The martingales tag has no wiki summary.

**5**

votes

**0**answers

138 views

### A generalization of Jensen's Inequality

Jensen's inequality is well known as
$$E\big[f(X)\big]\le f\big(E[X]\big)$$
where $X$ is a integrable random variable and $f: R\to R$ is a bounded concave function, see also ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

176 views

### Supremum in a Markov chain model

A Markov chain $X$ with finite state space $\{1,2,\cdots,N\}$ is defined on a probability space $(\Omega, P, \mathcal{F})$ equiped with filtration $\{\mathcal{F}_t\}$. And we assume that we can reach ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

121 views

### explicit characterization of the stochastic integrand

Let $V$ be a cadlag positive supermartingale with the following decomposition:
$$V_t=V_0+\int_0^tH_sdX_s-K_t$$
where $X$ is a cadlag local martingale and $K$ is an adapted increasing process with ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

45 views

### question about the optimal decomposition of supermartingale

Given a filtered probability space $(\Omega, \mathbb{F}, \{\mathcal{F}_t\}_{0\le t\le 1}, \mathbb{P})$, let $X$ be a cadlag martingale and $V$ be cadlag supermartingale. Suppose $V$ has the following ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

153 views

### A note on Doob's theorem

I have faced the following problem, regarding to the Martingale Theory. Because this area far from my area I don't know whether this problem is in literature or this can be simple question for ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

120 views

### Can $<.>$ of a martingale determine it only?

Let $\Omega$ be the space of continuous functions defined on $[0,1]$. Define the canonical process $B$ by
$$B_t(\omega)=\omega_t,~ \forall\omega\in\Omega$$
Let us equip $\Omega$ with the usual ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

95 views

### Hitting time of two dimensional continuous martingale

Let $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, P)$ be a probability space, on which $\mathcal{F}_t$ is filtration satisfying general conditions. $W_{t}=\left(W_{t}^{1},W_{t}^{2}\right)^{T}$ is a two dimensional Brownian ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

39 views

### Question about Skorokhod embedding problem

Let $B=(B_t)_{t\ge 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion on some probability space. Now for every centered probability distribution $\mu$ on $R$, i.e. $\int_{R}|x|d\mu(x)<+\infty$ and ...

**11**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Brownian motion, martingales, Markov Chains - Rosetta Stone

What are the most
fundamental/useful/interesting ways in
which the concepts of Brownian motion,
martingales and markov chains are
related?
I'm a graduate student doing a crash course in ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

116 views

### Conditional Form of Rosenthal's Inequality

Rosenthal's Inequality as stated in the book "Martingale Limit Theory and Its Application" by Hall and Heyde states the following:
If $\{S_i, \mathcal{F}_i, 1\leq i \leq n\}$ is a martingale and ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

97 views

### An identity for the exponential of a martingale

I am trying to understand a Lemma in Olav Kallenberg's book "Foundations of Modern Probability" (Lemma 26.19 in the second edition or 23.19 in the first edition).
The part of the lemma that I do not ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

145 views

### Can we give any upper bound on $E[\max_{n \leq N} X_n]$ in terms of $\max_{n \leq N} E[X_n]$

Consider a sequence $\{X_n\}$ of $N$ random variables. Can we give any upper bound on $E[\max_{n \leq N} X_n]$ in terms of $\max_{n \leq N} E[X_n]$. I think in general it is not possible.
If ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

84 views

### A result on absolute mean of a stopped supermartingale

The reason of posting the following problem here is that I heard that it is a result from some paper.
Let $(X_n, \mathscr{F_n}), n \geq 0$ be a super martingale and $T$ an $\{F_n\}$-stopping time ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

142 views

### Stochastic integration by parts to obtain Kailath Segall identity for iterated stochastic integrals?

If $(M_t)_{t \geq 0}$ is a continuous local martingale, one can define the iterated integrals $I_0=1$, $I_1(t)=M_t$ and for $n \geq 2$ $$I_{n}(t) = \int_0^t I_{n-1} (s) \mathrm{d} M_s.$$ By noting ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

18 views

### Zeros of non-lipschitz functions (when noisy estimates are available only)

Given noisy (martingale difference) of a Lipschitz continuous function $f$ it is known how to compute zeros of it. It is the stochastic approximation approach (by Borkar, Kushner and Yin etc.). Is ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

47 views

### Bounded martingales of infinite path length

Let $(X_t)_{t \in \mathbb{N}}$ be a real-valued martingale that is bounded, i.e.,
there are $a, b \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $a \leq X_t \leq b$ for all $t$.
Define the path length $L$ of $(X_t)_{t ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

77 views

### Reference request: Stochastic integration and martingale theory on the whole real line

I'm looking for a thorough treatment of stochastic integration and/or martingale theory on the whole real line, i.e. a way to construct a Brownian motion $(B_s)_{s \in \mathbb{R}}$ (if a two-sided BM ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

