3
votes
1answer
122 views

Random non-intersecting circles in the plane

If I give a finite region of $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and place $k$ circles of radius $r(k)$ uniformly at random inside, are there any known results for the probability that the circles do not overlap? ...
7
votes
3answers
312 views

The distribution of the shortest path through $n$ points

In the big picture, I'd like to know: if I sample $n$ points uniformly at random in the unit square, what is the probability that the shortest path that visits each one of them is very small? More ...
5
votes
0answers
159 views

Is there a connection between |roots| $\rightarrow$ 1 and Gromov's waist theorem?

Recent questions showed that roots of a random polynomial tend to lie on the unit circle ("Why do roots of polynomials tend to have absolute value close to 1?"; "Distribution of roots of complex ...
9
votes
1answer
219 views

A random variation on Polya's orchard problem

Polya's orchard problem is as follows: "How thick must the trunks of the trees in a regularly spaced circular orchard grow if they are to block completely the view from the center?" See, ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Estimating the volume of a union of balls

Let $\{ B_i \}_{i=1}^n$ be a set of $n$ ball in the unit cube $C$ of dimension $d$. If I want to estimate $$ \frac{ \lambda \left( \cup B_i \right) }{\lambda\left( C \right) }, \tag{1} $$ where ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Quadrilaterals from a Unit Stick

This question could be seen as a coordinate-free variant of Sylvester's Four Point Problem (cf e.g. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SylvestersFour-PointProblem.html): Suppose one are given an ...
15
votes
0answers
427 views

The lonely molecule

Suppose $n$ air molecules (infinitesimal points) are bouncing around in a unit $d$-dimensional cube, with perfectly elastic wall collisions. Let $k=n^{\frac{1}{d}}$. For example, in 3D, $d=3$, with ...
27
votes
2answers
753 views

Shortest path through $\sqrt{n}$ points out of $n$

Say I sample $n$ points uniformly at random in the unit square, and then I look for the shortest path through $\sqrt{n}$ of those points (rounding up, say). What happens to the length of this path as ...
4
votes
2answers
123 views

Connectivity of points sampled in a grid

Suppose that I partition an $n\times n$ square into $n^2$ squares $S_1 ,\dots, S_{n^2}$ each of area $1$, and then I sample a point $X_i$ uniformly at random in each $S_{i}$. Now fix a radius $r$ and ...
14
votes
3answers
644 views

“Entropy” proof of Brunn-Minkowski Inequality?

I read in an information theory textbook the Brunn-Minkowski inequality follows from the Entropy Power inequality. The first one says that if $A,B$ are convex polygons in $\mathbb{R}^d$, then $$ ...
2
votes
2answers
114 views

Volume of specials sets on sphere $S^N$

Suppose I'm given $m$ points $\{q_i\}$ on the sphere $S^N$. I want to get a lower/upper bound for the volume of the following sets with respect to uniform probability measure $\mathbb{P}$ on the ...
3
votes
1answer
151 views

Diameter of $n$-unit-vector closed scribble

Suppose one creates a random, closed, likely self-crossing polygon from $n$ unit-length vectors arranged head-to-tail, randomly oriented except for the requirement that their sum is zero (so the ...
6
votes
1answer
266 views

Limit of distance between two random points in a unit-radius $n$-sphere

This is a companion contrast to the earlier analogous question for unit $n$-cubes, where the answer (provided by several respondents) is $\infty$ . What is the limit, as $n \to \infty$, of the ...
6
votes
2answers
268 views

Limit of distance between two random points in a unit $n$-cube

What is the limit, as $n \to \infty$, of the expected distance between two points chosen uniformly at random within a unit edge-length hypercube in $\mathbb{R}^n$? For $n=1$, the average ...
7
votes
0answers
94 views

Longest induced cycles in random geometric graphs near criticality

We make a random geometric graph $X(n;r)$ as follows. Choose $n$ points uniformly, independently, in the unit square $[0,1]^2$, for vertices, and then connect a pair of vertices $\{ p,q \}$ by an edge ...
14
votes
2answers
470 views

Spearing rolling hula hoops

Or: Stabbing rolling disks. Imagine there are $n$ unit-diameter disks rolling between $x=0$ and $x=d$, reflecting off either end. The disk centers start at a random location within $[\frac{1}{2}, ...
4
votes
1answer
427 views

Probability distribution or the distance between two points in $n$-dimensional Euclidean space after a random perturbation of one point

Take two points, $p_0$ and $p_k$, in $n$-dimensional Euclidean space, where $d(p_0,p_k)$ is the distance between the points. Now, draw an $n$-sphere of radius $r$ centered on $p_0$ and uniformly ...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Distance measure for noisy $SE(3)$ transforms

