Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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4
votes
1answer
62 views

Number of representations as sums of squares in rings of integers of number fields

Let $K$ be some number field, $\mathcal O_K$ denote its ring of integers, and let $n$ be a positive integer. Take $\alpha \in \mathcal O_K$, and consider the quantity $r_{n,K}(\alpha)$, which denotes ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

An elliptic curve trivial over any extension unramified outside 7 and infinity?

Is there an elliptic curve $E/\mathbb{Q}$ such that $E(K)$ is trivial for every finite extension $K/\mathbb{Q}$ with discriminant a power of $7$ ?
1
vote
0answers
109 views

A curious limit [on hold]

Let $p$ be an odd prime number and let $a(n,p)$ be the denominator of $p^n/n$. Then it seems that $$\lim_ ...
13
votes
1answer
551 views

What were the main ideas and gaps in Miyaoka's attempted proof (1988) of Fermat's Last Theorem?

Out of sheer curiosity I have been reading Stewert and Tall's "Algebraic Number Theory and Fermat's Last Theorem" (2001). As it contains various bits of history, I found out to my own shame that I was ...
1
vote
0answers
87 views

Possible counterexample to a conjecture of Granville about automorphisms of twists of hyperelliptic curves

This might be a counterexample to a conjecture of Granville about automorphisms of twists of hyperelliptic curves. In this paper, the quadratic twist of $f(x)=y^2$ is denoted by $C_d : d y^2=f(x)$ ...
5
votes
0answers
82 views

Intersection between the sums of the first integers, primes and non primes

Is the following conjecture true ? $$\left\{\sum\limits_{\begin{array}{c}k=1\\k\in\mathbb{Z}\end{array}}^nk \ |\ n\in\Bbb Z\right\} \cap \left\lbrace ...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Minimum distance between factorials and powers of 2

Let's define for a positive integer $n$: $$a(n) = \min \{|n! - 2^m| : m \in \mathbb N \}.$$ Does there exist a good asymptotic lower bound for the values $a(n)$ for large $n$? In particular, is the ...
7
votes
0answers
154 views

Is the compositum of all quadratic extensions of the rationals an ample field?

Let $K$ be the compositum of all quadratic extensions of $\mathbb{Q}$, that is $$K = \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d} \ : \ d \in \mathbb{Q}).$$ Is there a (geometrically irreducible) smooth variety ...
-4
votes
1answer
240 views

Two conjectures in number theory [on hold]

Two conjectures in number theory on July 01 2015, I read the Fermat last theorem, I propose two conjectures. But later Dr. Long Hai Dao let me that the first conjecture is the Lander, Parkin, and ...
0
votes
1answer
195 views

A particular interesting elliptic curve

Given the elliptic curve $E:y^2=x^3-4x+4$. (a) How to prove that the group of rational points $E(\mathbb{Q})$ is generated by $P=(2,2)$. (b) If we consider the piece of curve on the region ...
1
vote
0answers
76 views

Egyptian fractions similar to Erdos-Straus conjecture

It is known that the Erdos-Straus conjecture is about writing $4/n$ as three unit fractions. My question is whether it is known that if $a>4$ $$ \frac an=\frac1{x_1}+\frac1{x_2}+\cdots+\frac1{x_k} ...
7
votes
2answers
171 views

Random suborbits of a rotation

Let $u_n = x + n\alpha \pmod 1$ with $\alpha$ irrational. We know that $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ is dense in $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$ (equivalently $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ visits every open interval infinitely ...
2
votes
0answers
194 views

Possible $\mathsf{NP}$ complete problem from number theory

A candidate $\mathsf{NP}$ complete variant of factoring was posted in http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/questions/4769/an-np-complete-variant-of-factoring, where decision problem ...
5
votes
1answer
401 views

Are there effective small intervals in which primes are dense?

As mentioned in Terry Tao's comment to this question, it is constructively known that there are primes between sufficiently large cubes. $\:$ According to wikipedia, "there exists a constant $\: ...
1
vote
1answer
173 views

reference on Dirichlet theorem on primes in arithmetic progression

I appreciate if you could help me to find a reference (and a proof). Combining Dirichlet theorem on primes in arithmetic progression with Chebotarev densitiy theorem, we know that given two positive ...
7
votes
1answer
259 views

Integral formula for $\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-3\pi x^{2}}((\sinh \pi x)/(\sinh 3\pi x))\,dx$ by Ramanujan

The following is a re-post from MSE because I did not get any answer even after offering a bounty. Towards the end of G. N. Watson's (one of the joint authors of famous book "A Course of Modern ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Sampling from random unimodular matrices of a particular type?

