Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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0
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0answers
34 views

Concentration of large prime factors of polynomials

For each positive integer $n$, let $P(n)$ denote the largest prime factor of $n$ (and for completeness, define $P(1) = 1$, say). Let $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree at ...
-2
votes
0answers
51 views

Solution of the equation $M^{2n}+DM^nK^n+K^{2n}=Z^2$

One way to obtain solutions of this equation when $M$, $N$, $n$ are natural numbers and $n≥2$ is as follows. We set $b^n=K^{2n}*(M^n+2)+2K^n*(M^n+1)+M^n$ and $D=(b^n-M^n)/K^n$ and $Z^2=(K^{2n} ...
8
votes
0answers
293 views

Meaningful review of Moriwaki's “Arakelov Geometry”

I have been asked to write a mathscinet review for Atsushi Moriwaki's Arakelov Geometry book: http://www.ams.org/bookstore-getitem/item=mmono-244 I could do the review the standard way in a day or ...
-4
votes
1answer
122 views

Remainder is always a multiple of 9 [on hold]

I am not a mathematician and certainly number theory is not my forte, but I have found the following pattern inspired on Kaprekar's routine (I am pretty sure this is already well-known although I have ...
0
votes
1answer
128 views

Is the following conjecture equivalent to the Second Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture? [on hold]

Let $y$ be an arbitrary positive real number such that $y\ge 2$. Then if we can prove that, $$\lim_{x\to\infty}\dfrac{\pi(x)+\pi(y)}{\pi(x+y)}=1$$will it imply that for all sufficiently large $x$ ...
-6
votes
0answers
162 views

Fermat's Last Theorem [on hold]

If there exist numbers $x,y,z\in{\mathbb N}$, such that $x^p+y^p= z^p $, $p$ is odd prime number. Prove or disprove that $x$ or $y$ or $z$ is prime.
0
votes
1answer
137 views

Redundancy of the Cantor Enumeration of the Rationals

What is the cardinality of the set of values corresponding to the first $n$ rationals generated in Cantor's enumeration scheme for proofing of their countability? Edit: following the suggestion of ...
6
votes
0answers
77 views

primality and square freeness of the partition function

Divisibility properties of the partition function $p(n)$ seem to have been studied for the last three hundred years (most recently, Ken Ono has been quite active). However, I assume it is open that ...
1
vote
1answer
196 views

When can we write fundamental units explicitly

Given a number field $K$, the Dirichlet Unit Theorem tells us about the structure of the unit group $O_K^\times$. However, the proofs do not seems to give any way to explicitly write out a set of ...
8
votes
0answers
148 views

Higher Fano varieties and Tsen's theorem

The rational connectivity of (complex) Fano manifolds ($c_1(T_X) > 0$) is one of the major, and surely most memorable achievements of Mori's bend-and-break method. To this day, despite intensive ...
8
votes
0answers
211 views

Orthonormal bases of R^3 with components lying in the golden field

Greg Egan proved an interesting theorem about unit vectors in $\mathbb{R}^3$ whose components actually lie in the 'golden field' $\mathbb{Q}[\sqrt{5}]$. He found it in our studies of twin ...
1
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0answers
81 views

Divisibility in $F3[t]$

Let $(P_n)_n$ be the sequence of polynomials on $\mathbb F_3$ defined by $$P_n=\prod_{\substack{h\in\mathbb F_3[t]\\\deg\,h=n\\h\text{ monic}}}h\qquad (P_0=1).$$ For every $r\in\mathbb N^*$, ...
-8
votes
0answers
83 views

The Functional equation for the Riemann has root only in form s=1/2+/-y*i is it a simple Proof? [on hold]

There are 2 formulate of then.. Case(1). Ζeta(1-s)=2(2π)^(-s)Cos(π*s/2)Γ(s)Zeta(s) for Re(s)>0 i.e Zeta(1-s)=f(s)Zeta(s) Case(2). Ζeta(s)=2(2π)^(s-1)Sin(πs/2)Γ(1-s)Zeta(1-s) for Re(s)<1 i.e ...
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Computing minimal polynomials using LLL

I would like to use the Lenstra–Lenstra–Lovász lattice basis reduction algorithm (LLL algorithm) to compute the minimal polynomial of a (real) algebraic number $\alpha$ from a decimal approximation ...
9
votes
2answers
496 views

What are the current trends in class field theory?

