Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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41 views

Averages over integer points of the sphere

A paper of William Duke sketches a proof that integer points on the sphere are equidistributed. $$ V_N = \{ (x,y,z) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 : x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = N \} $$ Up to reflections across the $x$, $y$ ...
1
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0answers
27 views

Dihedral extension of 2-adic number field

Sorry if the question is too long and maybe elementary. I am reading a paper by Hirotada Naito on "Dihedral extensions of degree 8 over the rational p-adic fields". To generate dihedral extension ...
4
votes
0answers
53 views

Variety acquiring rational point over any quadratic extension

Does there exist a variety $X$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ (or a number field) such that it has no rational points over $\mathbb{Q}$ but acquires points over any quadratic extension $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$? If ...
5
votes
0answers
51 views

Degenerate linear recurrence sequences

Let $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ be a linear recurrence given by $$u_n = a_1 u_{n-1} + \cdots + a_k u_{n-k} \quad \forall n \geq k ,$$ where $u_0, \ldots, u_{k-1}, a_1, \ldots, a_k \in \mathbb{Z}$. We recall ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

dimension of a scheme and degree of an L-function [on hold]

I try to understand correctly the notion of scheme, as Serre in the third volume of his Oeuvres defines zeta and L-functions in this context. What seems interesting to me is that he states a theorem ...
1
vote
0answers
131 views

On Descartes / spoof odd perfect numbers

Descartes, Frenicle, and subsequently Sorli, conjectured that $k = 1$, if $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ is an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form (i.e., $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

How to find integer solution for bilinear transformation? [migrated]

Let y = (ax + b)/(cx + d), where a, b, c, d integer constants, is there any technique to find integer solution of x & y?
4
votes
0answers
73 views

Asymptotics of the multipartition function

Recall that the multipartition function $p_k(n)$ counts the number of $k$-tuples of partitions $\lambda^1,\ldots,\lambda^k$ of numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_k$ with $a_1+\cdots+a_k=n$. It has a generating ...
0
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0answers
99 views

Fermat's Theorem on p = a^2 + b^2 [migrated]

I have read that Fermat predicted that for an odd prime $p$, $p = a^2 + b^2$ iff $p = 1$ mod 4. I heard that such a criterion could be possible for a given integer $n$ like $p = a^2 + n b^2$ ...
1
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0answers
103 views

Experimentation with partial Euler products

Richard Mathar $[1]\& [2]$ shows that \begin{align} &\zeta_{2}(s)\equiv\prod_{\Omega(n)=2}^{}\left(\dfrac{1}{1 - n^{s}}\right)^{-1}=\exp \left(\sum _{k=1}^n \frac{P(k s)^2+P(2 k s)}{2 ...
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0answers
82 views

Combinatorial support set in CRT

Is there a function $g(s)$ such that if there is a set of numbers $\{r_i\}_{i=1}^m$ such that $r_i\bmod p_j\in\{0,1\}$ at every prime in $\{p_j\}_{j=1}^n$ such that $2^t\bmod p_j\neq1$ at every ...
3
votes
0answers
148 views

Primes in integral domains

Let $\mathcal O_{\mathbb K}$ be the ring of integers in a number field $\mathbb K$. It is easy to prove that the number of (non-associated) primes in $\mathcal O_{\mathbb K}$ is infinite. On the other ...
1
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0answers
119 views

Density of numbers whose prime factors all come from a fixed congruence class

Let $q$ be a positive integer greater than one, and let $a$ be an integer such that $\gcd(a,q) = 1$. Define $$D(a,q) = \{n \in \mathbb{N} : p | n \Rightarrow p \equiv a \pmod{q} \}.$$ Do we know the ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Embedding rational simple algebras in the real quaternions [duplicate]

Is there any way to embed a rational division algebra of dimension higher than 4 over its center in the real quaternions ? I think not, but I cannot prove it.
7
votes
1answer
336 views

Regularized sums of Mobius sequence

Do $\lim_{s \rightarrow \infty} \sum_{n \geq 1} \mu(n) e^{-n/s}$ and $\lim_{s \rightarrow \infty} \sum_{n \geq 1} \mu(n) e^{-n^2/s^2}$ both equal $-2$? Experimentally this seems plausible (up through ...
5
votes
1answer
307 views

Group laws in class field theory

In the case of a quadratic imaginary number field one can construct its maximal abelian extension using torsion points of an elliptic curve with complex multiplication by this field. In the case of a ...
6
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1answer
405 views

Adding sets not containing arithmetic progressions of length three by forcing

Consider the following forcing notion: conditions in $\mathbb{P}$ are pairs $(s, N),$ where: 1) $s\in 2^{<\omega}$, 2) $N\in \mathbb{N}$, 3) (by identifying $s$ with a subset of $lh(s)$) $s$ ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

separating parameters in generalized quadratic Gauss sum

The normalized generalized quadratic Gauss sum is defined by $$ G(a,b,c)=\frac{1}{c}\sum_{n=1}^ce\left(\frac{an^2+bn}{c}\right) $$ where $e(x)=\exp(2\pi ix)$. Under what conditions on $c$ can we ...
3
votes
0answers
113 views

Application of Stickelberger's Theorem to Quadratic field

I am trying to understand a proof of the Kronecker-Weber Theorem by Franz Lemmermeyer,[http://arxiv.org/pdf/1108.5671.pdf] in which he uses Stickelberger's Theorem applied to Kummer extensions. I can ...
7
votes
0answers
226 views

Can an abelian variety/Q have no points over Q_sol?

