**59**

votes

**5**answers

7k views

### Why do probabilists take random variables to be Borel (and not Lebesgue) measurable?

I've been studying a bit of probability theory lately and noticed that there seems to be a universal agreement that random variables should be defined as Borel measurable functions on the probability ...

**56**

votes

**23**answers

17k views

### Why should one still teach Riemann integration?

In the introduction to chapter VIII of Dieudonné's Foundations of Modern Analysis (Volume 1 of his 13-volume Treatise on Analysis), he makes the following argument:
Finally, the reader will ...

**48**

votes

**8**answers

6k views

### Why is Lebesgue integration taught using positive and negative parts of functions?

Background: When I first took measure theory/integration, I was bothered by the idea that the integral of a real-valued function w.r.t. a measure was defined first for nonnegative functions and only ...

**47**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Is every sigma-algebra the Borel algebra of a topology?

This question arises from the excellent question posed on math.SE
by Salvo Tringali, namely, Correspondence
between Borel algebras and topology.
Since the question was not answered there after some ...

**41**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### Demystifying the Caratheodory Approach to Measurability

Nowadays, the usual way to extend a measure on an algebra of sets to a measure on a $\sigma$-algebra, the Caratheodory approach, is by using the outer measure $m^* $ and then taking the family of all ...

**37**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Why are abelian groups amenable?

A (discrete) group is amenable if it admits a finitely additive probability measure (on all its subsets), invariant under left translation. It is a basic fact that every abelian group is amenable. ...

**33**

votes

**4**answers

8k views

### Non Borel sets without axiom of choice

This is a simple doubt of mine about the basics of measure theory, which should be easy for the logicians to answer. The example I know of non Borel sets would be a Hamel basis, which needs axiom of ...

**31**

votes

**7**answers

5k views

### Is there a measure zero set which isn't meagre?

A subset of ℝ is meagre if it is a countable union of nowhere dense subsets (a set is nowhere dense if every open interval contains an open subinterval that misses the set).
Any countable set ...

**31**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### 100€ bounty ended: Do invariant measures maximize the integral?

Update: The negative answer to the following question has been provided by Matthew Daws, who won, but also rejected, the bounty of 100 euro that I set over the question.
Let $\mathcal M(\mathbb Z)$ ...

**26**

votes

**14**answers

2k views

### What are interesting families of subsets of a given set?

Motivation
The usual starting point of both Topology and Measure Theory is the definition of a family of subsets of a set $S$.
Indeed, one defines a topology on $S$ to be a family of subsets ...

**26**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Do sets with positive Lebesgue measure have same cardinality as R?

I have been thinking about which kind of wild non-measurable functions you can define. This led me to the question:
Is it possible to prove in ZFC, that if a (Edit: measurabel) set $A\subset ...

**26**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Reference for the Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras

The Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras states that the following three categories are equivalent:
(1) The opposite category of the category of commutative von Neumann ...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Is there a finite family of functions such that the max of any two functions can be dominated by a third?

Is it true that for every $t$ there is an $n$ and there exists a finite function
family, $\cal F$, whose members are from $[n] \to \mathbb N$ (taking all different
values) and for any $f_1, \ldots, ...

**24**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### What's the use of a complete measure?

A complete measure space is one in which any subset of a measure-zero set is measurable.
For what reasons would I want a complete measure space? The only reason I can think of is in the context of ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

835 views

### Does every set of reals contain a measure-zero set of the same cardinality? Does it contain a meager set of the same cardinality?

This question arises from an issue in my post on Ashutosh's excellent question on Restrictions of the null/meager ideal.
Question 1. Does every set of reals contain a measure-zero subset
of the same ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

702 views

### Codimension of Measurable Sets

I am currently teaching an advanced undergraduate analysis class, and the following question came up.
Intuition suggests that "most" subsets of $[0,1]$ are not Lebesgue measurable. However, the ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Most significant results in motivic integration theory?

I am thinking about reading a course on motivic integration. I have already read certain introductions to the subject; yet I am not sure that they mention all the significant parts of the theory. So, ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Furstenberg's Conjecture on 2-3-invariant continuous probability measures on the circle

Hillel Furstenberg conjectured that the only $2$-$3$-invariant probability measure on the circle without atoms is the Lebesgue measure. More precisely:
Question: (Furstenberg) Let $\mu$ be a ...