Is there a nice way to parametrize unimodular matrices of form $$\begin{bmatrix} a1& a2& 0& 0\\ b1& b2& a1& a2\\ c1& c2& b1& b2\\ 0& 0& c1& c2 ...
1
vote
0answers
92 views

Finding a lower bound in terms of given integers

Given four positive integers $n,$ $m,$ $l$ and $k \geq 2.$ I want to find a lower bound for this expression $$|\sqrt[k]{n}+\sqrt[k]{m}-\sqrt[k]{l}|$$ in terms of these integers. Many thanks
1
vote
1answer
119 views

Proofs needed for observations regarding prime-partitionable numbers

Below is the definition of a prime-partitionable integer taken from W. Holsztynski, R. F. E. Strube, Paths and circuits in finite groups, Discr. Math. 22 (1978) 263-272 and is apparently the same in ...
15
votes
3answers
251 views

Lower bounding the probability that $\gcd(t,N)≤B$, for a random $t$ and fixed (large) $N$

$\newcommand{\Prb}[1]{\mathcal{P}_{#1}}$ I have the following number theory problem, related to Odlyzko's improvement on Shor’s factoring algorithm (see this cstheory.sx question for details). Let ...
0
votes
1answer
274 views

Particular case of Beal's Conjecture

Is it known that there exist no coprime positive integers $A$, $B$ and $C$ such that $A^3+B^4=C^3$? This is a particular case of Beal's Conjecture.
8
votes
3answers
262 views

“Most Similar Vector Problem” on an Integer Lattice?

I am currently working on problem that I think could be expressed as an integer lattice problem. Given $u \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and a bounded integer lattice $L = \mathbb{Z}^n \cap [-M,M]^n$ I would like ...
7
votes
0answers
126 views

Modular factorization of Dedekind zeta functions

It is well known that for abelian number fields, the factorization of its Dedekind zeta function goes like this: $$\zeta_K=\zeta\prod_\chi L(s,\chi)$$ with the Dirichlet characters distinct and ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Root number of an anticyclotomic twist

Let $\lambda$ be a self-dual Hecke character over a CM field $K$ with root number $-1$. How to show the existence of a finite order anticyclotomic Hecke character $\chi$ over $K$ such that the twist ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Any formula for the partial sum of a remainder series?

Let $N \ge 1$ be an integer, and there is a series $ \{ N \mod 1, N \mod 2, ... , N \mod i, ... \}$. Obviously when $i \gt N+1$, the series will become $\{N, N, N, ..., \}$. So only take $i \le N$ ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Divisibility among discriminants

Let $f(x)$ be an algebraic function over the field $\mathcal F$ of algebraic numbers over $\mathbb{Q}$. Suppose that $r \in \mathcal F$. Does the discriminant of $f(r)$ divide the discriminant of ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

degeneration of reductive group

If $A$ is a mixed characteristic complete DVR (I'm only actually interested in $\mathbf{Z}_p$) and $G/A$ is a closed subgroup scheme of $GL(n)$ whose generic fibre is connected reductive and split, is ...
0
votes
1answer
219 views

Are there infinitely many $k$ for which $\frac{\sigma(k)}{k}=n^p$ and $p$ is an odd prime? [closed]

I would like to know if there are infinitely many $k$ for which $$\sigma(k)/k=n^p$$ such that $m=k{n}^{p-1}$ with $m,n>0$ and $p$ is an odd prime? Note: $\sigma(\frac{m}{{n}^{p-1}})$ is the sum of ...
2
votes
0answers
101 views

binomial coefficients and irrationals

The following, probably either currently impossible to deal with, or having a negative solution, arose from an ergodic theory question, presumably itself currently intractible. I am not a number ...
1
vote
0answers
123 views

Probability of correlated residues

Given $N,c\in\Bbb N$, where $c\ll(\log N)^{1/b}$ for any $b>1$ is fixed, what is the probability that given $A_1,A_2,A_3\in\Bbb N$ with ...
4
votes
1answer
480 views

Weierstrass form of genus one $y^{10} z^{30} - 8000 y^{4} z^{20} + 12800000 z^{20} + 1600 y^{2} z^{10} - 64=0$

Related to the n-conjecture. We are looking for Weierstrass form and map from it of the genus one curve: $$ y^{10} z^{30} - 8000 y^{4} z^{20} + 12800000 z^{20} + 1600 y^{2} z^{10} - 64=0 $$ It is ...
2
votes
1answer
191 views

Counting function for prime pair with bounded gaps between them [duplicate]

I'll start by noting that I am not at all an expert on number theory. However I do use it in a proof and would like your assistance if possible. Yitang Zhang breakthrough result established that ...
2
votes
0answers
154 views

Is the twisted symmetric fifth power $L$-function holomorphic?