546 views

### Is this ergodic inequality true?

Is anything similar to the following inequality true,
$\displaystyle P\{\max_{n \leq k \leq m} |A_k f - A_n f| > \epsilon\} \leq C \frac{||A_m f - A_n f||_1}{\epsilon}$
where $A_n f = ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

139 views

### Examples of a continuous martingale with $E[\sup\limits_{0\leq s\leq t} |M_s|]=\infty$?

A local martingale is a martingale iff it is in the class DL.
The condition: for every $t\in[0,\infty)$
$$E[\sup\limits_{0\leq s\leq t} |M_s|]<\infty\tag1$$
guarantees a local martingale $M$ is ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

364 views

### Iterated Ito Integral, Gaussian Volterra Process

Let me define
$$
J^f_{n}(t) = \, \int_0^t \int_0^{t_1} \ldots \int_0^{t_{n-1}} f(t, t_1, \ldots, t_n) \; dB_{t_n} ...dB_{t_1}
$$
where $f:[0,1]^{n+1} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a nice deterministic ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

316 views

### Extension of the Azuma-Hoeffding inequality (when the differences are bounded with large probability)

Let $(X_i)$ be a super-martingale and suppose their differences are bounded ''with high probability'', that is
$$\mathbb{P}(\exists\,i=1,\dots,n\text{ s.t. }|X_i-X_{i-1}|>c_i) \,\leq\, \epsilon$$
...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

89 views

### Pointwise convergence of ergodic averages of unconventional conditional expectations

Let $(X_i,Y_i)_{i\in\mathbb{Z}}$ be a finite-valued stationary process whose $\sigma$-algebra of tail events is trivial. Let $\mathcal{F}_n^m$ be the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $X_n,\dots,X_m$ ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

55 views

### question related to Tanaka Formulae

Supposse $X=(X_t)$ is a cadlag martingale taking values in $\mathbb{R}$. If $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ is a convex function, then we have Tanaka Formulae. Now let $g: ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

794 views

### Distribution of running maximum of a local martingale

Let $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mathbb{P}, \mathcal{F}_t)$ be a given
probability space with usual conditions, on which $W$ is a standard
Brownian motion. For $x \ge 0$, consider
$$X(t) = x + \int_0^t ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

738 views

### Compactness of the set of densities of equivalent martingale measures

Consider an incomplete market $(\Omega,\mathcal F,\mathbb P)$ driven by a semimartingale $S=(S_t)_{t\in[0,T]}$. Under the no free lunch under vanishing risk (NFLVR) assumption, the set $\mathcal ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

88 views

### a question about Dambis, Dubins-Schwarz Theorem

Let $M=(M_t)_{0\le t\le 1}$ be a continous $\mathbb{F}=\{\mathcal{F}_t\}_{0\le t\le 1}$-martingale s.t. $M_0=0$. Now my question is whether there exists a Brownin motion $B$ s.t.
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

36 views

### a question about the modification of a supermartingale

Let $\mathbf{D}\subset\mathbf{D}([0,1],\mathbb{R}_+)$ denote the space of positive cadlag functions $\mathbf{x}$ defined on $[0,1]$ with $\mathbf{x}(0)=1$. Define the canonical process
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

83 views

### question about Doob-Meyer decomposition

Given a filtered probability space and let $X$ be a cadlag local martingale defined on this space. Let $V$ be a cadlag supermartingale and assume we know the following decomposition:
...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

208 views

### Probability of winding number of 2D Brownian Motion

Let $B_t$ be a 2D Brownian Motion with $B_0 = (1,0)$. Now, express $B_t$ in polars, that is, $B_t = (r(t), \theta(t))$. Let $\tau = \inf\{t > 0 : \theta(t) \geq 2 \pi \}$. What is $\mathbb{P}[\tau ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

324 views

### Stieltjes integrals of predictable processes

I am looking for a direct proof of the fact that, roughly speaking, if $S=S_0+A+M$ is an $L^2$ semimartingale, and $M$ (the martingale part) has the martingale representation property, then for any ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

343 views

### Can every discrete martingale be embedded in a continuous martingale?

Let $(X_k)_{k=0,1,..., n}$ be a discrete martingale defined on some probability space $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},\mathbb{P})$. I would like to know whether there exists a (continuous) martingale ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

143 views

### a dominated convergence theorem for martingale (II)

The question is presented in
a dominated convergence theorem for martingale
Let $\{(X_1^n, X_2^n)\}_n$ be a sequence of martingales defined some probability space. (which means ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

111 views

### asymptotic variance of sample autocorrelation of two iid random variables

I am trying to prove that the variance of the sample lag-1 autocorrelation
$$\hat{\rho}=\frac{\sum_{t=1}^n(x_t-\bar{x})(x_{t-1}-\bar{x})}{\sum_{t=1}^n(x_{t-1}-\bar{x})^2}$$
for an i.i.d. R.V is ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

