The martingales tag has no usage guidance.

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### Supremum in a Markov chain model

A Markov chain $X$ with finite state space $\{1,2,\cdots,N\}$ is defined on a probability space $(\Omega, P, \mathcal{F})$ equiped with filtration $\{\mathcal{F}_t\}$. And we assume that we can reach ...

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191 views

### explicit characterization of the stochastic integrand

Let $V$ be a cadlag positive supermartingale with the following decomposition:
$$V_t=V_0+\int_0^tH_sdX_s-K_t$$
where $X$ is a cadlag local martingale and $K$ is an adapted increasing process with ...

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816 views

### Hardy spaces: analysis <---> martingales

Let $H^p$ be the Hardy space of analytic functions on the open unit disk $\mathbb{D}$: $f \in H^p$ if $f$ is analytic on $\mathbb{D}$ and $\sup_{r < 1} \int_0^{2\pi} |f(re^{i\theta})|^p d\theta ...

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### integrability of Brownian motion stopped at some stopping time

Let $B=(B_t)_{t\ge 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion starting at zero and denote by $S=(S_t)_{t\ge 0}$ its running maximum, i.e. $S_t=\sup_{0\le s\le t}B_s$. Given a fixed number $p>1$, define the ...

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### Existence of martingales given some constraint on laws

Let $X=(X)_{0\le t\le 1}$ be a continuous martingale starting at $0$, then denote by $\mu$ and $\nu$ the probability laws of $\int_0^1X_t \mathrm{d}t$ and $X_1$. Then it is easy to see that the couple ...

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94 views

### Is it possible to prove concentration bounds from optional stopping theorem?

It is known that the optional stopping theorem from martingale theory is a very powerful theorem in probability theory in statistics.
I have heard of a probability course at Stanford where ...

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### characterization of the equivalence between two probability measures

Let $X=(X_1,...,X_n)$ be a canonical process defined on the Euclidean space $R^n$, i.e. $X(x)=x$ for all $x\in R^n$ and $\mathbb F=\{\mathcal{F}_k\}_{1\le k\le n}$ be its natural filtration, i.e. ...

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### Quadratic Variation of a Martingale in Hlibert Spaces

I'm looking at a Martingale (actually a Martingale difference sequence),
$$
M_n = \sum \delta M_n,
$$
and I'd like to prove something about convergence. If Martingale is Hilbert space valued ...

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**1**answer

164 views

### Question about the stochastic integral of martingales

Let $M=(M_t)_{t\ge 0}$ be a continuous martingale defined on some filtered probability space taking values in $R$. Let $H=(H_t)_{t\ge 0}$ be some bounded progressively measurable process, i.e.
...

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### Horizontal vs Vertical sides Exit from a Rectangle for simple symmetric Random Walk on $\textbf{Z}^{2}$

Consider simple symmetric random walk, $X_{n} = (X_{n}^{(1)}, X_{n}^{(2)})$ with $X_0= (0,0)$, on the 2 dimensional integer lattice, $\textbf{Z}^{2}$.
Let $T_{M}, T_{N}$ be the smallest $n$ such ...

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187 views

### Quadratic variation and predictable quadratic variation for martingales

Let $(M_{t})_{0\le t\le 1}$ be a continuous martingale with respect to the filtration $(\mathcal{F}_{t})_{0\le t\le 1}$. Assume that $E M_1^2<\infty$.
Fix $N$ and consider now a discrete version ...

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### Question about the characteristics of semimartingales

Let $D=D([0,1,R)$ be the space of cadlag (right-continuous with left limits) functions defined on [0,1] and $X:=(X_t)_{t\in [0,1]}$ be the canonical process on $D$, i.e. $X_t(x)=x(t)$ for all $x\in ...

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### Examples of a continuous martingale with $E[\sup\limits_{0\leq s\leq t} |M_s|]=\infty$?

A local martingale is a martingale iff it is in the class DL.
The condition: for every $t\in[0,\infty)$
$$E[\sup\limits_{0\leq s\leq t} |M_s|]<\infty\tag1$$
guarantees a local martingale $M$ is ...

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243 views

### a question on 0-1 valued stochastic process

Here's a question on probability theory from a layman (I'm a game theorist). It is very likely that the question will be a straightforward matter for someone who is a probability theorist. I guess I'm ...

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### Tail inequality for orthomartingales/martingale difference random fields

It is known that if $(S_i= \sum_{j \leqslant i }X_i, \mathcal F_i)$ is a martingale,
then for each
$
\beta>1$, $\delta\in (0,\beta-1)$ and $\lambda>0$, and each integer $N \geqslant 1$, the ...

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**1**answer

94 views

### Concentration bound for a martingale-like setting (the expected difference decreases as the sequence increases)

I went through several martingales concentration bounds, but none of them fit the settings I am interested in, which is the following. Suppose I have a sequence of nonnegative random variables ...

