Euclidean, hyperbolic, discrete, convex, coarse geometry, comparisons in Riemannian geometry, symmetric spaces.

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24
votes
1answer
536 views

The Eyeball Theorem generalized

I have not seen the 2D Eyeball Theorem—that tangents from the centers of two circles, each encompassing the other, intersect each circle in the same segment length—generalized to higher ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

How to calculate the center of a regular polygon? [migrated]

What is the formula for the center of an n-edge regular polygon that has the given segment as its edge? So, given a segment AB, ...
11
votes
1answer
262 views

Are all well behaved “mean” functions on $\mathbb{R}^+$ equivalent?

Given a set $S$, a function $M: S\times S \rightarrow S$ is a mean if it satisfies the properties: $M(a,a)=a\qquad$ (identity) $M(a,b)=M(b,a)\qquad$ (commutativity). and possibly ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

Regular paths along surface of sphere

I'm trying to create a program where a small ball is supposed to move along the surface of a sphere, which is given by its radius $r$ and the center $c$. The movement should be repetitive, so that ...
2
votes
1answer
192 views

Distance function to a submanifold

Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold and $\Sigma\subset M$ a closed submanifold. Given $x\in M$ we define the distance function to $\Sigma$ by $$d_\Sigma(x):=\inf\{d(x,y):y\in \Sigma\},$$ where ...
4
votes
1answer
204 views

convex polyhedron in the unit cube

Let $P$ be a given finite set of points within the $n$-dimensional unit cube. A finite set $Q$ of points within the $n$-dimensional unit cube covers $P$ if $\operatorname{conv}(Q) \supseteq P$ where ...
3
votes
2answers
274 views

Lipschitz parametrization of a symmetric convex curve

Assume that $\gamma$ is a convex curve which is symmetric with respect to two orthogonal lines (the ellipse is such a curve). I want to know if there exists a $(l,L)$-bi-Lipschitz mapping of the ...
36
votes
3answers
2k views

Is the “Napkin conjecture” open? (origami)

The falsity of the following conjecture would be a nice counter-intuitive fact. Given a square sheet of perimeter $P$, when folding it along origami moves, you end up with some polygonal flat figure ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a compass and straightedge construction of parallel lines in hyperbolic geometry?

Is there a compass and straightedge construction of parallel lines in hyperbolic geometry? That is, given a line and a point not on the line, construct a line parallel to the given line.
13
votes
2answers
939 views

Are the Platonic solids shadows of 4-polytopes?

Say that a 3D shadow of a 4-polytope is a parallel projection to 3-space, not necessarily orthogonal to that 3-space (that would make it an orthogonal projection). I am wondering if each of the five ...
27
votes
3answers
1k views

Diameter of m-fold cover

Let $M$ be a closed Riemannian manifold. Assume $\tilde M$ is a connected Riemannian $m$-fold cover of $M$. Is it true that $$\mathop{diam}\tilde M\le m\cdot \mathop{diam} M\ ?\ \ \ \ \ \ \ (*)$$ ...
-3
votes
0answers
67 views

Isoceles Triangles on a Grid Proof [closed]

Given: A Finite Set of Unit Squares on a Large Grid. If we were to choose one of those sets of unit squares, we see that the squares of the set are tiled with isosceles right triangles, each with a ...
5
votes
2answers
322 views

Generalization of Pascal's Theorem to Higher Dimensions

Pascal's celebrated theorem in classical geometry gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a conic through six given points in the plane. Does there exists a similar statement ...
6
votes
0answers
71 views

Unbalanced equipartitions

Let $K$ be a compact convex set in the plane. Say that a perimeter-halving partition of $K$ is a partition of $K$ into two pieces by a chord (a segment with endpoints on the boundary $\partial K$) ...
42
votes
2answers
2k views

The view from inside of a mirrored tetrahedron

Suppose you were standing inside a regular tetrahedron $T$ whose internal face surfaces were perfect mirrors. Let's assume $T$'s height is $3{\times}$ yours, so that your eye is roughly at the ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Smooth unit vector field on a tetrahedron to interpolate vertex constraints

For a tetrahedron $T\subset \mathbb{R}^3$ with vertices $r_i\in \mathbb{R}^3$ , $i=1,\ldots,4$, and unit vectors $u_i\in \mathbb{S}^2$ at each vertex $i=1,\ldots,4$ consider the (energy) functional ...
6
votes
3answers
184 views

Most dispersed set of points in a disk?