Let $A/\mathbb{Q}$ be an abelian variety. Must there be a finite solvable extension $K/\mathbb{Q}$ such that $A(K)$ is nontrivial? This follows from the conjecture that the maximal ...
-5
votes
0answers
80 views

Prove an equation is always false [closed]

How can I prove an equation is always false? For example: b = b + 1 is false for all values of b. Very simple to see. Now given a more complicated equation, such as: b = sin(sin(b) - .56)) ...
5
votes
1answer
120 views

Symmetry type of non-cohomological automorphic forms

By Katz-Sarnak philosophy a family of $L$-functions would have a symmetry type which would reflect the statistics of $L$-functions, such as low lying zeros and moments. Shin-Templier's paper on ...
5
votes
2answers
541 views

How close to an integer can a polynomial root be?

Suppose I have a polynomial $p(x) = a_n x^n + ... + a_0$ where $a_n, \dots, a_0$ are integers. I would like to show that any root of this polynomial is either an integer or is far from an integer. ...
2
votes
1answer
233 views

Is anything like $\phi(n)>\dfrac n{e^\gamma\log\log n},\ \sigma(n)<e^\gamma n\log\log n$ known/conjectured for the generalizations of these functions?

Is anything like $\dfrac n{\phi(n)}<\dfrac{\sigma(n)}n<e^\gamma\log\log n$ known/conjectured for the generalizations of these functions? Let $n=p_1^{a_1}\cdots p_t^{a_t}$ be the canonical prime ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Find all integers x, y, and z such that 1/x + 1/y = 1/z [migrated]

Characterize all positive integers x, y, and z such that $\frac{1}{x} + \frac{1}{y} = \frac{1}{z}$. For example, $\frac{1}{x+1} + \frac{1}{x(x+1)} = \frac{1}{x}$
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0answers
98 views

Averages of $L(s,\chi)$

Let $(\frac{m}{n})$ denote the usual quadratic Jacobi symbol. What is the abscissa of convergence of the double Dirichlet series ? $$ \sum_{\substack{m,n \in \mathbb{N} \\ \gcd(m,n)=1 \\m,n\equiv 1 ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Q(\sqrt{-l_0}) satisfies Heegner hypothesis for an Elliptic curve of conductor C implies C is a square

Trying to understand the proof of Corollary 2.3 in the following paper, http://arxiv.org/pdf/1312.3884.pdf I would like to be able to justify that the root number of the quadratic twist ...
0
votes
0answers
70 views

Integer points on Elliptic Curves [closed]

It's easy to prove that equation y^2=x(x-a)(x-b) with a and b integer has integer solution, other than (0,0), (a,0) and (b,0), if a and b jointly admits the representation a=(r-s)r (1) b=(r-t)t ...
7
votes
1answer
211 views

Geometric interpretation of Cusps for general groups?

Let $\mathrm{G}$ be a reductive group over a number field $F$, but for simplicity we can think about $\mathrm{G}=\mathrm{GL_n}$ for $n>2$ and $F =\mathbb{Q}$. Then for an automorphic form, ...
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votes
0answers
40 views

Quadratic residue [closed]

P is prime. Prove -1 is a quadratic residue mod p if and only if either p = 2 or else p =1(mod4) I tried using quadratic reciprocity proofs to solve, but am unable to discover the answer.
3
votes
0answers
207 views

The $\ell = p$ case of Ihara's lemma

Let $N \ge 1$ and let $\ell$ and $p$ be primes not dividing $N$. The classical Ihara lemma says that if $Y_1(N, \ell)$ is the modular curve attached to the subgroup $\Gamma_1(N) \cap \Gamma_0(\ell)$, ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

Irrationality of Dedekind zeta values

For Riemann's zeta function, one knows that: $\zeta(2n)$ is irrational (because a rational multiple of $\pi^{2n}$ is) $\zeta(3)$ is irrational (proved by Apéry) and a few other results like "there ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Euler series with milder divergence

Theorema 19 in Euler's memoir "Variae observationes circa series infinitas" says The sum of the reciprocals of the prime numbers is infinitely great but is infinitely times less than the sum of the ...
4
votes
2answers
210 views

Bound on a scaled sum of the Liouville function

Terence Tao has shown see his blog post that $$\left| \sum_{n\leq x} \frac{\mu(n)}{n} \right|\leq 1,$$ for $x$ a positive real number, where $\mu(n)$ is the Möbius function. Let $\lambda(n)$ denote ...
7
votes
2answers
509 views

Most dense subset of numbers that avoids arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions

The famous Green-Tao theorem says that there exist arbitrarily long sequences of primes in arithmetic progression. I am wondering: How dense can a subset $S \subset \mathbb{N}$ be and still avoid ...
0
votes
0answers
113 views

injective homogeneous polynomial functions $p(x,y) \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]:{\mathbb{N}}^2 \to \mathbb{N}$

