# Tagged Questions

**10**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Does formalizing math require search and creativity, or is it near-mechanical?

I remember reading somewhere that it takes about a week to convert a page of math into something a proof-assistant like Isabelle or HOL Light would accept.
Is this type of conversion something that ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

51 views

### Is it possible to classify all the inequivalent classes of first order sentence with quantifier rank fixed

It is known that for symbols with finite many relations, the number of inequivalent class of first order sentence with quantifier rank $m$ is finite. But is it possible to list (classify) them? At ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

218 views

### Absolutness of $\Pi_1^1$ statements

Shoenfield absoluteness is well known for $\Pi_2^1$-statements, but it does not hold between a countable transitive model of ZFC and the universe.
But it is also known that $\Pi_1^1$ statements are ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

440 views

### Formal/rigorous treatment of (im)predicativity/predicativism

There are several places on the web where one may find quite intuitively understandable accounts of (im)predicativity; here on MO I found two questions with very good detailed answers (Predicative ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

345 views

### Last Status of Feferman's Conjecture on Indefinite Value of Continuum

The "true" value of $2^{\aleph_0}$ is one of the most fundamental open questions of mathematics and its philosophy. Hundreds of set theoretic results during the last century don't say anything more ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

287 views

### Overspill in models of arithmetic

Assume that $M$ is a non-standard model of complete arithmetic, i.e. of the theory $Th(\mathbb{N})$. Suppose that $R$ and $S$ are proper cuts of $M$. (With a cut, I mean a subset of the universe of ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

617 views

### Why isn't this a computable description of the ordinal of ZF?

In a previous MO question, I was told by several commenters that
(a) it's known that there exists a computable ordinal $\alpha_{ZF}$ that "encodes the strength of ZF set theory" (i.e., a least ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

101 views

### Question on deriving $\alpha \rightarrow \Box \alpha$ in modal logic KTU

Let K and T be the usual modal logical principles $\Box (\alpha \rightarrow \beta) \rightarrow (\Box \alpha \rightarrow \Box \beta)$ and $\Box \alpha \rightarrow \alpha$. Let U be the modal logical ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### characterization of all periodic tiling of a simple set of Wang Tile

Consider a set of Wang Tile such that all the edges are either 1 or 0.... there are 16 elements in such a set.
Now, I wish to characterize all the periodic tilings of this set (better if they are ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

80 views

### Question about the consistency of assuming (via axiom) that $\kappa < \nu$ for certain pairs of cardinal numbers provably satisfying $\kappa \leq \nu$

Call an ordered pair of formulae $\langle P(\kappa,\tilde{a}), Q(\nu,\tilde{a})\rangle$ in the language of $\{\in\}$ unproblematic iff
ZFC proves that for all $\tilde{a}$ and all cardinal numbers ...

**48**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### How do I verify the Coq proof of Feit-Thompson?

I probably don't have the appropriate background to even ask this question. I know next to nothing about formal or computer-aided proof, and very little even about group theory. And this question is ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

482 views

### Where can I find Gonthier's Coq code proving the four color theorem?

In a 2008 article in the Notices, Georges Gonthier announced a computer-checked proof of the four color theorem using Coq:
Gonthier, Georges. Formal proof—the four-color theorem.
Notices Amer. ...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

241 views

### Computability of Brauer groups

A friend of mine and I were talking about computable algebra, and this question came up. The answer may already be known, but I couldn't find it with Google:
Suppose I have a countable field, $k$. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

122 views

### Basis of periodic tiling of Wang tile

Given a set of Wang tile,
Given 3 periodic tiling: A, B, C
We define 3 vector F[A], F[B], F[C]
each vector correspond to the appearing frequency of each type of tiles in the tiling.
Now, we ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

90 views

### simple cycle analog in 2D (with application in tiling)

We know that any closed cycle of a graph could be decomposed into sum of simple cycles. To translate this theorem into tiling of 1D (Wang tile). We know that any 1D periodic tiling could be ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

326 views

### Is it possible for a theorem to be constructive only in a non-constructive metatheory?

There are several theorems in category-theoretic logic which say something like, "any proposition in X logic that is provable in topos logic assuming (the law of excluded middle and) the axiom of ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

477 views

### Are all functions in Bishop's constructive mathematics continuous?

When I started to write this question I was really confused, but now I think I am starting to get it. Nonetheless I'd like some confirmation that my understanding is correct.
I have read, heard ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

