Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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2
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1answer
66 views

Any way to prove Prime Number Theorem using Hyperbolic Geometry?

The prime number theorem says that the density of prime numbers is inverse as the number of digits of $n$: $$\displaystyle \frac{\{1 \leq k \leq n : \text{ prime } \}}{n} \approx \frac{1}{\log n}$$ ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Prime divisors of $p^n+1$

Let $p$ be a rational prime and $n$ be a positive integer. It can be easily deduced from Zsigmondy's theorem that $p^n+1$ has a prime divisor greater than $2n$ except when $(p,n)=(2,3)$ or ...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

Over which fields is a $G$-module reducible?

I have asked this question at math.stackexchange, but have not received an answer so far. Also, I'm not entirely sure that this is a suitable question for mathoverflow... See this link for the ...
13
votes
2answers
325 views

Number of elements of “$\mathrm{SL}_n(\mathbb{F}_p^\times)$” mod $p$

How many elements of $\mathrm{SL}_n(\mathbb{F}_p)$ have all nonzero entries? Just the answer mod $p$ would be fine as well. This seems like it should be easy/in the literature but I couldn't find it.
0
votes
0answers
79 views

$\zeta$ function for ambiguous class group

Let $K$ be a Galoisian number field with ring of integers $O_K$. I consider $\zeta_{A,K}(s)$ the function defined by $$\zeta_{A,K}(s)=\prod_{\substack{p\in\mathbb N\\p\text{ ...
5
votes
1answer
284 views

Ruth-Aaron triples, etc

A Ruth-Aaron pair is two numbers $(n,n+1)$ such that their sum of prime factors is equal, counting repeated prime factors. (The name refers to Hank Aaron's 715 homeruns surpassing Babe Ruth's 714!) So ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

Chebyshev polynomials factoring uniformly modulo all primes

Consider the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind $T_n(x)$ and its factorization in $\mathbb F_p$ for a given prime $p$. Most often, this factorization is not uniform (meaning that the irreducible ...
7
votes
1answer
329 views

Tate's thesis for Artin L-functions

As far as I know, Tate's thesis has been successfully applied in two fronts: Hecke L-functions, by Tate and Iwasawa (and Teichmüller, Witt, Schmid) Automorphic L-functions, by Jacquet, Shalika, ...
0
votes
0answers
76 views

Relation between cyclotomic character and fundamental character of level

The question I have is the following: is it true that the $p+1$ exponentiation of the fundamental character of level $2$ gives us the reduction (mod $p$) of the cyclotomic character? For a review of ...
2
votes
3answers
237 views

Growth of $r_{2}(n)$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. From Jacobi's two-square theorem we know that the number $r_{2}(n)$ of representations of $n$ as a sum of two squares is given by $$ r_{2}(n)=4(d_{1}(n)-d_{3}(n)), $$ ...
5
votes
1answer
208 views

what is the intersection of all congruence subgroups of the profinite completion of SL(2,Z)?

Let $\widehat{SL(2,\mathbb{Z})}$ be the profinite completion of $SL(2,\mathbb{Z})$. Let $\Gamma(N)$ denote the typical principal congruence subgroup of $SL(2,\mathbb{Z})$ (ie, all matrices congruent ...
10
votes
1answer
480 views

More elliptic curves for $a^4+b^4+c^4+d^4 = (a+b+c+d)^4$?

(Note: See also the $a^4+b^4+c^4 = 1$ version in this old MSE post.) The equation discussed in a paper by Jacobi and Madden, $$a^4+b^4+c^4+d^4 = (a+b+c+d)^4 = z^4\tag1$$ or equivalently, $$(p-2q + ...
8
votes
1answer
533 views

What is a totient?

In addition to the Euler totient function, there are a great many generalizations and related functions which go by the "totient", usually with some name: Jordan, Lehmer*, Schemmel, Nagell, Alder, ...
10
votes
0answers
244 views

Applications of $p$-adic Hodge theory

I am trying to learn $p$-adic Hodge theory. I found some materials explaining main theorems (or aspects) of the theory. However, I could not find references which explaining how to use the theory. ...
1
vote
1answer
139 views

Bombieri-Vinogradov in short intervals

In 1985 Perelli, Pintz & Salerno proved a short-interval form of the Bombieri-Vinogradov theorem with $\theta \in (7/12, 1]$. Have there been any improvements on this, in particular with the ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

The hypertriangular function of $n$

I'm looking for papers or recent results on the hypertriangular function of $n$: $$H_t(n)= \displaystyle\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^k$$ This is A001923 in the OEIS. I don't have much experience with ...
3
votes
2answers
198 views

Sets of squares representing all squares up to $n^2$

Let $S_n=\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$ be natural numbers up to $n$. Say that a subset $S \subseteq S_n$ square-represents $S_n^2$ if every square $1^2,2^2,\ldots,n^2$ can be represented by adding or subtracting ...
2
votes
1answer
211 views
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Arithmetic functions associated with Hurwitz Zeta function raised to arbitrary complex powers, $\zeta(s,q)^z$ for $q \in \mathbb{N}$?