I have a transformation $T \in SE(3)$ parameterized by a mean quaternion $q$ with covariance matrix $\Sigma_q \in R^{4\times4}$ and a mean translation $t \in R^3$ with covariance matrix $\Sigma_t \in ...
0
votes
1answer
119 views

What is the area of the piece of an $n$-sphere within a given angle of a vector? [closed]

Let $x$ be the unit vector $(1,0,0,\ldots,0)$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$, and let $A(\theta)$ be the subset of $\mathcal{S}^{n-1}$ whose angle to $x$ is less than $\theta$, i.e. $$ A(\theta) = \left\{ y \in ...
16
votes
2answers
405 views

What kind of probability distribution maximizes the average distance between two points?

If $f$ is a probability distribution on the unit disk in $\mathbb{R}^2$, and $X_1$ and $X_2$ are two independent samples from $f$, then what is the distribution $f^*$ that maximizes the average ...
1
vote
0answers
135 views

When is the median closest nearest-neighbor distance larger than the mean closest nearest-neighbor distance?

Consider a random Poisson process in an $d$-dimensional cube of arbitrary size (alternatively, consider an arbitrarily large $(d-1)$-dimensional sphere in an $d$-dimensional space). If we have a ...
0
votes
0answers
62 views

Minimum distance larger than a fraction $f$ of the closest nearest-neighbor distances for points placed by a random Poisson process?

Consider a random Poisson process on arbitrarily large volume in $R^d$ enclosed by an $R^{(d-1)}$ dimensional sphere. The process terminates when a density of points $\rho$ is achieved (letting $N$ ...
2
votes
2answers
230 views

what's the best way to characterise the distribution of prime elements in simple perfect squared squares

DEFINITIONS: A squared rectangle is a rectangle dissected into a finite number, two or more, of squares, called the elements of the dissection. If no two of these squares have the same size the ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

Probability of disc-disc overlap for discs placed with uniform probability on a surface until a density $\rho$ is achieved

Imagine I place discs of radius $r$ on a two-dimensional plane, selecting their positions with uniform probability across the surface of the plane, and stop when I reach a disc density $\rho$. As a ...
4
votes
1answer
177 views

Width of a random convex polygon

Consider a planar (2D) random walk comprised of N steps. Consider the minimum convex polygon enclosing the N points visited by the random walker. Assume the definition of the width of a convex ...
6
votes
1answer
162 views

Best and worst centrally symmetric convex covering shapes

Suppose you have a centrally symmetric convex 2D shape $C$ of area $A$, and you randomly throw down copies of $C$ on the plane so that each $C$-center lies within a given unit square $S$, until $S$ is ...
33
votes
1answer
2k views

Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

The following problem was brought to my attention by a doctoral dissertation on Mathematics Education, but - as far as I know - the solution remains unknown. I have already asked this question on ...
19
votes
2answers
882 views

Probability that a convex shape contains the unit ball

This probability problem seems interesting and I don't know if it has been solved before. If you pick $n$ points uniformly at random from the surface of a $d$ dimensional sphere of radius $r>1$ ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

Is a $CD(K,\infty)$ space a length space?

Let $(X,d)$ be a complete and separable metric space endowed with a nonnegative Borel measure $\mu$ with support $X$ and satisfying \begin{eqnarray} \mu(B(x,r))<\infty,\quad\mbox{for every }x\in ...
6
votes
1answer
158 views

Proof of a statement from Steele's “Probability theory and combinatorial optimization”

I am reading "Probability theory and combinatorial optimization" by J.M. Steele and am hung up on a statement made in Section 2.2 of Chapter 2, "Easy size bounds", in which it is stated (paraphrasing ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Expected length of a certain kind of nearest-neighbor graph

Suppose I have sets of points $Z_1,\dots,Z_N$, such that $|Z_i|=m$ for all $i$, and where all $m\times N$ points are independently distributed uniformly at random in the unit square. Can someone give ...
6
votes
1answer
287 views

Twisted random walks

Suppose the points of two random walks in $\mathbb{R}^2$ are given the step number (or time) as a third coordinate, so that they become paths in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Here are several pairs of walks of ...
6
votes
1answer
231 views

Does a metric refine the weak-* topology on a dual space?

