. (http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0401223, see also discussion ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

Discussion for the sign of a specific sum

Given a modular form $f$ of an even weight $k$ for the full modular group. Let $\lambda_f(n)$ the $n$-th normalized Fourier coefficient of $f.$ For a fixed positive integers $a$ and $b,$ I want to ...
4
votes
1answer
363 views

Unexpectedly prime rich cubic polynomial

We got a cubic polynomial which is unexpectedly prime rich. Let $f(x)=29160 x^3 + 30132 x^2 + 8046 x + 643$ and $\pi_f(n)$ the number of primes values of $f(x)$ for $x \in [1,n]$. Let ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Values of the Kronecker symbol of recursvie sequences

Is there something known about the values of the Kronecker symbol $\left(\frac{a_n}{a_{n+1}}\right)$ if $a_n$ is a recursive sequence? I know something about this if $a_n$ is the Fibonacci sequence or ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Expression of a sum of Hecke eigenvalues in terms of one Hecke eigenvalue

Let $f$ be a modular form of an even weight $k$ over the modular group $SL_2(Z).$ Denote $\lambda_f(n)$ the $n$-th normalized Fourier coefficient of $f.$ I am doing some calculations and I am stack in ...
4
votes
0answers
137 views

Expressing every algebraic number using roots of trinomials?

This question is a continuation of Is every polynomial a factor of a trinomial? We say that $T(X) \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ is a trinomial if there exist $A,B,C \in \mathbb{Q}$ such that $T(X) = AX^n + BX^m ...
2
votes
0answers
142 views

Help for reference of moduli stack of fake elliptic curve

I see everywhere says the following: Let $B$ be an indefinite quaternion algebra over $\mathbb{Q}$ of discriminant $D$, $\mathcal{O}_B$ be a maximal order, $N$ be an positive integer coprime to $D$. ...
8
votes
2answers
364 views

Inverse Galois problem for $GL_2$ of a compact local ring

Let $A$ be complete noetherian local ring with maximal ideal $m$ and residue field $A/m$ a finite field (in other words, $A$ is a noetherian compact local ring) For which $A$ as above is there a ...
5
votes
1answer
377 views

Is every polynomial a factor of a trinomial?

We say that $T(X) \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ is a trinomial if there exist $A,B,C \in \mathbb{Q}$ such that $T(X) = AX^n + BX^m + C$ for some $n \geq m \in \mathbb{N}$. Is it true that for each ...
6
votes
2answers
329 views

How simple does a $\mathbb{Q}$-simple group remain after base change to $\mathbb{Q}_{\ell}$?

Of course the general answer to the question in the title is: not very simple. I could not think of a better title, so let me explain my question in more detail. I have a number field $E/\mathbb{Q}$, ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Polynomial identities for congruent numbers and Bunyakovsky's conjecture

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that polynomial with integer coefficients takes infinitely many prime values unless there are obvious reasons not to. It appears to imply something about polynomial ...
10
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0answers
338 views

Between Fermat's primes and the twin primes

Let me start with a curiosity. The integers $11,13,17,19$ are prime numbers, and $101,103,107,109$ are prime as well. One might wonder whether there is another occurrence where $10^m+1,10^m+3,10^m+7$ ...
4
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0answers
174 views

On $a+b+c= abc = n$, elliptic curves, and solvable Galois groups

Solving $a+b+c = abc = 6$ in the rationals entails solving, $$-24a+36a^2-12a^3+a^4=z^2\tag1$$ which is birationally equivalent to an elliptic curve. It can be shown that if $a$ is a solution, then ...
0
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0answers
105 views

Representation as sum of squares

Given $N\in\Bbb N$ such that $\prod_{i=1}^mp_i=N$ with $p_i$ being similar sized primes such that $p_i\neq p_j$ if $i\neq j$ where $m\in[1,\log\log N]$, consider ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Relation between $\Gamma$-percuspidal parabolic subgroups and split parabolic subgroups of real semisimple Lie groups

Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group defined over $\mathbb{Q}$. Let $\Gamma$ be a lattice in $\mathcal{G}:= G(\mathbb{R})$. I am interested in knowing under what conditions on either of ...
1
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0answers
97 views

In how many ways can one extend the zero section of the affine line with a double origin

Let $X$ be the affine line with a double origin over Spec $\mathbb Z$. Let $X_\eta$ be its generic fibre, the affine line with a double origin over Spec $\mathbb Q$. Let $0$ be one of the origins of ...
5
votes
0answers
106 views

Minimal possible cardinality of a $(a_1, …, a_k)$-distributable multiset

Suppose we have a multiset $M$ of positive rational numbers. Sum of $M$ equals $1$. We'll call this multiset $n$-distributable for some $n\in \mathbb{N}$, if there exists a partition $M_1 \sqcup ... ...
1
vote
1answer
153 views

Central binomials and irrationals

I suppose this is une cause perdue, but it would be nice if the following held. Let $\theta$ be an irrational, and let $c_m = {{2m}\choose m}$, the central binomial. For a real number, and let $d(r)$ ...
12
votes
2answers
490 views

Explicit Chebotarev and Langlands - irreducibility of X^5-X-1 mod primes

Is there an explicit infinite set of primes, modulo which $X^5 - X - 1$ is irreducible? Since our polynomial's Galois group over $\mathbb{Q}$ is $S_5$, Chebotarev's density theorem implies that ...
3
votes
2answers
448 views

Fermat's Last Theorem “$\pm k$”

Let $\mathbb{N}=\{1,2,3,\ldots\}$ be the set of positive integers. For $n,k\in\mathbb{N}$ we define $$\text{Sol}(n,k) = \{(a,b,c)\in \mathbb{N}^3: |a^n + b^n - c^n| \leq k\}.$$ (The set ...
0
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0answers
81 views

Explicit formula for the product of three Hecke eigenvalues

I am interested in Hecke eigenvalues $\lambda_f(n)$ which are normalized Fourier coefficients of modular forms of an even weight $k$ for the full modular group. I often know that these coefficients ...
1
vote
1answer
422 views

Partitioning $2p$, subject to a divisibility condition.

Let $p$ be a prime number and $l$ be the greatest prime number less than $2p$. Moreover, let $m,t_i<p$ be positive integer numbers such that $\sum_{i=1}^mit_i=2p$. Is it possible that ...
0
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0answers
62 views

Exists $n$ where multisets of nonzero digits of $n$, $2n$, …, $2000n$ are equal?

As the question title suggests, does there exist a positive integer $n$ such that the multisets of nonzero digits of each of the numbers $n$, $2n$, ..., $2000n$ are equal?
9
votes
3answers
458 views

Product of a Finite Number of Matrices Related to Roots of Unity

Does anyone have an idea how to prove the following identity? $$ \mathop{\mathrm{Tr}}\left(\prod_{j=0}^{n-1}\begin{pmatrix} x^{-2j} & -x^{2j+1} \\ 1 & 0 \end{pmatrix}\right)= \begin{cases} ...