If $\zeta(s)$ is the Riemann Zeta function, then $\zeta(n)^z$, with $z \in \mathbb{C}$, $\Re(s)>1$, can be represented as $$\zeta(s)^z=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{d_z(n)}{n^{-s}}$$ where $d_z(n)$ ...
7
votes
0answers
346 views

Application of the Riemann hypothesis and the ABC conjecture to independence results

In Old Home Page of Andreas Weiermann Andreas Weiermann has stated the following: Quite recently I submitted a preprint about an application of the Riemann hypothesis and the ABC conjecture to ...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Cardinality of the prime divisor set of a k-power sum

Let $a_{1},\dots,a_{n}$ be positive natural numbers ($n>2$) such that $a_{i}\neq a_{j}$ if $i\neq j$. I want to prove that $$ \left\lvert \left\{ p \text{ prime} \; : \; p \mid \sum_{i=1}^n ...
2
votes
3answers
712 views

Where do Set Theory and Number Theory meet together?

As all know, by absoluteness theorems in Set Theory, most of theorems in number theory are $ZFC$-provable if and only if they are consistent with $ZFC$, it's because of absoluteness of essence of ...
-1
votes
1answer
134 views

Prove that $\sum_{a<n\le b}\{f(n)\}=\frac{1}{2}(b-a)+O(\lambda^{1/3}(b-a)+\lambda^{-1/2})$ [closed]

Let $a,b\in\mathbb{Z}$, and $f\in C^2([a,b])$ such that $|f''(t)|\asymp \lambda$ for $a\le t\le b$. Prove that $$\sum_{a<n\le b}\{f(n)\}=\frac{1}{2}(b-a)+O(\lambda^{1/3}(b-a)+\lambda^{-1/2}).$$ ...
-4
votes
0answers
45 views

Height of a tripod [closed]

I am trying to determine the height of a tripod when the length on the tripod's legs (81") and the distance between the ends that touch the ground are 57" apart. My thought process so far: When the ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

Pathological behavior of Lie algebra under a map of abelian schemes

I am trying to understand Example 7.5/9 from the book "Neron models". There one has a discrete valuation ring $R'$ that is the localization of $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta_p]$ at $p$, so that the absolute ...
5
votes
1answer
161 views

Which criteria for “uniformly splitting” polynomials?

Let $P(x)$ be an irreducible monic polynomial of degree $\ge4$ with integer coefficients. We all know that over a finite field $\mathbb F_p$, $P$ will often split, and I am interested in polynomials ...
5
votes
1answer
139 views

When is $\vartheta(x)>x$? [Skewes number analog]

Let $\vartheta(x)=\sum_{p\le x}\log p$. What is known about the first time $\vartheta(x)>x?$ Bays & Hudson give good upper bounds (slightly improved by Chao & Plymen) on the first crossing ...
0
votes
0answers
110 views

Shimura reciprocity law

I have spent quite some time understanding class fields generated by Kummer extensions and class fields generated by modular forms. Now, I am turning the notch of sophistication a bit to study class ...
1
vote
1answer
348 views

Numerical evidence and argument against Littlewood conjecture

This is joint work with someone. We got numerical evidence and argument against Littlewood conjecture, though mistakes are certainly possible. Littlewood conjecture states that for any two real ...
6
votes
1answer
244 views

abelian $\ell$-adic representations in $\widehat{SL(2,Z)}$

In Grothendieck's Esquisse he claims that the action of $$\text{Gal}(\mathbb Q)\to\text{Out}(\pi_1(M_{1,1})=\text{Out}(\widehat{SL(2,Z)})$$ obtained from the homotopy exact sequence of the étale ...
4
votes
1answer
425 views

Modular forms and “too many symmetries”

How do we interpret Barry Mazur's quote of Modular forms are functions on the complex plane that are inordinately symmetric. They satisfy so many internal symmetries that their mere existence ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Varieties with few monomials and the n-conjecture

The n-conjecture is a generalization of abc and basically says that the if $a_1 + \ldots + a_n=0$, no proper subsum vanishes and $a_i$ are coprime, then the radical of $a_1\cdots a_n$ can't be too ...
7
votes
1answer
197 views

p-adic Stein spaces

The higher cohomology of coherent sheaves vanish on Stein spaces (both complex and p-adic). In the case when the space ($X$) is a curve and we're working in the complex world, this shows that all ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Does the Lehmer quintic parameterize certain minimal polynomials of the $p$th root of unity for infinitely many $p$?