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240 views

### A generalization of Jensen's Inequality

Jensen's inequality is well known as
$$E\big[f(X)\big]\le f\big(E[X]\big)$$
where $X$ is a integrable random variable and $f: R\to R$ is a bounded concave function, see also ...

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### question about the optimal decomposition of supermartingale

Given a filtered probability space $(\Omega, \mathbb{F}, \{\mathcal{F}_t\}_{0\le t\le 1}, \mathbb{P})$, let $X$ be a cadlag martingale and $V$ be cadlag supermartingale. Suppose $V$ has the following ...

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### A note on Doob's theorem

I have faced the following problem, regarding to the Martingale Theory. Because this area far from my area I don't know whether this problem is in literature or this can be simple question for ...

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### Can $<.>$ of a martingale determine it only?

Let $\Omega$ be the space of continuous functions defined on $[0,1]$. Define the canonical process $B$ by
$$B_t(\omega)=\omega_t,~ \forall\omega\in\Omega$$
Let us equip $\Omega$ with the usual ...

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### Hitting time of two dimensional continuous martingale

Let $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, P)$ be a probability space, on which $\mathcal{F}_t$ is filtration satisfying general conditions. $W_{t}=\left(W_{t}^{1},W_{t}^{2}\right)^{T}$ is a two dimensional Brownian ...

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### Question about Skorokhod embedding problem

Let $B=(B_t)_{t\ge 0}$ be a standard Brownian motion on some probability space. Now for every centered probability distribution $\mu$ on $R$, i.e. $\int_{R}|x|d\mu(x)<+\infty$ and ...

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### Brownian motion, martingales, Markov Chains - Rosetta Stone

What are the most
fundamental/useful/interesting ways in
which the concepts of Brownian motion,
martingales and markov chains are
related?
I'm a graduate student doing a crash course in ...

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### Conditional Form of Rosenthal's Inequality

Rosenthal's Inequality as stated in the book "Martingale Limit Theory and Its Application" by Hall and Heyde states the following:
If $\{S_i, \mathcal{F}_i, 1\leq i \leq n\}$ is a martingale and ...

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### An identity for the exponential of a martingale

I am trying to understand a Lemma in Olav Kallenberg's book "Foundations of Modern Probability" (Lemma 26.19 in the second edition or 23.19 in the first edition).
The part of the lemma that I do not ...

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159 views

### Can we give any upper bound on $E[\max_{n \leq N} X_n]$ in terms of $\max_{n \leq N} E[X_n]$

Consider a sequence $\{X_n\}$ of $N$ random variables. Can we give any upper bound on $E[\max_{n \leq N} X_n]$ in terms of $\max_{n \leq N} E[X_n]$. I think in general it is not possible.
If ...

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### A result on absolute mean of a stopped supermartingale

The reason of posting the following problem here is that I heard that it is a result from some paper.
Let $(X_n, \mathscr{F_n}), n \geq 0$ be a super martingale and $T$ an $\{F_n\}$-stopping time ...

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### Stochastic integration by parts to obtain Kailath Segall identity for iterated stochastic integrals?

If $(M_t)_{t \geq 0}$ is a continuous local martingale, one can define the iterated integrals $I_0=1$, $I_1(t)=M_t$ and for $n \geq 2$ $$I_{n}(t) = \int_0^t I_{n-1} (s) \mathrm{d} M_s.$$ By noting ...

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### Bounded martingales of infinite path length

Let $(X_t)_{t \in \mathbb{N}}$ be a real-valued martingale that is bounded, i.e.,
there are $a, b \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $a \leq X_t \leq b$ for all $t$.
Define the path length $L$ of $(X_t)_{t ...

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### Reference request: Stochastic integration and martingale theory on the whole real line

I'm looking for a thorough treatment of stochastic integration and/or martingale theory on the whole real line, i.e. a way to construct a Brownian motion $(B_s)_{s \in \mathbb{R}}$ (if a two-sided BM ...

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### Is this ergodic inequality true?

Is anything similar to the following inequality true,
$\displaystyle P\{\max_{n \leq k \leq m} |A_k f - A_n f| > \epsilon\} \leq C \frac{||A_m f - A_n f||_1}{\epsilon}$
where $A_n f = ...

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457 views

### Iterated Ito Integral, Gaussian Volterra Process

Let me define
$$
J^f_{n}(t) = \, \int_0^t \int_0^{t_1} \ldots \int_0^{t_{n-1}} f(t, t_1, \ldots, t_n) \; dB_{t_n} ...dB_{t_1}
$$
where $f:[0,1]^{n+1} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a nice deterministic ...