Being far from an expert in the subject I was wondering if people can hint towards a modern exposition of the developments in the last 10 years ? Or if not then suggest some sub-subjects in CFT that ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Big Omega result about number of totally positive integers with fixed trace

There is much literature on the study of $N_a$, the number of totally positive integers with fixed trace $a$ in a totally real field. That number has a natural geometric approximation $G_a$, and we ...
0
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0answers
77 views

Generalized arithmetic progressions contained in Bohr sets

Recall that generalized arithmetic progression of dimension $d$ is by definition a set of the form $P = P_1+\dots+P_d$, where $P_j = \{lp_j\ \mid \ |l|\leq l_j\}\subset \mathbb Z$ is an ordinary ...
-5
votes
0answers
112 views

Must read books on topics in IMO [on hold]

I know there was this post Good books on problem solving / math olympiad However, I was looking for books that don't just approach in problem solving, but talk about the development of the theory. ...
6
votes
1answer
289 views

Distribution of the sequence $\bigl (\frac{\phi(n)}{n}\bigr )_{n=1}^{\infty}$ in $[0,1]$

Maybe this is a well-know problem. What do we know about distribution of the sequence $\bigl (\frac{\phi(n)}{n}\bigr )_{n=1}^{\infty}$ in $[0,1]$? (Where $\phi$ is the Euler's totient function). In ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Question about existence of forms with small $h$-invariant satisfying certain property

Given a form $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x_1, ..., x_n]$ of degree $d>2$, we define $h(f)$ to be the smallest positive number $h$ such that we can write $$ f = u_1v_1 + ... +u_h v_h, $$ where each $u_i$, ...
4
votes
0answers
81 views

Integer decomposition of dilated integral polytopes

For $n > 0$, let $P$ be an integral polytope, that is, the convex hull in $\mathbb{R}^n$ of points in $\mathbb{Z}^n$. Suppose that $\dim(P) = n$. Question: Given $d > n + 2$ is it true that $$ ...
5
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0answers
87 views

A generalization of Erdős–Newman–Mirsky?

Given a sequence $S$ of natural numbers, write ${\bf Gap}(S)$ for the set of differences between consecutive terms. (So $|{\bf Gap}(S)|=1$ precisely for arithmetic progressions, hence the connection ...
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0answers
238 views

When do boring objects exist? [closed]

Let's provisionally call an integer boring if it is not the root of a polynomial over $\mathbb{Z}$ with a small number of variables and with small coefficients and arguments (note that this requires ...
1
vote
3answers
258 views

Has this formula for $G_{k}:=\lim\inf_{n\to\infty}p_{n+k}-p_{n}$ been conjectured?

I give here a heuristics that suggests that the quantity $\displaystyle{G_{k}:=\liminf_{n\to\infty}p_{n+k}-p_{n}}$ should be approximately equal to $k(1+H_{k})$, where $H_{k}$ is the $k$-th harmonic ...
0
votes
0answers
67 views

Factoring a polynomial in a specific manner

Let $f(x,y,z) = ax^d + b y^k z^{d-k} + c$, where $a,b,c \in \mathbb{C}$ and $abc \ne 0$, and $d \geq 3$. Let $d'$ denote the smallest non-negative integer $l$ such that there does not exist a positive ...
3
votes
2answers
215 views

Residue for the generating function of the Euler totient function

Let $\varphi$ be the Euler totient function, and let us define the function $f(z)$ by the series $$ f(z) := \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \varphi(n) z^n $$ Since $0\le \varphi(n)\le n$, I believe this gives a ...
-3
votes
0answers
58 views

prove that the sequence a_n = [n((2)^(1/2))] + [n((3)^(1/2))] contains infinitely many even and odd integers [closed]

im not sure how to proceed.i have done a few problems similar to this but i can't solve this one. thanks for any help.( by the way this is a problem from croatia team selection test )
11
votes
2answers
444 views

For what real $t$ is $\{n^t : n \geq 1\}$ linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$?

