Hopcroft and Ullman's definition of a Turing machine seems to be standard. This definition defines a Turing machine to be a 7-tupel $T = \langle Q,\Gamma,b,\Sigma,\delta,q_0,F \rangle$ obeying some ...
is there any example of function which is computable on some set and uncomputable on other set? That is for example function f(n) which is computable on some (finite, or for example for even numbers) ...
What I mean is this. By downward Lowenheim-Skolem theorem, first-order formula Q is a always true iff it is true in every countable structure. But is there some first-order formula Q which is true in ...