**21**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Product of Borel sigma algebras

If $X$ and $Y$ are separable metric spaces, then the Borel $\sigma$-algebra $B(X \times Y)$ of the product is the the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $B(X)\times B(Y)$. I am embarrassed to admit that ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Is there a category structure one can place on measure spaces so that category-theoretic products exist?

The usual category of measure spaces consists of objects $(X, \mathcal{B}_X, \mu_X)$, where $X$ is a space, $\mathcal{B}_X$ is a $\sigma$-algebra on $X$, and $\mu_X$ is a measure on $X$, and measure ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

926 views

### construction of nonmeasurable sets

I have a history question for which I've had trouble finding a good answer.
The common story about nonmeasurable sets is that Vitali showed that one existed using the Axiom of Choice, and Lebesgue et ...

**20**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### When is $L^2(X)$ separable?

I have never studied any measure theory, so apologise in advance, if my question is easy:
Let $X$ be a measure space. How can I decide whether $L^2(X)$ is separable?
In reality, I am interested in ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Nonstandard analysis in probability theory

I am quite new at nonstandard analysis, and recently I became aware of its use in probability theory mainly through the following two books:
Nelson (1987). Radically Elementary Probability Theory
...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Is every probability space a factor space of the Haar Measure on some group?

Let P be an arbitrary probability space.
I would like to find a compact topological group $G$ so that the Haar probability measure on $G$ admits a measurable map to the probability space $P$.
By a ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### What are the obstructions for a Henstock-Kurzweil integral in more than one dimension?

I have recently come across the book The Kurzweil-Henstock Integral and its Differentials by Solomon Leader, in which, if I understand correctly, the HK integration process is modified in a way that ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

646 views

### Nonseparable disintegration theory: references

I mean a theorem of the following kind. Let $A$ be a C*-algebra, and let $\pi: A\to B(H)$ be its representation. Then there exist a set $P$ with a positive measure $\mu$, a field of Hilbert spaces ...

**19**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Dual of bounded uniformly continuous functions

Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space, and let $C_u(X)$ be the Banach space of bounded uniformly continuous functions on $X$ (with the uniform norm). How can I characterize its dual space $C_u(X)^*$?
I ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is every smooth function Lebesgue-Lebesgue measurable?

This is motivated by pure curiosity (triggered by this question). A map $f:\mathbb R^n\to\mathbb R^m$ is said to be Lebesgue-Lebesgue measurable if the pre-image of any Lebesgue-measurable subset of ...

**18**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is a random subset of the real numbers non-measurable? Is the set of measurable sets measurable?

One might say, "a random subset of $\mathbb{R}$ is not Lebesgue measurable" without really thinking about it. But if we unpack the standard definitions of all those terms (and work in ZFC), it's not ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

662 views

### A collection of intervals that can cover any measure zero set

This is a follow-up to this question (in fact, this is what originally motivated me to ask that one.)
Let's say that a sequence $\{s_i\}$ of positive reals covers a set $X\subset\mathbb R$ if there ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### L1 distance between gaussian measures

L1 distance between gaussian measures: Definition
Let $P_1$ and $P_0$ be two gaussian measures on $\mathbb{R}^p$ with respective "mean,Variance" $m_1,C_1$ and $m_0,C_0$ (I assume matrices have full ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Can a Vitali set be Lebesgue measurable? (ZF)

Here is the definition of Lebesgue measure.
The standard proof that Vitali sets are not Lebesgue measurable uses countable additivity of Lebesgue measure, which is not a theorem of ZF. (In ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### A set that can be covered by arbitrarily small intervals

Let $X$ be a subset of the real line and $S=\{s_i\}$ an infinite sequence of positive numbers. Let me say that $X$ is $S$-small if there is a collection $\{I_i\}$ of intervals such that the length of ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

578 views

### anti-measureable function

(ZFC)
Does there exist a function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} \hspace{.1 in}$ such that for all $B$, if $B \subsetneq \mathbb{R}$ and $B$ is a nonempty Borel set, then $\lbrace x \in \mathbb{R} : ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