151 views

### relationship between corner tile and edge tile of wang tile

It is clear that any corner type of Wang Tile could be converted to edge type of Wang Tile by defining the edge color according to the corner color.
However, could we convert edge type of Wang Tile ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

103 views

### Graph theoretical representation of Wang Tile

We note that for one dimensional tiling problem of Wang Tile could be represented by a graph. Each cycle on the graph represents a periodic solution.
However, is there a well established counter-part ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

325 views

### Does small forcing preserve CH?

Suppose CH holds and $\mathbb{P}$ is a poset of size $\omega_1$, such that forcing with $\mathbb{P}$ preserves $\omega_1$. Does forcing with $\mathbb{P}$ preserve CH? If $\mathbb{P}$ is proper then ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

146 views

### Can Gentzen-style proofs give omega-consistency and beyond?

In 1936, Gentzen famously showed that Primitive Recursive Arithmetic, plus the assumption that the ordinal $\epsilon_0$ is well-founded, is able to prove Con(PA). But of course, Con(PA) doesn't yet ...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### What “forces” us to accept large cardinal axioms?

Large cardinal axioms are not provable using usual mathematical tools (developed in $\text{ZFC}$).
Their non-existence is consistent with axioms of usual mathematics.
It is provable that some of ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

212 views

### Sufficient Condition for Defining $\in$

Consider the first order language $\mathcal{L}=\{\in,\in'\}$ with two binary relational symbols $\in , \in'$ and $ZFC$ as a $\{\in\}$-theory. If we define $\in'$ using $\{\in\}$-formula $\varphi(x,y)$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

220 views

### A Special Pair of Formulas

Consider the first order language $\mathcal{L}=\{\in,\subseteq\}$ and $\{\in\}$-theory $\text{ZFC}$. Is there a formula $\psi (x,y) \in \{\subseteq\}-Form$ with the following ...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

792 views

### Is there a computable ordinal encoding the proof strength of ZF? Is it knowable?

In comments on Quora (see, for example, here, here, here), Ron Maimon has repeatedly expressed the strong opinion that Hilbert's program was not killed by Gödel's results in the way typically ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

587 views

### Questions about Prikry forcing and Cohen forcing

I have some questions.
The first one is about the product of Prikry's forcing.
Let $\kappa$ be a measurable cardinal, $U_1, U_2$ be normal measures on $\kappa$ and let $\mathbb{P}_{U_1}, ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

214 views

### Sets of cardinalities of bases without choice

For a vector space $V$, let $BS(V)$ be the set of cardinalities (not necessarily $\aleph$s) of bases of $V$. Of course, in ZFC each $BS(V)$ is a singleton, but supposing the axiom of choice fails, it ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

286 views

### Inner model in which every uncountable cardinal is large

The following is known:
$(*)$ If $0^\sharp$ exists, then any uncountable cardinal is is an inaccessible cardinal (and even more) in $L$.
My question is that:
Are there any large cardinal ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

151 views

### Proof of existence of recursively inaccessible and Mahlo ordinals

As in title - I'm looking for a proof of the existence of a countable recursively inaccessible or recursively Mahlo ordinals, especially the first one. When looking for it in all the papers I stumbled ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

181 views

### $\infty$-Borel Determinacy?

An $\infty$-Borel set is a set $X\subseteq\mathbb{R}$ which has an $\infty$-Borel code - a set $r$ coding the construction of $X$ via open sets, complementation, and well-ordered unions (see ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

246 views

### cardinals below the critical point of a generic embedding

This may be an easy question. Are the cardinals below the critical point of a precipitous ideal embedding always absolute between the generic ultrapower and the generic extension?
To focus on the ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

166 views

### Is there an intuitionistic generalized boolean algebra (of Stone)?

A "boolean algebra without the greatest element" was called by Stone "generalized boolean algebra" and he axiomatized it. Is there any publication about "preudo-boolean algebras without the greatest ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

333 views

### Applications of SCH outside of set theory

Recall that the Singular Cardinals Hypothesis (SCH) says that if $\kappa$ is a singular cardinal and $2^{cf(\kappa)}<\kappa,$ then $\kappa^{cf(\kappa)}=\kappa^+.$ Clearly it has many applications ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