It's straightforward that $t$ must be irrational. I have googled many variations of this question and browsed through some books on transcendental number theory. There is much that is said about when ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Runs of consecutive numbers all of which are rebel numbers [migrated]

A positive integer is said to be a rebel number if it is the product of numbers none of which share any of the original number´s digits. Thus 10 = 2 x 5 is a rebel number, while none of the primes is. ...
83
votes
7answers
3k views

Is the set $ AA+A $ always at least as large as $ A+A $?

Let $A$ be a finite set of real numbers. Is it always the case that $|AA+A| \geq |A+A|$? My first instinct is that this is obviously true, and there is a one-line proof which I am foolishly ...
4
votes
0answers
124 views

Lower bound on class number of binary quadratic forms of discriminant of the form $n^2+4$

While searching for a use for the "sum invariant" of indefinite binary quadratic forms of discriminant $D = n^2 + 4$ (see https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/journals/JIS/VOL17/Smith/smith5.html), I believe I ...
12
votes
4answers
680 views

Random Diophantine polynomials: Percent solvable?

Suppose one generates a random polynomial of degree $d$ with integer coefficients uniformly distributed within $[-c_\max,c_\max]$. For example, for $d=8$, $|c_\max|=100$, here is one random ...
1
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0answers
119 views

All non-split Cartan subroups of $GL_2(\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})$ are conjugate

Let $n>1$ be a positive integer and let $R$ be an order in an imaginary quadratic field with discriminant prime to $n$. Let $A=R/nR$ and let $\lbrace 1, \alpha \rbrace$ be a ...
11
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0answers
297 views

Decidability of $x^3+y^3+z^3 = c$

I wondering if it is known whether the following problem is algorithmically decidable or undecidable by Turing machines: given an integer c, determine if there are integers $(x,y,z)$ such that ...
3
votes
0answers
280 views

Do those manifolds atrached to L-functions give rise naturally to motives? [closed]

Edited after Will Sawin's comment: Consider the set $\mathcal{M}$ of all automorphic L-functions belonging to the Selberg class. Such a set is closed for the product $.$ and the tensor product ...
11
votes
1answer
395 views

Can Shor's Algorithm be modified to run efficiently on a classical computer?

Shor's algorithm is an algorithm which factors integers in polynomial time on a quantum computer. If one tries to run it on a classical computer, one runs into the problem that the state vector that ...
10
votes
0answers
395 views

Why are solutions to $\sqrt[k]{x_1^k+x_2^k+x_3^k+x_4^k}$ for $k=2,3$ curiously smooth?

Given an integer solution $s_m$ to the system, $$x_1^2+x_2^2+\dots+x_n^2 = y^2$$ $$x_1^3+x_2^3+\dots+x_n^3 = z^3$$ and define the function, $$F(s_m) = x_1+x_2+\dots+x_n$$ For $n\geq3$, using an ...
5
votes
2answers
188 views

Density of polynomials which are soluble with respect to a set of primes

Suppose that $p$ is a prime, and $f(x)$ is a polynomial with integer coefficients and positive degree. Then there exists an integer $n_p$ such that $p | f(n_p)$ if and only if $f(x)$ has a linear ...
6
votes
1answer
333 views

Are reduced residue systems relative primorials an active area of research? If not, why not?

