# Tagged Questions

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### Expressive power of first-order category theory

Given the signature $\lbrace \mathsf{dom}, \mathsf{cod}, \mathsf{id},\circ \rbrace$ and the axioms of category theory – which are expressible in the signature's first-order (FO) language – ...

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642 views

### Is there any danger far from home? (Edited & Revised Version) [closed]

The notion of formal proof is defined by finite sequences ($<\omega$ - sequences) of sentences. In some sense if a sentence $\sigma$ is (finitely) provable from the theory $T$ it is very "near" to ...

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258 views

### Is there an recursively axiomatized system with infinitely many proofs for some propositions or a proposition [closed]

Is there any recursively axiomized system with infinitely many proofs for some propositions or a proposition? So we will have at least one proposition which is deduced from the recursively axiomatic ...

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110 views

### Can decidability results for monadic second-order logic be extended to monadic higher-order logics?

Call a higher-order logic fully monadic if and only if all of its predicate constants (at any order) and higher-order variables (at any order) are monadic (and it has no function symbols). In ...

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423 views

### Deciding equivalence of regular languages

Given two regular expressions $R$ and $S$ on an alphabet $\Sigma$ it is possible to decide their equivalence as follows:
build two finite automata $M_R$ and $M_S$ such that $L(R) = L(M_R)$ and $L(S) ...

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788 views

### What's the difference between ZFC+Grothendieck, ZFC+inaccessible cardinals and Tarski-Grothendieck set theory?

Say that "U" is the axiom that "For each set x, there exists a Grothendieck universe U such that x $\in$ U", where Grothendieck universes are defined in the usual way (or, if that's unclear, in this ...

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598 views

### All properties of a mathematical object

This is primarily a question about related literature. I am looking for specific references, or terminology that I can use to search for references.
Let A a well defined mathematical structure of ...

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253 views

### Satisfiability problem for FOL[<,R]

Let FOL[<,R] be the fragment of first-order logic enriched with two relational symbols < and R and the first-order axioms that say:
< is a strict partial order and R is an irreflexive and ...

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272 views

### Existential quantification over regular predicates

A regular language over an alphabet $\Sigma$ is a subset of the set of all words over $\Sigma$ that can be accepted by some finite automaton. A regular language identifies a certain property of ...

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362 views

### Translate a buchi automaton to LTL

How can I translate a Büchi automaton A to LTL(linear temporal logic) if $L(A)$ is definable in the LTL?
MY idea is : Büchi automaton $A$ ===> QPTL ===> LTL
I know that given any Buchi ...

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764 views

### Are context-free languages with context-free complements necessarily deterministic context-free?

Let $L \subseteq A^\star$ be a formal language over $A$ generated by a context-free grammar, and $L' = A^\star - L$ be the relative complement in $A^\star$.
If $L$ and $L'$ are both context-free, are ...

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**1**answer

434 views

### Study of free monoids of the recursive S. Eilenberg.

Compared to the usual treatises on recursion (eg, Rogers H. "Computability and Undecidability." McGraw-Hill, New York) the book of Samuel Eilenberg & Calvin C. Elgot "Recursiveness" treats such ...

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**1**answer

322 views

### density of formal language？

let $\sum_0^n l_i x^i$ and $\sum_0^n 2^i x^i$ be generating function of L a given language and the closure over alphabet $\Sigma= \{0,1 \}$ when $n\to\infty$.
let$$D=\frac{\sum_0^n l_i }{\sum_0^n ...

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**1**answer

258 views

### What is the conditional probability or probablity of classes of languages?

What is the conditional probability or probability of classes of languages?
Let $E,C,S,F,R $ be the class of computably enumerable languages,computable languagesl,context-sensitive ...

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**4**answers

524 views

### Are inference laws consistent?

Please forgive me if this question sounds too naive... Well, in mathematics a formal theory consists of a collection of axioms $T$ (such as Peano arithmetics, or Group Theory, or ZFC), which ...

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524 views

### Complementation of $\omega$-regular languages in reverse mathematics

Does anyone know where Büchi's theorem that $\omega$-regular languages are closed under complementation fits into the reverse-mathematics classification scheme? That is, is it equivalent over ...

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317 views

### Relations of infinite arity

Infinitary logic considers languages being infinite by infinite conjunctions and disjunctions.
I wonder why it not considers languages being infinite by relations and functions of infinite arity.
...

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394 views

### Graph properties: definability and decidability

[This is a side question to Supervenience in mathematics.]
There are graph properties that are not FO-definable, but MSO-, TC-, or LFP-definable. There may be other graph properties that are not ...

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678 views

### Semantics of Higher-Order Logics

I've been trying to get to grips with the various semantics commonly discussed in formal logic. Specifically, the nature and role of interpretations of first and higher-order logics is slightly ...

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269 views

### To what extent MSO = WS1S, when adding relations?

Let me first clarify my definitions. For a word $w \in \Sigma^*$, with $\Sigma=\{a_1, \ldots, a_n\}$, I define two structures:
$${\mathbb{N}}(w) = \langle {\mathbb{N}}, <, Q_{a_1}, \ldots, Q_{a_n} ...

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**1**answer

814 views

### Using the multiverse approach to decide the law of the exluded middle?

Recently, in response to deciding the Continuum Hypothesis $CH$, Hamkins and Gitman have proposed consider a multiverse of set-theoretic universes, some in which $CH$ is true, some in which $\neg CH$ ...

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950 views

### Is there a formal notion of what we do when we 'Let X be …'?

This is likely an elementary question to logicians or theoretical computer scientists, but I'm less than adequately informed on either topic and don't know where to find the answer. Please excuse the ...

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627 views

### Proof formalization

I read some time ago some papers about proof formalization. Typically, I began whith this one, from Lamport.
Are there more recent works in this field ?

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506 views

### Theory interpreted in non-set domain of discourse may be consistent?

Following the blow. I will try to ask question in order to check if I well understand what was pointed. I decide to ask another question, because mathoverflow is not projected to be good environment ...

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487 views

### What assumptions and methodology do metaproofs of logic theorems use and employ?

In logic modules, theorems like Soundness and completeness of first order logic are proved. Later, Godel's incompleteness theorem is proved. May I ask what are assumed at the metalevel to prove such ...

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2k views

### Why do I find Category Theory mostly just a way to make simple things difficult?

I have a basic working knowledge of category thoery since I do research in programming languages and typed lambda-calculus. Indeed, I have refereed many papers in my area based on category theory.
...