490 views

### How strong is “all sets are Lebesgue Measurable” in weaker contexts than ZF?

Famously, Solovay showed that, if $\textrm{ZFC}$ plus $\textrm{IC}$ (the existence of an inaccessible cardinal) is consistent, then so is $\textrm{ZF}$ plus $\textrm{DC}$ (dependent choice) plus ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

514 views

### Intersection of compact sets in the unit interval

Let $\mathscr K$ be an uncountable set such that every $K\in\mathscr K$ is a compact subset of $[0,1]$ with positive Lebesgue measure. Does it then follow that there exists an uncountable $\mathscr ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### measure spaces as presheaves?

I recently had the idea that maybe measure spaces could be viewed as sheaves, since they attach things, specifically real numbers, to sets...
But at least as far as I can tell, it doesn't quite work ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

583 views

### A moment problem on $[0,1]$ in which infinitely many moments are equal

Suppose $\mu$ and $\nu$ are two probability measures on $[0,1]$. Let their $n$-th moments be denoted by $\mu_n$ and $\nu_n$, respectively, for $n \in \mathbb{N}$.
If we know that $\mu_n=\nu_n$ for ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Weak and Strong Integration of vector-valued functions

This is probably an elementary question, but outside my area of expertise, and I was unable to find any suitable reference:
Suppose $f:X\to E$ is a continuous function from a compact spaces (endowed ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Is the sum of 2 Lebesgue measurable sets measurable?

Is the sum of two measurable set measurable? I think it is not...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is arbitrary union of closed balls in R^{N} Lebesgue measurable?

Is an arbitrary union of non-trivial closed balls in the Euclidean space $\mathbb R^{N}$ Lebesgue measurable? If so, is it a Borel set?
@George
I still have two questions concerning your sketch of ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

792 views

### Borel set plus a closed set = Borel

Hi,
Let $R$ be equipped with the usual Borel structure. Let $F$ be a Borel subset and $E$ be a closed subset of $R$. Then $F+E=(f+e: f\in F, e \in E \)$ is Borel? If yes, is it true for any locally ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

576 views

### Which distributions can you sample if you can sample a Gaussian?

Explicitly: You have a computer that is able to pick a real number at random according to the normal distribution: $\mathcal{N}(0,1) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}e^{-x^2/2}$. Which distributions can this ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### What is a Gaussian measure?

Let $X$ be a topological affine space. A Gaussian measure on $X$ is characterized by the property that its finite-dimensional projections are multivariate Gaussian distributions.
Is there a direct ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### sets with positive Lebesgue measure boundary

Consider a compact subset $K$ of $R^n$ which is the closure of its interior. Does its boundary $\partial K$ have zero Lebesgue measure ?
I guess it's wrong, because the topological assumption is ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Existence of probability measure defined on all subsets

Let S be an uncountable set. Does there exist a probability measure which is defined on all subsets of S, with P({x}) = 0 for any element x of S ?
If I remove the condition P({x}) = 0, then I can ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

606 views

### A natural center of a convex weakly compact set in Banach space

Question: Let $S$ be a convex weakly compact set in Banach space $H$. Propose a natural way to define the unique center $O \in S$.
Motivation: A lot! For example, in game theory $S$ can be a set of ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

418 views

### The optimal constant in Vitali covering lemma

Let me restate Vitali covering lemma.
Let $\{B_i\}_{i\in F}$ be a finite collection of balls in the $\mathbb{R}^n$. Then there is $S\subset F$ such that the balls $\{B_i\}_{i\in S}$ are disjoint and
...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

327 views

### A question about small sets of reals

In ZFC, does there exist an uncountable set of reals $A$ such that for every closed measure zero set of reals $B$, $ A + B = \{a+b : a \in A, b \in B\} \neq \mathbb{R}$?
This question is motivated ...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

733 views

### A Kakeya-like problem: must a union of annuli fill the plane?

Let $S$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ with the following property. For all $x \in \mathbb{R}^2$ and $\varepsilon \gt 0$, there exists a nontrivial interval $[a,b] \subseteq [1-\varepsilon,1]$, such ...