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### Extension of the Azuma-Hoeffding inequality (when the differences are bounded with large probability)

Let $(X_i)$ be a super-martingale and suppose their differences are bounded ''with high probability'', that is
$$\mathbb{P}(\exists\,i=1,\dots,n\text{ s.t. }|X_i-X_{i-1}|>c_i) \,\leq\, \epsilon$$
...

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### Pointwise convergence of ergodic averages of unconventional conditional expectations

Let $(X_i,Y_i)_{i\in\mathbb{Z}}$ be a finite-valued stationary process whose $\sigma$-algebra of tail events is trivial. Let $\mathcal{F}_n^m$ be the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $X_n,\dots,X_m$ ...

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### question related to Tanaka Formulae

Supposse $X=(X_t)$ is a cadlag martingale taking values in $\mathbb{R}$. If $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ is a convex function, then we have Tanaka Formulae. Now let $g: ...

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### Distribution of running maximum of a local martingale

Let $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mathbb{P}, \mathcal{F}_t)$ be a given
probability space with usual conditions, on which $W$ is a standard
Brownian motion. For $x \ge 0$, consider
$$X(t) = x + \int_0^t ...

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### Compactness of the set of densities of equivalent martingale measures

Consider an incomplete market $(\Omega,\mathcal F,\mathbb P)$ driven by a semimartingale $S=(S_t)_{t\in[0,T]}$. Under the no free lunch under vanishing risk (NFLVR) assumption, the set $\mathcal ...

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### a question about the modification of a supermartingale

Let $\mathbf{D}\subset\mathbf{D}([0,1],\mathbb{R}_+)$ denote the space of positive cadlag functions $\mathbf{x}$ defined on $[0,1]$ with $\mathbf{x}(0)=1$. Define the canonical process
...

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### question about Doob-Meyer decomposition

Given a filtered probability space and let $X$ be a cadlag local martingale defined on this space. Let $V$ be a cadlag supermartingale and assume we know the following decomposition:
...

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### Probability of winding number of 2D Brownian Motion

Let $B_t$ be a 2D Brownian Motion with $B_0 = (1,0)$. Now, express $B_t$ in polars, that is, $B_t = (r(t), \theta(t))$. Let $\tau = \inf\{t > 0 : \theta(t) \geq 2 \pi \}$. What is $\mathbb{P}[\tau ...

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### Stieltjes integrals of predictable processes

I am looking for a direct proof of the fact that, roughly speaking, if $S=S_0+A+M$ is an $L^2$ semimartingale, and $M$ (the martingale part) has the martingale representation property, then for any ...

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### Can every discrete martingale be embedded in a continuous martingale?

Let $(X_k)_{k=0,1,..., n}$ be a discrete martingale defined on some probability space $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},\mathbb{P})$. I would like to know whether there exists a (continuous) martingale ...

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### a dominated convergence theorem for martingale (II)

The question is presented in
a dominated convergence theorem for martingale
Let $\{(X_1^n, X_2^n)\}_n$ be a sequence of martingales defined some probability space. (which means ...

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### asymptotic variance of sample autocorrelation of two iid random variables

I am trying to prove that the variance of the sample lag-1 autocorrelation
$$\hat{\rho}=\frac{\sum_{t=1}^n(x_t-\bar{x})(x_{t-1}-\bar{x})}{\sum_{t=1}^n(x_{t-1}-\bar{x})^2}$$
for an i.i.d. R.V is ...

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### Doob's inequality for martingale “convolution”

Let $(X_t, t \in \mathbb{N})$ be a martingale, and let $a \leq b \leq T \in \mathbb{N}$ be constants. Is there something like Doob's inequality for $\mathbb{E} \sup_{a \leq t \leq b} X_t(X_T-X_t)$, ...

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### Some constants in Martingale Stein inequality

Dear all,
the following is a special case of Stein inequalities for martingales.
$\textbf{Theorem}$ Let $(\Omega, \mathbb{P})$ be a (standard) probability space equipped with a filtration of ...

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### Sufficient condition for local martingale property of stochastic integral

Is the following correct and/or a (simple) known result?
Let $X$ be a local martingale and $H$ an integrand for $X$, such that the stochastic integral $\int H\cdot dX\ge x$ for some random variable. ...

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273 views

### Martingale part of the discontinuous put payoff

I need the martingale part of the put payoff (not $C^2$..). Where $S_t=exp(\sigma W_t -\frac{\sigma^2t}{2})$
$d[(S_t -K)^+ ]$ ??
I guess I need to use local times but how?

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### Rosenthal like inequality for weak $\mathbb L^p$-norms

Let $p$ be a real number greater than $1$. It is well known (see Hall and Heyde's Martingale limit theory and its applications, Theorem 2.10) that there exists a constant $C_p$ such that if ...

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### a $L^1$ convergence for backward martingale

I have a question which may be naive, but I can not find the related result in the classical reference such as "Foundations of Modern Probability" and "Probability"(Billingsley). So if someone knows ...