first-order and higher-order logic, model theory, set theory, proof theory, computability theory, formal languages, definability, interplay of syntax and semantics, constructive logic, intuitionism, philosophical logic, modal logic, completeness, Gödel incompleteness, decidability, undecidability, ...

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112
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0answers
9k views

Ultrafilters and automorphisms of the complex field

It is well-known that it is consistent with $ZF$ that the only automorphisms of the complex field $\mathbb{C}$ are the identity map and complex conjugation. For example, we have that ...
35
votes
0answers
503 views

Reasons to prefer one large prime over another to approximate characteristic zero

Background: In running algebraic geometry computations using software such as Macaulay2, it is often easier and faster to work over $\mathbb F_p = \mathbb Z / p\mathbb Z$ for a large prime $p$, rather ...
26
votes
0answers
859 views

When does $A^A=2^A$ without the axiom of choice?

Assuming the axiom of choice the following argument is simple, for infinite $A$ it holds: $$2\lt A\leq2^A\implies 2^A\leq A^A\leq 2^{A\times A}=2^A.$$ However without the axiom of choice this doesn't ...
26
votes
0answers
807 views

Concerning the various proofs from the axiom of choice that R^3 admits of surprising geometrical decompositions into circles, skew lines and so on: can we prove in any instance that there are no Borel such decompositions? Or that AC is required?

This question follows up on a comment I made on Joseph O'Rourke's recent question, one of several questions here on mathoverflow concerning surprising geometric partitions of space using the axiom of ...
24
votes
0answers
983 views

Peano Arithmetic and the Field of Rationals

In 1949 Julia Robinson showed the undecidability of the first order theory of the field of rationals by demonstrating that the set of natural numbers $\Bbb{N}$ is first order definable in $(\Bbb{Q}, ...
20
votes
0answers
770 views

Godel on recursion-theoretic hierarchies

At the end of his excellent article, "The Emergence of Descriptive Set Theory" (http://math.bu.edu/people/aki/2.pdf), Kanamori writes: "Another mathematical eternal return: Toward the end of his ...
19
votes
0answers
660 views

Supercompact and Reinhardt cardinals without choice

A friend of mine and I ran into the following question while reading about proper forcing, and have been unable to resolve it: Definition. A cardinal $\kappa$ is supercompact if for all ordinals ...
18
votes
0answers
312 views

Decidability of equality of elementary expressions

In the following definition the term expression is to be understood as a finite tree built from formal symbols without any predefined meaning assigned to them. Define the set $\mathcal{E}$ of ...
16
votes
0answers
431 views

Dual Borel conjecture in Laver's model

A set $X\subseteq 2^\omega$ of reals is of strong measure zero (smz) if $X+M\not=2^\omega$ for every meager set $M$. (This is a theorem of Galvin-Mycielski-Solovay, but for the question I am going to ...
16
votes
0answers
401 views

Density of first-order definable sets in a directed union of finite groups

This is a generalization of the following question by John Wiltshire-Gordon. Consider an inductive family of finite groups: $$ G_0 \hookrightarrow G_1 \hookrightarrow \ldots \hookrightarrow G_i ...
15
votes
0answers
368 views

Souslin trees on the first inaccessible cardinal

This may be well-known or simply deducible from the existing theorems, but I didn't find an answer in my set theory books: Is there a model of $ZFC$ in which there are no $\kappa$-Souslin trees where ...
15
votes
0answers
331 views

Are there lightweight foundations for arbitrarily extendable objects?

My experience with foundations is rather scant, but I've run into some types of objects that seem to resist the sort of set-theoretic encoding schemes via Kurowski tuples that are rather common for ...
14
votes
0answers
507 views

Antichains of Cardinals in ZF Without Choice…

With the Axiom of Choice, the cardinals form a nice linearly ordered "set". In the absence of the Axiom of Choice, the cardinals form a partially ordered "set". Broadly, I am wondering what ...
13
votes
0answers
344 views

Relative consistency of ETCS over the theory of a well-pointed topos with NNO

Gödel's well-known proof of the implication $Con(ZF) \Rightarrow Con(ZFC)$ used the construction of the inner model $L$ in $ZF$ to get a model of $ZFC$ (and in fact much more). However such a ...
13
votes
0answers
567 views

Does ZF prove that topological groups are completely regular?

Let $\mathbf{G} = \langle G,\cdot,\mathcal{T}\;\rangle$ be a topological group. Let $\mathbf{e}$ be the identity element of $\langle G,\cdot \rangle$. Assume $\{\mathbf{e}\}$ is closed in $\langle ...
11
votes
0answers
291 views

Does every Aronszajn tree has a Suslin or a Special subtree?