Put $1$ billion points in a disk of radius $1$. Consider the minimal area $A$ of a triangle formed by any $3$ points. Where do you put the points so that $A$ is maximal and how much is $A$? Consider ...
0
votes
2answers
80 views

Planar curves identical to their inverses

Is the right strophoid the only planar curve $C$ whose inverse curve w.r.t. some circle (in this case: centered on the origin) is identical to $C$?               ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

Partitioning a polygon into convex parts

I'm looking for an algorithm to partition any simple closed polygon into convex sub-polygons--preferably as few as possible. I know almost nothing about this subject, so I've been searching on Google ...
4
votes
1answer
127 views

Non-closed geodesics on a convex polyhedron in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Let $P$ be the surface of a closed convex polyhedron in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Q. Does every non-closed geodesic $\gamma$ fill $P$ densely? Of course $\gamma$ cannot pass through a vertex of $P$, but ...
4
votes
0answers
44 views

topological spaces admitting CAT(1) metrics

Suppose that $X$ is a locally contractible completely metrizable topological space. Is it true that $X$ can be metrized as a (complete) CAT(1) metric space? The only result in this direction I know ...
19
votes
2answers
635 views

Tiling of the plane with manholes

Some shapes, such as the disk or the Releaux triangle can be used as manholes, that is, it is a curve of constant width. (The width between two parallel tangents to the curve are independent of the ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

second fundamental form of boundary of convex subset non-negative? [on hold]

Let M be an n-dim non-compact Riemannian manifold without boudary and $Ric\geqslant-(n-1)$. Let $Y$ be a convex subset of M with smooth boundary, then the second fundamental form of the boundary ...
5
votes
2answers
230 views

Equitably distributed curve on a sphere

Let $\gamma=\gamma(L)$ be a simple (non-self-intersecting) closed curve of length $L$ on the unit-radius sphere $S$. So if $L=2\pi$, $\gamma$ could be a great circle. I am seeking the most equitably ...
4
votes
1answer
98 views

Maps between spaces of non-empty compact subsets with the Hausdorff distance (reference request)

Let $X, Y$ be metric spaces, and let $PX$ (resp. $PY$) be the set of all non-empty compact subsets of $X$ (resp. $Y$) with the Hausdorff metric. A continuous map $f\colon X\to Y$ induces a continuous ...
0
votes
1answer
154 views

Sectional curvature as a Hamiltonian on the Grassmanization of the tangent bundle

Edit: According to the comments to the previous version of this question, I remove my essential errors in the question. I thank the commenters very much. Let $M$ be a n dimensional manifold. ...
1
vote
1answer
124 views

Generalization of the triple tangent identity

It is well known that if $x + y + z = \pi$ then $$\tan x \times \tan y \times \tan z = \tan x+ \tan +\tan z.$$ I came across the following generalization of this equality: $$\sqrt{1-k^2} {\rm ...
10
votes
3answers
292 views

Orthogonal mud cracks and Maxwell's reciprocal figures

Is there a succinct mathematical/physical explanation of why mud cracks tend to meet orthogonally?                     Wikipedia image in this ...
25
votes
5answers
2k views

Nonconvex manhole covers

One common reason given for the circularity of manhole covers is that they can't fall through the manhole. For convex manhole covers, this property is equivalent to having constant width — if ...
1
vote
0answers
126 views

Find m most distant points from a set of n points [closed]

I would like to find the $m$ (where $n$ $\geq$ $m$ > 1) maximally distant subset of points from a collection of $n$ $d$-dimensional points. Maximally distant means the sum of the pairwise distances ...
17
votes
0answers
245 views

Large almost equilateral sets in finite-dimensional Banach spaces

Question: Does there exist a function $C:~(0,1)\to (0,\infty)$ such that for each $\varepsilon\in(0,1)$ every Banach space $X$ of dimension $\ge C(\varepsilon)\log n$ contains an $n$-point set ...
12
votes
1answer
327 views

Lower-Hölder embeddings of the sphere

My question is very simple: Given $d\ge 3$, does there exist $s\in (0,1)$ and an embedding $f:S^{d-1}\to \mathbb{R}^d$ such that $$ |f(x)-f(y)| \ge |x-y|^s \quad\textrm{if } |x-y|<r, $$ for ...
5
votes
1answer
216 views

Monotonicity of Loewner ellipsoid?