The solvable Emma Lehmer quintic is given by, $$F(y) = y^5 + n^2y^4 - (2n^3 + 6n^2 + 10n + 10)y^3 + (n^4 + 5n^3 + 11n^2 + 15n + 5)y^2 + (n^3 + 4n^2 + 10n + 10)y + 1 = 0$$ with discriminant $D = (7 + ...
5
votes
0answers
497 views

Zeta function double product

Is it possible to write the following double product in terms of the zeta function? \begin{align} &\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}\prod_{j=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1-(p_i\ p_j)^{-s}} \end{align} Extending the ...
7
votes
2answers
309 views

Least supersingular prime

Given an elliptic curve over the rationals, what can one say about the size of the smallest supersingular prime?
11
votes
4answers
574 views

Zeros of the derivative of Riemann's $\xi$-function

The Riemann xi function $\xi(s)$ is defined as $$ \xi(s)=\frac12 s(s-1)\pi^{-s/2}\Gamma(s/2)\zeta(s). $$ It is an entire function whose zeros are precisely those of $\zeta(s)$. Since $\xi$ is real ...
7
votes
2answers
303 views

Numbers with all N-digit prefixes divisible by N

In base 10, the number 3816547290 contains every digit exactly once. When I take the first N digits, that substring is divisible by N. For example, 381 is divisible by 3, 38165 is divisible by 5, etc. ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Short arithmetic progressions in quadratic residues

Let p be a prime number of form 4k+1. I guess that there are c(d) number of 3-terms arithmetic progressions (AP) in the set of quadratic residues modulo p, where c(d) is an integer constant depending ...
-2
votes
2answers
164 views

Time estimate to determine if a number is prime [closed]

How long does it take to verify that a given number is a prime number, as a function of its number of digits, in a personal computer, say? How computationally hard is this?
11
votes
1answer
474 views

Is there a known primitive recursive upper bound on the nth “Zhang prime”

(This question is pure curiosity. Feel free to close it if you feel it is not appropriate for mathoverflow.) In 2013 Zhang showed that there are infinitely many pairs of primes which are less that ...
3
votes
1answer
218 views

“Weight-mondoromy” for open varieties

Suppose that $X/\mathbb{Q}_p$ is a smooth, projective variety, and choose a prime $\ell\neq p$. Then the weight-monodromy conjecture says that the graded pieces $\mathrm{Gr}_k^M$ of the monodromy ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

Special values of Hecke L-function

The Dedekind zeta function for a number field $K$ is defined as $\zeta_K(s)=\sum_{I\subset O_K} (N_{K/\mathbb{Q}}(I))^{-s}$. By attaching a Hecke character $\psi$, we can define ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

How to generate $n$ FP32 rationals s.t. no two distinct k-el. subsets have same sum?

First some Background: I have lots and lots of integer matrices, whose rows are $k$-combinations (without repetitions and sorted) of numbers from the set $S:=\{1,...,n\}$ and needed to be compared ...
3
votes
1answer
249 views

Waring's problem

What is the best known quantitative upper bound for the quantity $G(k)$? I know that it's due to Trevor Wooley and in simplest form states that $\limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{G(k)}{k \log k} \le 1$. ...
3
votes
1answer
198 views

Representation of GL(n, F_p) over F_p, for n small

The question is related to this post Representation theory of the general linear group over a finite prime field However, I am asking for more detailed references for n small, for example, for n=2, ...
0
votes
0answers
89 views

Questions on roots of integral polynomials over $\mathbb{F}_p$

I asked earlier (A question on how polynomials split over $\mathbb{F}_p$ for large primes $p$) on when a polynomial $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ has a small root over $\mathbb{F}_p$, where $p$ is a large ...
11
votes
4answers
454 views

How to calculate the infinite sum of this double series?

I'm calculating this double sum: $$ \sum _{m=1}^{\infty } \sum _{k=0}^{\infty } \frac{(-1)^m}{(2 k+1)^2+m^2} $$ I know the answer is $$ \frac{ \pi \log (2)}{16}-\frac{\pi ^2}{16} $$ which can be ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Does this quaternary quartic form primitively represent infinitely many sufficiently large powers?

Let $g(x,y,z,t)=(x+y+z+t)^4-a h(x,y)$ where $h(x,y) \in \{x^4,xy^3,x^2y^2\}$ and $a$ is integer. Does $g$ represent infinitely many powers $r^n$ with $n > 4$, $x+y+z+t,ah(x,y)$ take distinct ...
24
votes
3answers
733 views

Why do Pell equations appear in Ramanujan's pi formulas?

While answering this MSE question about the Pell equation $x^2-29y^2=1$, I noticed that certain fundamental solutions appeared in Ramanujan's famous pi formula. I. Given the fundamental unit, ...