Let $\pi$ be a Maass cusp form for SL($2,\mathbb Z$). Let $\omega$ be a primitive Dirichlet character. Let us consider the $L-$ function $$L(s,Sym^5 \pi \times \omega)$$ or $L(s,Sym^6 \pi \times ...
6
votes
1answer
381 views

Pure motives and compatible systems of $\ell$-adic representations

I am trying to understand the statement of the conjectures of Deligne on special values of certain $L$-functions, from his article titled, "Valuers de Fonctions L et periodes d'integrales" which ...
0
votes
0answers
74 views

Finite-index subgroups of the ideles

Let $k$ be a number field and denote by $J_k$ the idele group of $k$. Recall that the finite-index open subgroups of $J_k$ which contain $k^*$ are very important in class field theory. My question ...
13
votes
1answer
549 views

Elementary Proof of Infinitely many primes $\mathfrak{p} \in \mathbb{Z}[i]$ in the sector $\theta < \arg \mathfrak{p} <\phi $

A quick look at the primes in $\mathbb{Z}[i]$ suggests they might be evenly distributed by angle if we zoom out on a coarse enough scale. I would like ask about the much weaker statement forgetting ...
-1
votes
0answers
162 views

Straight line complexity of $k!a$ where $(a,p)=1$

In Qi Cheng's paper, an algorithm is provided to calculate $k!a$ at some random $a∈ℕ$ ($a$ is not input to algorithm, only $k$ is), what is the probability that given a prime $p$ such that ...
11
votes
2answers
309 views

Automorphisms of finite order in $Out(\widehat{F_2})$

Let $\widehat{F_2}$ be the pro-$\ell$ completion of the free group of rank 2, where $\ell$ is some prime. Every outer automorphism of $F_2$ induces an outer automorphism of $\widehat{F_2}$, hence an ...
5
votes
0answers
163 views

Examples of Rankin-Selberg L-functions from Eisenstein series

I've been digging for awhile to not much success, so I figure I would try here: I am looking for some references which compute explicitly examples of Rankin-Selberg L-functions from the constant ...
1
vote
1answer
305 views

Analytic Number Theory without Pigeonhole Principle [closed]

I don't know if this is an appropriate question for this website, but I will try my luck. I am an undergraduate student, and recently I became interested in analytic number theory. When I started ...
7
votes
1answer
354 views

What is the normal closure of $GL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ inside $GL_2(\mathbb{Z}_\ell)$?

This weird problem popped up in my research: Let $\ell$ be a prime. Is there a description of the smallest normal subgroup of $GL_2(\mathbb{Z}_\ell)$ containing $GL_2(\mathbb{Z})$? Is there a ...
7
votes
0answers
244 views

Residue class sufficiency sets for the Collatz conjecture

I have recently managed to show a sequence of sufficiency sets for the Collatz conjecture whose natural density approaches 0 (the set theoretic limit approaches the set $\{1\}$). It is an extension of ...
5
votes
1answer
205 views

Is $\liminf \frac{\sigma_{k}(n)}{n}$ finite for every $k$?

Can someone show me how to prove that $$\liminf_{n \to \infty} \frac{\sigma_{k}(n)}{n} < \infty$$ for every natural number $k$? Or is this problem open? Here, ...
6
votes
0answers
329 views

“Forthcoming paper” of Goldston-Graham-Pintz-Yıldırım

The above-named authors of [1] and its (significantly different) published version [2] write: In a forthcoming paper, we will show how the methods here can be extended to prove corresponding ...
3
votes
4answers
431 views

Integral points on a particular family of curves

This is a follow-up to this question (and comments thereon). Namely, it follows from Felipe Voloch's comment that for any $n>2$ there is a finite set of integral $(x, y),$ such that $$ ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

Given n and q, how to find p so q$\neq$n-th power (mod p)?

Reasonable exceptions allowed on $q$. Example solution: $n=2$. Suppose $q$ is odd. Let $p$ be so $pq\equiv -1$ (mod 8). Then $q\neq$ 2nd power (mod $p$) is the same as ...
10
votes
1answer
402 views

When is the image of an integral polynomial contained in the image of another?

Suppose $f$ and $g$ are polynomials with integral coefficients and $f(\mathbb Z)\subset g(\mathbb Z)$. Is there any relation between $f$ and $g$? For instance, this happens if $f=g\circ h$ for some ...
0
votes
2answers
221 views

Intersection of two lattices

Suppose that $\Lambda_1, \Lambda_2$ are two sub-lattices of $\mathbb{Z}^n$ of full rank, defined by congruence modulo a prime $p$. That is, there exist two vectors with integer entries $\mathbf{a}, ...
-3
votes
0answers
142 views

What would both Goldbach's conjecture and GRH tell us about the distribution of k-central numbers?

Assume Goldbach's conjecture. Then for all integer $n$ greater than 1, there exists a non negative integer $r$ such that both $n+r$ and $n-r$ are prime. I call such an $r$ a primality radius of $n$, ...
7
votes
2answers
285 views

Field of definition of dominant morphisms

Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and $k_0$ a sub-field. Let $X,Y$ be two projective varieties defined over $k_0$. Suppose that that there exists a dominant morphism $f$ between $X_k=X\otimes ...