Given two $0$-symmetric convex bodies $K \subset L \subset \mathbb{R}^n$, is it true that the Loewner ellipsoid of $K$ is contained in the Loewner ellipsoid of $L$? I have just finished proving a ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Best fit for multiple shapes inside an area

Is there a forumla to come up with the best fit for multiple shapes inside a rectangular area, so that none of the shapes are overlapping?
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Fixed points of finite order isometries of metric spaces

I would like to show the following: Let $X$ be a complete metric space that is uniquely geodesic (i.e. each two distinct points are connected by a unique geodesic segment) and $\phi\colon X\to X$ an ...
23
votes
10answers
2k views

Determining a surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ by its Gaussian curvature

A curve in the plane is determined, up to orientation-preserving Euclidean motions, by its curvature function, $\kappa(s)$. Here is one of my favorite examples, from Alfred Gray's book, Modern ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

Fixed point of fatness

For the purposes of this question, define the following properties of convex sets in the plane: A set is $R$-fat (for $R\geq 1$) if it contains a disc of side-length $x$ and is contained in a disc ...
9
votes
1answer
357 views

Question about tetrahedron decomposition

Are there tetrahedra which can be subdivided into three non-overlapping parts similar to the original? I believe this would require splitting one face into three parts. I know some types of tetrahedra ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

Covering the annulus of d-cube

Given a convex body $C\subset R^d$ and a positive real $\lambda$, any set of the form $\lambda C + x = \{ \lambda c+x \mid c\in C \}$, for some $x\in R^d$, is called a homothetic copy of $C$. The ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Origami Constructions: Intersecting two Circles

It is well known that every construction that can be performed with compass and straightedge alone can also be performed using origami, see: R. Geretschlager. Euclidean Constructions and the Geometry ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Besicovitch's covering theorem for ellipsoids and shadows

The usual Besicovitch's covering theorem concerns closed balls in $\mathbb{R}^d$. It relies on a property called "directionally limited metric space": the principal ingredient is to say that there ...
7
votes
1answer
963 views

Did Apollonius invent co-ordinate geometry?

When I read descriptions of Apollonius' treatise on conics, some of them say that he invented co-ordinate geometry, some say that he kind of did and others are silent on the matter. Or is it the case ...
6
votes
2answers
393 views

Triangles, squares, and discontinuous complex functions

Is there some onto function $f:$ $\mathbb{C}$ $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb{C}$ such that for each triangle $T$ (with its interior), $f(T)$ is a square (with interior, too) ? I would have the same question ...
9
votes
0answers
236 views

How can we join two points with a small ruler? [closed]

We want to join by a line two distinct points $A$ and $B$. We have only a ruler of length $l>0$ and a pen. If $AB>l$ how can we do this? Imagine a method that works when $AB$ is really huge and ...
12
votes
1answer
650 views

Integer-distance sets

Let $S$ be a set of points in $\mathbb{R}^d$; I am especially interested in $d=2$. Say that $S$ is an integer-distance set if every pair of points in $S$ is separated by an integer Euclidean distance. ...
26
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the best way to peel fruit?

A mango made me wonder about this. (See also this question, which is in a similar spirit.) Fix $L >0$ and a smooth body (possibly nonconvex—pears or bananas are fair game!) $B \subset ...
16
votes
1answer
637 views

Infinite desert with waterpoints

UPDATE: I created a simple web-application, that allows the user to move waterpoints around, then automatically calculates a maximum set of interior-disjoint squares between the points (the algorithm ...
3
votes
1answer
338 views

Routh's theorem in three dimensions

The most well known case of Routh's triangle theorem is: If the sides BC, CA,and AB are trisected at the points D, E, and F, respectively, then the area of the inside triangle formed by AD, BE, ...
8
votes
1answer
356 views

Stable Tables on Fluctuating Floors

If a four-legged, rectangular table is rickety, it can nearly always be stabilised just by turning it a little. This is very useful in everyday life! Of course it relies on the floor being the source ...