# Tagged Questions

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### Definability of arithmetic functions and relations

Motivation: Many "weak" arithmetic functions and/or relations ("relations" for short) are equivalent with relations explicitly definable by relations which were recursively defined by them beforehand ...

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**0**answers

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### How arithmetical is algebraic exponentiation?

Suppose $K$ is an exponential real closed field, i.e. there is an isomorphism, say exp, between the additive group of $K$ and the multiplicative group of its positive elements.
Assume further that $Z$ ...

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**1**answer

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### Is there an $E_1$-definition of primality?

Here, $E_1$ denotes the set of arithmetic formulas starting with a bounded existential quantifier, followed by a quantifier-free formula. Is there an $E_1$-formula $\phi$ such that $\phi(n)$ holds
iff ...

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**1**answer

353 views

### Does higher order arithmetic interpret the axiom of choice?

By second order arithmetic I mean the axiomatic theory $Z_2$, that is Peano arithmetic extended by second order variables with the full comprehension axiom, and not defined semantically using power ...

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803 views

### Axiom to exclude nonstandard natural numbers

In Peano Arithmetic, the induction axiom states that there is no proper subset of the natural numbers that contains 0 and is closed under the successor function. This is intended to rule out the ...

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### Godel 's Ladder: Undecidable PI_N sentences for N =2, 3, …

After Godel's groundbreaking results, a plethora of $\Pi_1^0$ undecidable arithmetical sentences have been found by many authors.
But what about $\Pi_n^0$ for $n=2,3,.....$ ?
There are, to my ...

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385 views

### Z_2 versus second-order PA

These days, Peano Arithmetic ($PA$) refers to the first-order version of the axioms, where induction is only over formulas referring to natural number variables. Peano's original version of the ...

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**3**answers

502 views

### Applicability of Deduction theorem to Primitive recursive arithmetic [closed]

Hello. I already asked the question here. The main point is that I tried to prove in Primitive recursive arithmetic (PRA) the totality of the Ackerman function, and I found, that the single thing ...

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### NNO = (first order) PA

Recall the definition of a Natural Numbers Object in a topos, and the first order axioms for Peano Arithmetic. I am more familiar with the first definition than the second, so I cannot tell from the ...

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### Reference Request: Non-Standard Models of PA

I am attempting to write an expository paper on non-standard models of PA that is accesible to students taking an introductory graduate course in mathematical logic (covering Godel's incompleteness ...

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480 views

### parameters in arithmetic induction axiom schemas

The induction schema of Peano Arithmetic is standardly given as the universal closure of $\phi(0)\land \forall x (\phi(x)\rightarrow \phi(x+1)) \rightarrow \forall x\phi(x)$. However, since the ...

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### Nelson natural number objects in a topos (say)

Nelson's predicative arithmetic (survey article) is a very weak system of arithmetic extending Robinson's $Q$ (Wikipedia).
We can have natural number objects in a topos, or even a merely finitely ...

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533 views

### Natural numbers of great kolmogorov complexity

Before I ask my question, let me give you a mini-preamble: in 2006, during an animated discussion on feasibility, ultrafinitism, and what else on FOM, I introduced (informally, and to speak the tuth, ...

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864 views

### Set Theory inside Arithmetics via the Ackermann Yoga

Among the basic results of logic which, simple as they are, never fail to intrigue me, is Ackermann's interpretation of $ZF$-Infinity in $PA$ (see for refs this MO question and here for an excellent ...

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**9**answers

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### Is PA consistent? do we know it?

1) (By Goedel's) One can not prove, in PA, a formula that can be interpreted to express the consistency of PA. (Hopefully I said it right. Specialists correct me, please).
2) There are proofs ...

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### Is Robinson Arithmetic biinterpretable with some theory in LST?

Let ZFC$^{\text{fin}}$ be ZFC minus the axiom of infinity plus the negation of the axiom of infinity. It is well-known that ZFC$^{\text{fin}}$ is biinterpretable with Peano Arithmetic. In this sense ...

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1k views

### Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem and the complexity of arithmetic

In How complicated can structures be? Jouko Väänänen says:
The guiding result of mathematical logic is the Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel,
which says that the logical structure of number theory ...

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**3**answers

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### Nelson's program to show inconsistency of ZF

At the end of the paper Division by three by Peter G. Doyle and John H. Conway, the authors say:
Not that we believe there really are any such things as infinite sets, or that the Zermelo-Fraenkel ...

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550 views

### Weakest subsystems of second order arithmetic for mathematical logic

It is known that to prove completeness of first-order logic for countable languages WKL0 is enough. But, is it the weakest subsystem where one can prove it?
What about the incompleteness theorems? Is ...

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**8**answers

3k views

### Arithmetic fixed point theorem

I want to understand the idea of the proof of the artihmetic fixed point theorem. The theorem is crucial in the proof of Gödel's first Incompletness theorem.
First some notation: We work in $NT$, the ...

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**1**answer

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### How to locate the paper that established Robinson Arithmetic?

If I'm not mistaken, it was in his seminal paper “An Essentially Undecidable Axiom System”, published in
Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematics (1950), 729–730,
where R.M. ...

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### Are real numbers countable in constructive mathematics?

We are talking about ordinary reals in constructive mathematics.
Let represent each real number by infinite converging series:
$$r = [\;(a_0,b_0),(a_1,b_1),...,(a_i,b_i),...\;]$$
$$where\quad a_i ...

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### Composite pairs of the form n!-1 and n!+1

It's well known that the numbers of the form $n!\pm1$ are not always prime. Indeed, Wilson's Theorem guarantees that $(p-2)!-1$ and $(p-1)!+1$ are composite for every prime number $p > 5$.
Is ...

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### Non-computable but easily described arithmetical functions

I have read about the existence of functions of the kind described in the title in several places, but never seen an instance of them. Sorry if this is too much an elementary question to be posted ...

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### Incompleteness and nonstandard models of arithmetic

The following are a collection of doubts, some of which shall have concrete answers while others may have not. Any kind of help will be welcome.
Reading Peter Smith's "Gödel Without (Too Many) ...

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**1**answer

940 views

### models of PA which are isomorphic but not elementarily equivalent?

On page 164 of his book Models of Peano Arithmetic, Kaye states Friedman's Theorem:
Let $M{\vDash}PA$ be nonstandard and countable, let $a\in M$ and let $n\in {\mathbb N}$. Then there is a proper ...

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840 views

### A question about open induction

An old theorem of A. J. Wilkie (Some results and problems on weak systems of arithmetic, Logic Colloquium '77) asserts that a discretely ordered ring $R$ can be extended to a model of open induction ...

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### Reducing ACA₀ proof to First Order PA

According to the Wikipedia ACA0 is a conservative extension of First Order logic + PA.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_Mathematics
First of all I have a few questions about the proof:
a - What ...

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### Naturally definable sets of natural numbers (3)

[This shall be the last of a series of questions, see Naturally definable sets of natural numbers (2)]
I cannot explain why I have been so stubborn not to see the most straight-forward definition for ...

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### Naturally definable sets of natural numbers

(This is a follow-up question from over there: Natural models of graphs.)
(And it has a follow-up question over there: Naturally definable sets of natural numbers (2): Can the circle be broken?)
...