**13**

votes

**1**answer

334 views

### Turing degree of finding independent formulas

In this Paper of D. Isaacson, it is proved that the true arithmetic($Th(\mathbb{N}$)) is the only $\omega$-consistent and complete extension of $Q$ (Robinson's arithmetic). This, together with the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

161 views

### Why relative consistency results by forcing arguments are provable in finitistic metatheory

It is claimed in many textbooks that relative consistency results, such as $\text{Con}(\text{ZFC})\rightarrow\text{Con}(\text{ZFC}+2^{\aleph_0}\geq\aleph_2)$, are provable in the finitistic metatheory....

**6**

votes

**1**answer

252 views

### What do we call this quantifier (“binder”)?

There's a quantifier ("binder", whatever), call it $\alpha$, defined as follows: $\alpha x.\tau$ is the (usually infinite) expression obtained by applying the substitution $\{x \mapsto \tau\}$ to the ...

**41**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### Is the Riemann Hypothesis equivalent to a $\Pi_1$ sentence?

1) Can the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) be expressed as a $\Pi_1$ sentence?
More formally,
2) Is there a $\Pi_1$ sentence which is provably equivalent to RH in PA?
Update (July 2010):
So we have ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

141 views

### Construction of model of arithmetic from an arbitrary model

Let $M$ be a non-standard model of $PA$, $a\in |M|$ be an arbitrary non-standard number and $T$ be a theory of arithmetic. We want to choose a subset $M'\subsetneq M$ such that:
$M'\models PA^-$ (or ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

156 views

### O-minimal spectrum is a spectral space

I'm trying to understand a proof on "Sheaves of Continuous Definable Functions" (Pillay, Anand. "Sheaves of continuous definable functions." The Journal of symbolic logic 53.04 (1988): 1165-1169.)
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

116 views

### Model existence and consistency conditions for $\Pi_1^0$ oracles

Let a $\Pi_1^0$ sentence be a sentence asserting that some given Turing machine never halts at the empty input tape. Let Q1 be a (potentially consistently lying) oracle for deciding $\Pi_1^0$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### Spectrum Problem for Higher-Order Logic

Definitions. Given a sentence $\varphi$ of $n$th-order logic, we define the spectrum of $\varphi$ to be the set of cardinalities of finite structures that satisfy $\varphi$. A set $X\subseteq\mathbb ...

**15**

votes

**12**answers

5k views

### The best text to study both incompleteness theorems

Hi!
What text on both incompleteness theorems you would recommend for beginner?
Specifically, I'm looking for the text with the following properties:
1) The proofs should be finitistic, in Godel's ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

97 views

### Complexity of integer programming with added predicates

A classical theorem in Integer Programming by Lenstra says that any integer system
$$A x \le b$$
can be solved in polynomial time, where $A \in \mathbb{Z}^{m \times n}, x \in \mathbb{Z}^n, b \in \...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

184 views

### Definability using rudimentary function

Denote by RUD the set of all rudimentary functions, together with the function that takes any set to its transitive closure.
Assume that I know that a binary relation $R$ is definable by some ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

927 views

### Is there a non-Hopfian lacunary hyperbolic group?

The question's in the title and is easily stated, but let me try to give some details and explain why I'm interested. First, a disclaimer: if the answer's not already somewhere in the literature then ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

429 views

### Let's keep adding once undecidable statements

This present thread is inpired by the previous thread the true reason of the incompleteness of formal systems.
I have the following intuitive idea: Gödel's second incompleteness theorem states that a ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

171 views

### Transfer with minimal choice

Let FUF postulate the existence of a Free UltraFilter on $\mathbb{N}$ and ACC the axiom of countable choice. Consider the superstructure on $\mathbb{R}$ and its inclusion in the bounded ultrapower. ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

136 views

### Is there a Fraisse limit whose automorphism group contains dense but not generic automorphisms?

It is well known that $\mathsf{Aut}(\mathbb{Q},<)$ has generic automorphisms (i.e., a comeagre conjugacy class under the diagonal action) but does not admit ample generics. The automorphism group $\...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

803 views

### Can Vopenka's principle be violated definably?

One form of Vopenka's principle (a large cardinal axiom) states that no locally presentable category contains a full subcategory which is large (= a proper class) and discrete (= contains no ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