Related to this question Coefficients of $f(t)=(\sum_{m=0}^{+\infty}e^{2\pi im^4t})(\sum_{m=0}^{+\infty}e^{2 \pi inm^4t})$ I have the following question: What is the set of homogeneous polynomials ...
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0answers
128 views

Coefficients of $f(t)=(\sum_{m=0}^{+\infty}e^{2\pi im^4t})(\sum_{m=0}^{+\infty}e^{2 \pi inm^4t})$

I want to prove that $\forall n \in \mathbb{N}$ at least one of the Fourier coefficients of $f(t)=(\sum_{m=0}^{+\infty}e^{2\pi im^4t})(\sum_{m=0}^{+\infty}e^{2 \pi inm^4t})$ is striclty greater than ...
10
votes
2answers
403 views

What is the Hausdorff dimension of this fractal?

Let $\sum_{i=h}^\infty d_i/b^i $ be the base $b$ representation of $x \geq 0,$ where $b>1$ and the $d_i$ are uniquely determined by the greedy algorithm. For fixed $c>1,$ let $f(x)= ...
1
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0answers
80 views

Best constant for Maier's theorem?

Maier proved that, for fixed $\lambda>1,$ $$ \limsup_{x\to\infty}\frac{\pi(x+\log^\lambda x)-\pi(x)}{\log^{\lambda-1}x}>1 $$ and in particular $$ \limsup_{x\to\infty}\frac{\pi(x+\log^\lambda ...
18
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1answer
596 views

Why would the roots of the generating functions of the number of k-almost primes less than x have negative real parts?

Specifically, I find it appealing to count only squarefree numbers having $k$ prime factors, so I define $$\pi_k(x)=\#\{n\leq x: \omega(n)=k;\mu(n)\neq0 \}$$ and consider the generating functions ...
1
vote
2answers
309 views

Examples that the Fermat-Catalan conjecture does not cover

The Fermat-Catalan conjecture states that there are only finitely many sex-tuples $(a, b, c, d, e, f)$ of positive integers such that (1) $a^d + b^e = c^f$, (2) $\gcd(a, b, c) =1$, (3) ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

Irreducibility of Faulhaber-like Polynomials over $\mathbb Q[x]$

Motivation: Inspired by the famous Faulhaber polynomials $F_k(N)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^Nn^k,$ I decided to study their alternating versions, $\Phi_k(M)=\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^M(-1)^nn^k$. For ...
4
votes
1answer
248 views

Square-free grows as $6n/\pi^2$: $k$-th free?

The asymptotic number of square-free numbers $\le n$ is $Q(n) = 6n/\pi^2 + O(\sqrt{n})$. Because $\zeta(2)=\pi^2/6$, $Q(n) \approx n/\zeta(2)$. OEIS A004709 says that cube-free numbers have ...
3
votes
1answer
257 views

Invertibility of a matrix whose entries are certain binomial coefficients

Let $l$ be a positive integer. Does the matrix $$ M_l \ := \ \left( \binom{l-(2p+1)}{j} \right)_{0\leq p,j \leq[(l-1)/2]} $$ have nonzero determinant?
1
vote
1answer
242 views

Is there a non-tempered representation of U(2)?

I am wondering why the first well known example of non-tempered irreducible admissible representation of $p$-adic group $U(n)$ should be $U(3)$. Because, Gelbart and Rogawski suggested the ...
9
votes
2answers
811 views

What is $\sum_{i=0}^{n}\binom{n}{i}^3$?

We know that $$\sum_{i=0}^{n}\binom{n}{i}=2^n$$ and that $$\sum_{i=0}^{n}\binom{n}{i}^2= \binom{2n}{n}$$ what about $$\sum_{i=0}^{n}\binom{n}{i}^3$$ ?
6
votes
1answer
196 views

When are toral orbits in buildings the difference of fixed-sets?

Let $L$ be a $p$-adic field, let $G$ be a reductive group over $L$ (I'm even okay assuming semisimplicity for now). Let $T$ be a maximal torus of $G$. Let $B$ be the building for $G(L)$. (Edit 1: ...
4
votes
1answer
196 views

Counting couples of square-free polynomials over finite fields

I have a curve defined by the following equations over the finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ with $q=p^r$ with $p \geq 3$: $$C_{h_1,h_2}:\begin{cases} y_1^2=h_1(t) & \\ y_2^2=h_2(t) ...
16
votes
4answers
2k views

A question on Collatz's conjecture

Let $C$ : ${\mathbb N}\longrightarrow {\mathbb N}$ be Collatz's map defined by $C(n) = 3n+1$ if $n$ is odd, and $C(n)=n/2$ if $n$ is even. Then according to Collatz's conjecture, we should have $C^k ...
8
votes
2answers
691 views

What is known about primes of the form x^2-2y^2?

David Cox's book Primes of The Form: $x^2+ny^2$ does a great job proving and motivating a lot of results for $n>0$. I was unable to find anything for negative numbers, let alone the case I am ...