As a math amateur, I am finding the study reduced residue systems relative a primorial a very interesting way to understand the distribution of primes. For example, it is fascinating to me that it is ...
1
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1answer
142 views

Counting prime powers $p^{\frac{k}{t}} \left( t \in \mathbb{R}{+}, k \in \mathbb{N} \right)$ by changing $\rho$'s in $\psi(x)$?

With $\rho=\beta+ \gamma \,i$ being a non-trivial zero of $\zeta(s)$, the logarithmic prime counting function is: $$\psi(x) = x - \log(2\pi) - \frac12 \log\left(1- \frac{1}{x^2}\right) - ...
1
vote
1answer
130 views

Eisenstein series of weight $2$ for $\Gamma_0(N)$ : where am I wrong?

Let $A_{N,2}$ be the set of triples $(\psi,\varphi,t)$ such that $\psi$ and $\varphi$ are primitive Dirichlet characters modulo $u$ and $v$ with $(\psi\varphi)(-1)=1$, and $t$ is an integer such ...
1
vote
0answers
142 views

A question on (odd) perfect numbers

I have asked this question in MSE a few weeks back, but did not receive any responses. I have cross-posted it to MO, hoping that it is appropriate for this site. Let $\sigma(x)$ be the (classical) ...
3
votes
1answer
109 views

Density of polynomials with a prescribed number field extension

For any polynomial $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, let $K_f$ denote the minimum splitting field over $\mathbb{Q}$ which contains all of the roots of $f$. Let $n \geq 2$ be a fixed integer, and let $K$ be a ...
7
votes
2answers
172 views

approximate two different real numbers to order $\frac{1}{z^{3/2}}$

I took this result from Minkowski's book on Geometry of numbers: Two arbitrary real quantitites $a$ and $b$ may be made to approach as near as we wish in value the two fractions $\frac{x}{z}$ and ...
13
votes
1answer
492 views

What are the strongest conjectured uniform versions of Serre's Open Image Theorem?

This question concerns the uniform conjectured effective versions and generalizations of these two results of Serre on $\ell$-adic Galois representations $\rho_{E,\ell}$ associated to a non-CM ...
1
vote
0answers
131 views

Two spaces attached to mod 2 level 9 modular forms--a conjectural Hecke isomorphism

MOTIVATION Nicolas and Serre have analyzed the structure of the space of mod $2$ modular forms of level $1$, viewed as a "Hecke-module". They show that for each $p>2$, the operator $T_p$ acting on ...
5
votes
1answer
112 views

Bounding the number of lattice points inside an $n$-dimensional ellipsoid

I am wondering if it is possible to produce an upper and/or lower bound on the number of integer lattice points that lie inside an $n$-dimensional ellipse. That is, given an $n$-dimensional ellipsoid ...
3
votes
4answers
208 views

Uniform upper bound for the sum over primes $\sum_{p \leq x} p^{-1+\varepsilon}$

I am reading the article D. M. Gordon and C. Pomerance, The distribution of Lucas and elliptic pseudoprime, Math. Comp. (1991) (click). In equation (27) the authors, apparently, used the following ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Degree $2$ nilpotent matrices with non-zero product [migrated]

Let $n$ be sufficiently large positive integer. Let $M_i$ be $n$ matrices with entries in either $\mathbb{C}$ or $\mathbb{Z}/n \mathbb{Z}$. Is it possible, (1) for $1 \le i \le n, M_i^2=0$ and ...
6
votes
1answer
207 views

Size of smallest multiple $\sum \epsilon_i p^i$ of $n$ with digits $\epsilon_i\in \{0,1\}$ for $p$ a prime

Any natural number $n$ coprime with a prime number $p$ is a divisor of $M=1+p+p^2+\dots+P^{N-1}$ where $N\leq \varphi((p-1)n)$ is the order of $p$ in $\left(\mathbb Z/((p-1)n)\mathbb Z\right)^*$. ...