195 views

### Doob's inequality for martingale “convolution”

Let $(X_t, t \in \mathbb{N})$ be a martingale, and let $a \leq b \leq T \in \mathbb{N}$ be constants. Is there something like Doob's inequality for $\mathbb{E} \sup_{a \leq t \leq b} X_t(X_T-X_t)$, ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

195 views

### Some constants in Martingale Stein inequality

Dear all,
the following is a special case of Stein inequalities for martingales.
$\textbf{Theorem}$ Let $(\Omega, \mathbb{P})$ be a (standard) probability space equipped with a filtration of ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

219 views

### Sufficient condition for local martingale property of stochastic integral

Is the following correct and/or a (simple) known result?
Let $X$ be a local martingale and $H$ an integrand for $X$, such that the stochastic integral $\int H\cdot dX\ge x$ for some random variable. ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

268 views

### Martingale part of the discontinuous put payoff

I need the martingale part of the put payoff (not $C^2$..). Where $S_t=exp(\sigma W_t -\frac{\sigma^2t}{2})$
$d[(S_t -K)^+ ]$ ??
I guess I need to use local times but how?

**7**

votes

**3**answers

316 views

### Rosenthal like inequality for weak $\mathbb L^p$-norms

Let $p$ be a real number greater than $1$. It is well known (see Hall and Heyde's Martingale limit theory and its applications, Theorem 2.10) that there exists a constant $C_p$ such that if ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

152 views

### a $L^1$ convergence for backward martingale

I have a question which may be naive, but I can not find the related result in the classical reference such as "Foundations of Modern Probability" and "Probability"(Billingsley). So if someone knows ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

241 views

### What is the optimal growth of the constant in BDG?

Let $X$ be a continuous local martingale, and $\langle X \rangle$ be its quadratic variation process. The "standard" proof of Burkholder-Davis-Gundy inequalities found in books yields $(\mathsf{E} ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

86 views

### construction of a approximate martingale

everyone.
Given a probabilistic space $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}_t, \mathbb{P})$ and a martingale $(M_t)_{t\leq 1}$ on it. Suppose
$$M_1\stackrel{\mathbb{P}}{\sim}\mu$$
where $\mu$ is a probability ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

118 views

### compactness of a probability set

I have a question about the compactness of a set of martingale measures. Let $\Omega=\mathcal{C}[0,1]$ be the space of continuous functions on $[0,1]$ and $\mathcal{M}_{\Omega}$ be the family of ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

74 views

### weaker version of the martingale convergence theorem

Let $\mathcal{A}_n$ be a sequence of finite sigma-algebras, let $\mathcal{B}_{q,p}= \sigma(\mathcal{A}_n, q \geq n \geq p )$. Moreover, we suppose $\mathcal{A}_k \subset \mathcal{B}_{\infty,p}$ for ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

88 views

### a generalization of Monge-Kantorovich Problem

I am thinking about the martingale version of Monge-Kantorovich Problem.
Let $\mu(x)$ and $\nu(y)$ denote two density laws on $\mathbb{R}$, and define $M(\mu,\nu)$ the set of densities $f(x,y)$ on ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

80 views

### Supermartingale inequality on a particular event

Say, I have a supermartingale $Y_t$ with respect to the filtration $F_t$. Let $T$ and $S$ two stopping times greater than $t>0$ such that on the event $A$, $T>S$, then since $Y_t$ is a ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

732 views

### De Finetti's theorem, the pointwise ergodic theorem, and reverse martingales

De Finetti's theorem says that an exchangeable sequence of random variables $X_i$ is a mixture of i.i.d. random variables. In other words, if $\mu$ is a measure on $\mathbb{R}^\infty$ that is ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

145 views

### Savings property: A transformation which turns nonnegative martingales into uniformly integrable ones

Background
I work in a subfield of computability theory called algorithmic randomness. We have been using martingales as long as probability theory (going back to work of von Mises). However, since ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

187 views

### What conditions on a filtration guarantee that a (sub)martingale has a continuous modification?

There is a theorem as follows:
Theorem. Let $\mathcal{F}_t$ be a filtration which is right-continuous and complete. Assume $M_t$ is a submartingale adapted to $\mathcal{F}_t$ such that $t \mapsto ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

286 views

### Uniform law of large numbers for martingale difference

Let $\xi_{tn}(\theta),t=1,\dots,n$ be a real-valued martingale difference array indexed by a parameter $\theta \in \Theta \subset R$, where the set $\Theta$ is compact. Now, for all fixed $\theta \in ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

259 views

### On martingale representation theorem

Let $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},P)$ be a probability space and $(\mathcal{F_{t}})_{0\le t\le T}$ a filtration generated by standard Brownian motion $W_t$.
Let $f(x)$ be $C^1$ function such that $|f'(x)| ...