Question: Does every $\omega_1$-Aronszajn tree contains a Suslin sub-tree or a special Aronszajn sub-tree? Recall that Suslin trees are $\omega_1$-trees (trees of height $\omega_1$, and countable ...
11
votes
0answers
256 views

Do all linear orders in this class have computable copies?

This is a question which has been bothering me now for quite some time. I've talked to a number of people about it, and we've shown that a few basic ideas can't work, but other than that haven't made ...
11
votes
0answers
359 views

Hrushovski's Construction

Zilber expressed a conjecture for $\aleph_{1}$- categorical theories.(In 80s) Zilber's Conjecture: The geometry of any $\aleph_{1}$- categorical structure is one of the following: a) Trivial (No ...
11
votes
0answers
142 views

Savings property: A transformation which turns nonnegative martingales into uniformly integrable ones

Background I work in a subfield of computability theory called algorithmic randomness. We have been using martingales as long as probability theory (going back to work of von Mises). However, since ...
11
votes
0answers
615 views

Can a model of $V\neq L$ contain a class giving the $L$-ordering on all its sets?

This question is inspired by the excellent question by Douglas Ulrich When is $L$-Rank definable in inner models of $V=L$? Suppose $M \in L$ is a countable model of $ZFC$, and furthermore suppose $M ...
11
votes
0answers
247 views

How to measure the strength of Zermelo over bounded Zermelo?

Bounded Zermelo is Zermelo set theory with only bounded separation. It has the same strength as simple type theory or MacLane set theory or ETCS. It is a finitely axiomatized fragment of Zermelo, so ...
11
votes
0answers
501 views

Two-cardinal diamond principles and saturation of the nonstationary ideal

In the paper "Stationary reflection and the club filter", the author Masahiro Shioya says that the club filter on $P_{\omega_1}(\lambda)$ cannot be $2^\lambda$-saturated for $\lambda > \omega_1$, ...
11
votes
0answers
505 views

Minimal resources for Undecidability of First-Order Logic: the number of variables

It is well-known that First-Order Logic (FO) with a full vocabulary (i.e., a countable numbers of unary predicate symbols, a countable number of binary predicate symbols, etc.) is undecidable. And it ...
10
votes
0answers
122 views

Maximality of linear orders in the Keisler order on theories

Recently Malliaris and Shelah (see their preprint http://math.uchicago.edu/~mem/Malliaris-Shelah-CST.pdf) have shown that theories with $SOP_2$ are maximal in the Keisler order. A preceding result of ...
10
votes
0answers
457 views

Can one exhibit an explicit Kuratowski infinite set without invoking Replacement?

The customary formulation of the Axiom of Infinity within Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory asserts the existence of an inductive set: a set $ I$ with $\varnothing\in I$ such that $x\in I$ implies ...
10
votes
0answers
444 views

Diagonal lemma from recursion theorem?

Does Gödel's diagonal lemma follow from Kleene's recursion theorem? I believe the converse is true, by an argument like the following. Let e ↦ θe be a bijection between ω and ...
10
votes
0answers
1k views

Reverse mathematics strength of identically zero polynomials are the zero polynomial

According to wikipedia, the statement "every polynomial over a countable field that is not the zero polynomial has only finitely many roots" is equivalent to RCA0 over RCA0* (which is called ERCA-0 in ...
10
votes
0answers
607 views

Does Fermat hold in non-standard models?

Let $n \geq 3$ be a natural number and $PA$ denote Peano arithmetic. Do we have $PA \models \forall x,y,z \geq 1 : x^n + y^n \neq z^n$? In other words, does Fermat's Last Theorem hold also in ...
10
votes
0answers
363 views

To what extent does (co)homology of groups made discrete depend on set theory?

There's a well-known paper by Milnor, "On the homology of Lie groups made discrete," that discusses the relation between the homology of a Lie group $G$ and the underlying discrete group $G^\delta$. ...
9
votes
0answers
208 views

Souslin trees and weakly compact cardinals

In Souslin trees on the first inaccessible cardinal it is asked if it is consistent that there are no $\kappa-$Souslin trees at the least inaccessible cardinal $\kappa$. In this question I would like ...
9
votes
0answers
144 views

Reverse mathematics of meromorphic functions on Riemann surfaces

Various sources touch briefly on the reverse mathematics of measure theory and complex analysis. But I have found none on the uniformization theorem for Riemann surfaces or the existence of ...
9
votes
0answers
190 views

Are there trees for $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{uB}}$?

