Nonstandard analysis is a way of doing calculus and analysis with infinitesimals. The historical approach of Leibniz, Euler, and others to infinitesimal calculus was gradually replaced by epsilon, delta techniques in the context of a real continuum, in the 19th century. It was not until the 1960s ...

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2answers
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Defining the slowest divergent series

This question might seem too fuzzy, and if so, I will be happy to withdraw it. Until then, here it is: I know that a method of slowing a divergent series of positive reals is to replace the $n$-th ...
11
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1answer
722 views

Non standard algebraic geometry: shadows of varieties

In this question $\mathbb F$ is a field and $P({\mathbb F}^{n+1})$ is the projective space of dimension $n$ over $\mathbb F$. The term algebraic variety means a subset of $P({\mathbb F}^{n+1})$ ...
23
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4answers
2k views

In what ways did Leibniz's philosophy foresee modern mathematics?

Leibniz was a noted polymath who was deeply interested in philosophy as well as mathematics, among other things. From my mathematical readings I have the impression that Leibniz's stature as a ...
6
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2answers
980 views

Are all countable, nonstandard models of arithmetic given by ultrapowers?

Countable models of PA fall into two categories: the standard one $(\omega, S)$ and the nonstandard ones (all the rest). The only way I've seen to construct a nonstandard model is through taking an ...
17
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5answers
882 views

What is the spectrum of possible cofinality types for cuts in an ordered field? Or in a model of the hyperreals? Or in a nonstandard model of arithmetic?

I am interested to know the full range of possibilities for the cofinality type of cuts in an ordered field and in other structures, such as nonstandard models of arithmetic. Definitions. ...
35
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1answer
2k views

Various flavours of infinitesimals

I'm not sure if this is a soft question, and whether it may be too broad or, on the contrary, too localized. Well, in Mathematics the concept of "infinitesimal" has been of extreme importance for ...
32
votes
2answers
2k views

Ergodic Theorem and Nonstandard Analysis

Here is a quote from Lectures on Ergodic Theory by Halmos: I cannot resist the temptation of concluding these comments with an alternative "proof" of the ergodic theorem. If $f$ is a complex ...
10
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8answers
3k views

Leibnizian calculus textbook

Where can I find a calculus textbook that emphasizes differentials? Is there such a book that I could realistically require my calculus students to use? I want a textbook that supports me when I tell ...
29
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6answers
5k views

A remark of Connes

In an interview (at http://www.alainconnes.org/docs/Inteng.pdf) Connes remarks that I had been working on non-standard analysis, but after a while I had found a catch in the theory.... The point ...
3
votes
1answer
350 views

Non Separability of the the Loeb Space

Let $X_i$, $i=1,2\ldots$ be finite sets of integers such that $|X_i|\rightarrow \infty$. Let $X$ be an ultraproduct of $X_i$. Let $\mu$ the Loeb measure associated with the the normalized counting ...
10
votes
1answer
638 views

Non-standard enlargements, $\zeta(s)$ and analytic continuation

Consider an extension of the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s)$ where $s$ now runs over a non-standard enlargement of the complex plane. Observe that if $s=\sigma + it$ with $\sigma>1$ real and ...
6
votes
1answer
907 views

Uncountable nonstandard models of PA

Standard techniques (no pun intended) can be used to show that countable nonstandard models of Peano Arithmetic are order isomorphic to $\mathbb{N} + \mathbb{Z} \cdot \mathbb{Q}$. Once we have used ...
1
vote
1answer
631 views

Metrization of hyperreals

Hello, i was reading your article about non metrizability of *R. i was able to prove that the interval open topology is not metrizable by proving that the intersection of decreasing hyper-intervals ...
7
votes
9answers
3k views

Would Euler's proofs get published in a modern math Journal, especially considering his treatment of the Infinite?

I was wondering how mathematicians of today would treat, for example, Euler's proof of zeta(2). In William Dunham's book 'Journey through Genius' ( http://www.amazon.com/Journey-through-Genius-...
15
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10answers
4k views

nonstandard analysis book recommendation

I wish to learn nonstandard analysis. Are there any good book recommendations? I'm familiar with the ZFC system, and learnt analysis the classical way. I've found some undergraduate texts, but they ...
41
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16answers
6k views

How helpful is non-standard analysis?

So, I can understand how non-standard analysis is better than standard analysis in that some proofs become simplified, and infinitesimals are somehow more intuitive to grasp than epsilon-delta ...
34
votes
4answers
3k views

Which topological spaces admit a nonstandard metric?

My question is about the concept of nonstandard metric space that would arise from a use of the nonstandard reals R* in place of the usual R-valued metric. That is, let us define that a topological ...
18
votes
5answers
1k views

Isomorphism types or structure theory for nonstandard analysis

My question is about nonstandard analysis, and the diverse possibilities for the choice of the nonstandard model R*. Although one hears talk of the nonstandard reals R*, there are of course many non-...