247 views

### Can noncomputable sets be distinguishable in $RCA_0$?

Say that a set $X\subseteq\omega$ is distinguishable if there is some Turing machine $\Phi_e$ which, when given two sets exactly one of which is $X$, can determine which set is $X$. Formally, $X$ is ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

291 views

### Discrete orderings on $\mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ that violate the universal theory of the integers

Working in the language of ordered rings, which we take to have type $(+ - \times < 0\, 1)$, can anyone give an example of a discrete ordering on the polynomial ring in two variables $\mathbb{Z}[x,...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

153 views

### Proper full submodels of full models of type theory

Let $N$ be the standard full model of the simply typed lambda calculus with infinite base type $o$ and let $X$ be an infinite and coinfinite subset of $N(o)$. I want to know if there's a full ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

146 views

### Example of $\aleph_1$-categorical linear order

Is it possible to have an $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence $\phi$ in a vocabulary that includes $<$ that satisfies the following?
$<$ is a linear order on a definable subset;
$\phi$ is $\aleph_1$...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

128 views

### Yoneda embedding and Horn sentences

The following is taken from Borceux and Bourn's Mal'cev, Protomodular, Homological, and Semi-Abelian Categories.
Metatheorem 0.1.3. Let $\mathcal P$ be a statement of the form $\varphi\implies \...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Rigid structure which is generically homogeneous

Is it possible to have a structure $T$ in some language which is rigid in $V$, but in a cardinal-preserving extension $T$ is homogeneous (in a suitable sense of the word)?
If this is not possible, is ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

253 views

### Proof-theoretic ordinals after liberalizing induction to $RCA_0$

This is kind of a follow-up to this question.
For a class $\Gamma$ of second-order formulas (here either $\Sigma_n^0$ or $\Sigma_n^1$), let $X\Gamma$ be a formal theory consisting of $RCA_0$ together ...

**12**

votes

**15**answers

8k views

### undergraduate logic textbook

I am going to teach the standard undergraduate Logic course for math and engineering majors. What are good (bad) text-books and why. I have not taught that course for a while and wonder if there are ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

136 views

### Full epsilon-induction and bounded epsilon-induction

epsilon-induction is the scheme: $\forall x(\forall y\in x\varphi (y)\rightarrow \varphi (x))\rightarrow \forall x\varphi (x)$.
Let "bounded epsilon-induction" be the above scheme, but only for ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

374 views

### Essential incompleteness via diophantine formulas?

Work in the first order language of number theory, consisting of the symbols $\mathbf{0}$, $\mathbf{S}$, $\boldsymbol{+}$, and $\boldsymbol{\cdot}$, and let $Q$ denote Robinson's arithmetic.
By a ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

194 views

### Interpreting peano arithmetic without parameters

I will accept an answer in the form of references to the literature about my question as well as any other information. I am quite ignorant of the area and that will be clear from my question.
I ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

95 views

### Can Basic Law $V$ be derived from Leibniz's Law in Second-Order Logic without comprehension principles?

Consider Basic Law $V$:
$\hat x$$F$($x$)=$\hat x$$G$($x$)$\equiv$($\forall$$x$)($F$$x$$\equiv$$G$$x$)
At first glance, it seems to have the same form as Leibniz's law
$x$=$y$$\equiv$($\forall$$F$)($...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

316 views

### Coherence and rewriting

In category theory there are numerous coherence theorems (https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/coherence+theorem). One example is the Mac Lane's coherence theorem for monoidal categories. This and probably ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

311 views

### When are generic models not too wild?

This is a question related to ideas raised in http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1224 and http://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.7456.pdf. Basically, the idea is the following:
Suppose I have a first-order theory $T$. ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

367 views

### What are the sense and reference of the propositions $R \notin R$, $R \in R$, where $R=\{x \mid x \notin x\}$ in Frege's Grundgesetze?

In the paper,
Aldo Antonelli and Robert May, Frege's new science, Notre Dame J. Form. Log. 41 (2000), no. 3, 242–-270, MR 1943495.
the authors give the following quote of Frege, from his paper "&...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Analogues of Primitive Recursive Functions

Let $\mathbf{A}$ be an admissible set (possibly with urelements). I am wondering if there is some good notion of "primitive recursive arithmetic" relative to $\mathbf{A}$. More precisely, I would like ...