Let $X$ be a topological affine space over $\mathbb C$, with no additional assumptions. Let $X^*$ denote its dual space of continuous affine functionals $X \to \mathbb C$, equipped with the weak-$*$ ...
3
votes
0answers
119 views

On understanding Discrete-Valued Stochastic Processes( time series, panel data )

It seems to me that a significant proportion of work in probability theory, statistics and machine learning are on understanding continuous-valued, relatively weakly dependent, or linear dependent ...
0
votes
0answers
101 views

Area on the unit sphere swept out by big circles corresponding to a curve

For a point on the unit sphere, we know the plane perpendicular to the line through the origin and the point cuts the sphere with a big circle. When the point moves along a sphere curve, the ...
4
votes
0answers
93 views

Metrized categories

Motivation: Let $\Gamma = (V,E)$ be a directed graph. To each edge $e \in E$, choose a value $\kappa^e \in \mathbb R$, representing the cost of transporting one unit of "stuff" through the edge. Let ...
17
votes
2answers
879 views

How can I randomly draw an ensemble of unit vectors that sum to zero?

Inspired by this question, I would like to determine the probability that a random knot of 6 unit sticks is a trefoil. This naturally leads to the following question: Is there a way to sample ...
14
votes
2answers
245 views

Random rings linked into one component?

Let $S$ be a sphere of unit radius. Let $C_n$ be a collection of unit-radius circles/rings whose centers are (uniformly distributed) random points in $S$, and which are oriented (tilted) randomly ...
9
votes
2answers
485 views

The fraction of the sphere a fixed distance from a subspace

The following problem has a beautiful geometric interpretation in terms of the proportion of points on the Euclidean sphere in $\mathbb{R}^d$ that lie at least a certain distance away from a ...
6
votes
1answer
205 views

Trasportation metric (AKA Earth-Mover's, Wasserstein, etc.) as “natural” / “induced”?

Context: Given a discrete finite metric space $X$ (in my case X={0,1}$^n$ with the Hamming/L$_1$ distance), I need to define the natural or canonical metric on the set of all probability distributions ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Volume estimates of rooted embedded tree containing certain subtrees.

Consider a rooted embedded tree of $n+1$ vertices. It is known that around the root for small $r$, volume of the ball of radius $r$ grows like $r^2$. Now suppose we are given that a certain subtree is ...
8
votes
3answers
438 views

Expected distance between two points in the plane

Let $f(x)$ be a continuous probability distribution in the plane. It is obvious that if $X$ and $X'$ are two independent random samples from $f$, then $\mathbf{E}(\|X - X'\|) \leq 2 ...
9
votes
5answers
389 views

Path length of ball on tilted, perforated plane

Imagine that an $\epsilon$-radius hole is punched in the plane centered on every integer-coordinate point. Now a point "ball" is dropped on the plane at a random spot $p$. If $p$ has not already ...
8
votes
0answers
384 views

High-dimensional geometry: Top-down Vs. Bottom-up

There are several ways to leverage one's intuition from low-dimensional geometry to understand high-dimensional phenomena. For example, one can get a clearer picture of the behaviour of ...
14
votes
2answers
589 views

Random permutations from Brownian motion

Let $B(t)$ be a Brownian motion. The ordering of $(0, B(1), ..., B(n-1)) $ is a random permutation in $S_n$. This is not uniform for $n>2$ since the probabilities of the identity permutation ...
7
votes
3answers
251 views

Expected minimum face angle of random convex polyhedron in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Let $P_n$ be a "random convex polyhedron" in $\mathbb{R}^3$ of $n$ vertices, where "random" could follow any one of a number of models: (1) the convex hull of $n$ points randomly and uniformly ...
1
vote
2answers
282 views

Terrain Generation: Infinite 2D space filled with Diffusion-limited aggregation clusters?

Disclaimer: I don't have a deep understanding of fractals or any higher math, I'm just personally interested in it, so please excuse me if I'm using wrong terms or if I'm being inaccurate. Making ...
4
votes
1answer
275 views

Wasserstein geometry of measures on manifolds related to the generalized Legendre transform and $d^2/2$-convexity

Let $(M,g)$ be a fixed closed Riemannian manifold, normalized to have volume 1. We'll write $d_M(x,y)$ for the (geodesic) distance between two points $x,y\in M$. I'm interested in the following class ...
12
votes
1answer
657 views

Random polycube shapes

I am wondering if it is hopeless to obtain any firm results on the following model of a "random polycube shape." First, a polycube in $\mathbb{R}^3$ is a connected face-to-face gluing of unit cubes. ...
36
votes
1answer
2k views

Rolling a random walk on a sphere

A ball rolls down an inclined plane, encountering horizontal obstacles, at which it rolls left/right with equal probability. There are regularly spaced staggered gaps that let the ball roll down to ...