If there is a proper class of Woodin cardinals, then Woodin showed (using stationary towers) that $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{uB}}$ statements are generically absolute, where $\text{uB}$ denotes the ...
9
votes
0answers
361 views

Existence of a regular subposet which collapses everything except the top cardinal

Suppose $\delta$ is an inaccessible cardinal, and $\mathbb{P}$ is the Levy Collapse $\text{Col}(\kappa, \delta)$ which adds a surjection from $\kappa \to \delta$ (for some regular $\kappa < ...
9
votes
0answers
263 views

What is the simplest known arithmetic definition of exponentiation?

For $n$ a natural number, let $E_n$ denote the set of bounded arithmetic formulas consisting of n alternating blocks of bounded quantifiers starting with an existential quantifier, followed by a ...
9
votes
0answers
241 views

Various definitions of recursion from ordinal machines

Background: I'm trying to get an intuitive understanding of α-recursion and related concepts in higher recursion theory. Once nice book is Peter Hinman's Recursion-Theoretic Hierarchies, available ...
9
votes
0answers
168 views

full support iteration of semiproper forcings

Suppose $\langle P_\alpha,\dot{Q}_\alpha:\alpha\leq\omega_1\rangle$ is a full support iteration of (semi)proper forcings. Is the full limit $P_{\omega_1}$ (semi)proper or at least stationary set ...
8
votes
0answers
190 views

cardinals below the critical point of a generic embedding

This may be an easy question. Are the cardinals below the critical point of a precipitous ideal embedding always absolute between the generic ultrapower and the generic extension? To focus on the ...
8
votes
0answers
230 views

From Frege to Gödel - German equivalent?

I know this question does not quite fit here, but I felt it could best be answered here. I recently stumbled upon the book From Frege to Gödel, which is a sourcebook containing some of the most ...
8
votes
0answers
393 views

Has anyone pursued Frege's idea of numbers as second-order concepts?

Gottlob Frege was a pivotal figure in the history of mathematical logic. He gave an analysis of numbers that proceeded along roughly the following lines, in his books "The Foundations of Arithmetic" ...
8
votes
0answers
156 views

A Magnus theorem in the category of residually finite groups

There is a natural notion of a presentations in the category of residually finite groups. Namely, if $X$ is set and $R$ is a set of words in the free group $FG(X)$ on $X$, then define $G=RF\langle ...
8
votes
0answers
181 views

Homogeneous Namba-like forcing

Let $\kappa \ge \aleph_3$ be a regular cardinal that is countably closed ($\alpha^\omega < \kappa$ for every $\alpha < \kappa$.) I'm mostly interested in the case that $\kappa$ is strongly ...
8
votes
0answers
283 views

Using Lindstrom's theorem to prove Craig interpolation

[EDIT: The theorem I call "Beth definability" below is apparently not generally called that (wikipedia notwithstanding; see http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/288450/two-forms-of-beths-theorem). ...
8
votes
0answers
247 views

Automorphism group of the Turing degrees

It is conjectured that the automorphism group of the Turing degrees, $Aut(\mathcal{D})$, is trivial. However, to the best of my knowledge, the current state-of-the-art is that $Aut(\mathcal{D})$ is ...
8
votes
0answers
449 views

Existence (or non) of “definable” ultrafilters

This is a question which I suspect has an absurdly easy answer, but I'm not seeing it. Let $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle:\omega^2\rightarrow\omega$ be your favorite pairing map (for me, this is the ...
8
votes
0answers
511 views

Does Urysohn's Lemma imply Dependent Choice?

It's widely known$^{1}$ that in the proof of Urysohn's Lemma (UL) one uses the Principle of Dependent Choice (DC). Inspired by the equivalence between DC and Baire's Category Theorem$^{2}$, I'd like ...
8
votes
0answers
1k views

Is there a chess position equivalent to the Collatz conjecture?

Suppose we have an infinite board with a finite number of chess pieces. The question is whether white can checkmate black (without the after 50 moves it is a draw rule). Can you give an explicit ...
8
votes
0answers
242 views

What are the logical morphisms from a topos E to Set?

If $E$ is a topos, is there a nice way to characterize the category of logical morphisms $E\to Set$? Is it complete and/or cocomplete? The topos $Set$ geometrically represents a point; what does it ...
7
votes
0answers
270 views

“Hard” separation results in reverse mathematics (or similar)

This is a fairly broad question. In particular, I specify 5 questions (Q1, Q2.1, Q2.2, Q3, Q4) which for me all fall under one umbrella. Since this is unreasonably broad, I'm really interested in an ...
7
votes
0answers
289 views

What is known of the reverse math of Riemann-Roch?

I hope this is not too trivial, but I think this may be well known to someone (not me).
7
votes
0answers
246 views

Forcing to “minimally” add new reals.

Suppose that I want to force to add a "single" new subset of $\omega$ and not much else. For example, consider the Cohen forcing consisting of finite partial functions from $\omega$ to 2. The forcing ...