554 views

### Does every Aronszajn tree has a Suslin or a Special subtree?

Question: Does every $\omega_1$-Aronszajn tree contains a Suslin sub-tree or a special Aronszajn sub-tree?
Recall that Suslin trees are $\omega_1$-trees (trees of height $\omega_1$, and countable ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

463 views

### Pathological behavior of Borel sets?

Usually in set theory, Borel sets are much more nicely behaved than arbitrary sets of reals. One reason for this is Borel determinacy, which immediately yields measurability, Baireness, and the ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

362 views

### Systematic brute-force searches for counterexamples

This is getting nowhere on math.stackexchange.com, so I'm putting it here.
Gödel's completeness theorem says that for every statement in first-order predicate calculus with equality, there is either ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

357 views

### Application of Combinatorics, Logic and computability theory in physical science: Tiling of Wang Tile with proportionality

The original problem of Domino Tiling and Wang Tile has great theoretical interest on computability theory... However, the great emerging problem on application of Wang Tile in material science and ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

186 views

### Conjecture of a subset of Wang tile which might be decidable

From the two papers proving the undecidability of Wang tile in 1966 by Berger and in 1971 by RM Robinson, the tiles used in proving undecidability has a general common feature:
The left color and ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

227 views

### A variant of Kruskal's theorem

For $X$ and $Y$ finite sequences of finite trees, let us say that $X$ is everywhere contained in $Y$ ($X\subseteq_{ec}Y$) iff, for every $y\in Y$, there is some $x\in X$ such that $x$ is a minor of ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

216 views

### Interaction between Turing and many-one reducibility

This is a question about two reducibility notions in computability theory. I suspect the answer is a fairly simple construction, and I'm just not seeing it.
For sets $X, Y\subseteq\omega$, we say $X$ ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

432 views

### What is the precise notion of “enough arithmetic” in Godel's first Incompleteness theorem?

I'm trying to reconstruct the proof of Godel's first theorem (Rosser's strong version) from the uncomputability of the Halting function. If we just started with the language $\mathcal{L}=\{0, S, +, ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

236 views

### Is every Heyting algebra the Lindenbaum algebra of an intuitionistic first order theory?

This question comes after the comments in the recent related question Sigma-complete Lindenbaum algebras?, but in its current form is sufficiently different in my opinion, and so I decided to follow ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

145 views

### Sigma-complete Lindenbaum algebras? [closed]

Is there any calculus whose algebraization is a sigma-complete Lindenbaum algebra, i.e., a sigma-complete Boolean algebra after identification of equivalent formulas?

**4**

votes

**1**answer

158 views

### On a modal correspondence

Is there an intuitive characterization of the correspondence for the modal logical formula $\square (\alpha \rightarrow \square \alpha) \rightarrow (\square \alpha \vee \square \lnot \alpha)$?
In ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

563 views

### Souslin trees and weakly compact cardinals

In Souslin trees on the first inaccessible cardinal it is asked if it is consistent that there are no $\kappa-$Souslin trees at the least inaccessible cardinal $\kappa$.
In this question I would like ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

115 views

### On directedness, transitivity and ancestral directedness

Let $\textit{C}$ be the modal logical schema $(\square (\square \alpha \rightarrow \alpha) \wedge \square (\square \lnot\alpha \rightarrow \lnot \alpha))\rightarrow (\square \alpha \vee \square \lnot ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

76 views

### $n$th order arithmetic with predicates for orders

Two papers I have looked at lately axiomatize $n$-th order arithmetic in a single sorted language with predicates $Z_1,\dots,Z_n$ and axioms like $\forall x(Z_1(x)\vee\dots\vee Z_n(x))$ to say ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

65 views

### Algorithmic quantifier elimination over p-adic fields

It is known that the first-order theory of p-adic fields is decidable, and that the p-adics admit elimination of quantifiers. What is the state of the art in algorithmic aspects of quantifier ...

**6**

votes

**6**answers

655 views

### practical algorithms for np complete problems

Inspired by:
Conjecture on NP-completeness of tesselation of Wang Tile up to finite size
And the practicality of this topic (solving tessellation on a lattice):
coloring in lattice
Computational ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

301 views

### The (non-)absoluteness of second-order elementary equivalence

Elementary equivalence is set-theoretically absolute between any two transitive models of set theory; this is also true for the infinitary logics - e.g., $\mathcal{L}_{\omega_1\omega}$ - at least, ...