**61**

votes

**39**answers

12k views

### nontrivial theorems with trivial proofs

A while back I saw posted on someone's office door a statement attributed to some famous person, saying that it is an instance of the callousness of youth to think that a theorem is trivial because ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

128 views

### local analyticity of volumes of slices of semi-algebraic sets

I would like a reference and/or a simple proof using well-known results of the following, which I think is true. (If it's false, I'd like to know that as well of course -- and ideally a way to modify ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

215 views

### Normal subgroups of Aut(M)

Let $S$ be the set of all finite permutations of $\mathbb{N}$, i.e. they fix all but a finite set, and $A\subset S$ the set of all even permutations.
Theorem The normal subgroups of $S_\infty$ are ...

**31**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Why is this new result such a big deal?

This popular article reports a recent result in reverse mathematics, showing that a certain theorem in Ramsey theory is provable from RCA$_0$, the base theory in SOSOA. Then there are a bunch of ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

368 views

### Infinite blue eyed islanders puzzle

Can the well known blue eyed islanders puzzle be extended to an infinite number of islanders?
In that puzzle, a set of $k$ islanders, each with either blue eyes or non-blue eyes, each knows the color ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

80 views

### Are Braid Groups with Finitely many Generators NIP?

I am curious what braid groups (strings in $\mathbb{R}^3$) are NIP. Consider the following:
Let $B_\mathbb{N}$ be braid group with "braids" indexed by the natural numbers (alternatively, the direct ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

217 views

### Sets of Vitali's type in models of $\mathsf{ZF}+\mathsf{GCH}$ where $V \neq L$

Consider sets of Vitali's type in models of $\mathsf{ZF}+\mathsf{GCH}$ where $V \neq L$. Are there sets of Vitali's type in both $L$ and $V \backslash L$? If so, is there any way one can distinguish ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

168 views

### What is the extension of the truth-table degrees to Baire Space called?

Recall that for sets $A, B \in 2^\omega$ that we say $A \leq_{tt} B$ if there is a total Turing functional $F \colon 2^\omega \to 2^\omega$ such that $F(B)=A$. This is called truth-table reducibility....

**3**

votes

**1**answer

242 views

### Representation of meager sets in Cohen extensions

Let $M$ be a transitive model of ZFC and $c\in {}^\omega2$ a Cohen real over $M$. Let $A$ be a meager Borel subset of $^\omega2$ in $M[c]$. I would like to prove that there exists a meager Borel set $...

**31**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### “Transitivity” of the Stone-Cech compactification

Let $\beta \mathbb{N}$ be the Stone-Cech compactification of the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}$, and let $x, y \in \beta \mathbb{N} \setminus \mathbb{N}$ be two non-principal elements of this ...

**9**

votes

**5**answers

311 views

### Probability theory without deductive closure

Human knowledge is not deductively closed. Uncertainty can arise from that just as much as from lack of brute facts. (When a Harvard graduate was reported to have thought that the earth is farther ...

**2**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Looking for a source for Intended Interpretation

Hao Wang writes: "The originally intended, or standard, interpretation takes the ordinary nonnegative integers $\{0, 1, 2, \ldots \}$ as the domain, the symbols $0$ and $1$ as denoting zero and one, ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

183 views

### Unbounded towers and combinatorial cardinal characteristics of the continuum

Update: Perhaps the question is too difficult. I would appreciate, thus, even just comments or related observations.
This question assumes familiarity with combinatorial cardinal characteristics of ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

103 views

### Automorphism group of a structure without the SAP

A few years ago, a number of examples were given of Fraisse structures without the SAP in answer to the question raised in A Fraïssé class without the strong amalgamation property.
It is ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Euler's mathematics in terms of modern theories?

Some aspects of Euler's work were formalized in terms of modern infinitesimal theories by Laugwitz, McKinzie, Tuckey, and others. Referring to the latter, G. Ferraro claims that "one can see in ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

129 views

### Examples of analytic $\mathcal{I}$-mad families

If $\mathcal{I}$ is an ideal (proper and containing the finite sets) on $\omega$, call a family of subsets $\mathcal{A}\subseteq[\omega]^\omega$ $\mathcal{I}$-almost disjoint if for all distinct $A,B\...