# Tagged Questions

first-order and higher-order logic, model theory, set theory, proof theory, computability theory, formal languages, definability, interplay of syntax and semantics, constructive logic, intuitionism, philosophical logic, modal logic, completeness, Gödel incompleteness, decidability, undecidability, ...

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### A (second-order) axiomatic characterization of the integers which rules out surreal/hyperreal versions

I've seen it stated, for example here, that the integers are the unique commutative ordered ring with identity whose positive elements are well-ordered. I understand why the integers are the ...
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### What is a universal tree?

I came across some slides talking about the Hrushovski construction. One of the examples was the construction of a "universal tree". I was curious because the collection of finite trees does not ...
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### Cohen's model yet again

It has been discussed already whether a countable OD set necessarily contains an OD element. See e.g. A question about ordinal definable real numbers . A negative answer was obtained in Archive for ...
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### Is ∃x.px=>q equal to ∃x.(px=>q)? [closed]

I wondered if the sentences ∃x.px=>q equal to ∃x.(px=>q). I think they are equal because of the following example: The instance of the first sentence: If there exist a cow, then it ...
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### Number of distinct variables used in axiomatizating (Classical) Propositional Logic

The first part of the present question is concerned with Classical Propositional Logic (CPL). The second part involves its fragments or alternative logical systems. There are in the literature many ...
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### Tree property using side conditions

The following problems were asked during the high and low forcing workshop: Question 1. Can one force tree property at $\kappa^{++}$ for $\kappa$ singular using side conditions? Question 2. ...
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### Semi-algebraicness of cells involved in integrals of semi-algebraic functions

Background: In "Stability under integration of sums of products of real globally subanalytic functions and their logarithms", by R. Cluckers and D.J. Miller, it is shown that the integral of a ...
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### Uncountable models of Kelley-Morse set theory with only a countable number of sets

The Kelley-Morse set theory can be thought as the "full-secondorderification of $\sf ZFC$", where we switch from sets to classes and allow the comprehension schema to include quantifiers on class ...
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### Choice and the Baire property in non-separable complete metric spaces

It's known to be consistent with ZF+DC that every subset of $\mathbb{R}$ has the Baire property (BP). (E.g. Shelah's model). If so, then every subset of every complete separable metric space has ...
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### Why do we need a transitive model in forcing arguments?

One major approach to the theory of forcing is to assume that ZFC has a countable transitive model $M \in V$ (where $V$ is the "real" universe). In this approach, one takes a poset $\mathbb{P} \in M$, ...
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### Nuances Regarding Naturality

It's frequently said, informally, that a natural isomorphism is one that doesn't depend on arbitrary choices. But the phrase "arbitrary choices" lends itself to different interpretations. Consider ...
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### What ccc forcings add a Suslin tree?

In a comment to Miha's question in Forcing PFA with ccc forcing, I suggested that if such situation is even possible, it might be achieved by screwing with PFA by some ccc forcing (e.g. adding a Cohen ...
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### Forcing PFA with ccc forcing

Is it consistent (from suitable large cardinals) that there is a ccc poset which forces PFA? This seems quite implausible to me. If we could force PFA via ccc forcing, the ground model would have to ...
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### Dropping “generic” from the definition of forcing

Back when I was first learning about forcing and trying to understand the need to consider generic filters, I came up with the following question. Suppose we have a countable transitive model $M$. ...
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### Compactness beyond extendibility

By a result of Magidor, $\kappa$ is extendible if and only if the infinitary $n$th-order logic over the language $L_{\kappa,\kappa}$ is compact for every $n < \omega$, where by compact, we mean ...
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### How can two theories $T$ and $T+\phi$ be mutually interpretable?

Following Koellner in http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/independence-large-cardinals/, "a theory $T_1$ is interpretable in $T_2$ ($T_1 \leq T_2$) when, roughly speaking, there is a translation $\tau$ ...
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### Further research on $\mathrm L_{\infty}$

In the mathoverflow question , "Godel's Constructible Universe in Infinitary Logics (A Possible Solution to $HOD$ Problem), Prof Hamkins answered user46667's question 2 What is $\mathrm L_{\infty}$...
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### Spreading sets - especially without choice

For what follows, I work in ZF+AD+DC. However, the questions below are not obviously trivial in ZFC, so I'm also interested in results in that system. Suppose I have a set $X\subseteq \mathbb{R}$. ...
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### Radin forcing and large cardinals

Assume $\kappa$ is a $(\kappa+2)$-strong cardinal and let $j: V \to M \simeq Ult(V, E) \supseteq V_{\kappa+2}$ witness this where $E$ is a $(\kappa, \kappa^{++})$-extender. Also let $u$ be the measure ...
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### Consistent sentences with no arithmetically definable models

I've seen a construction of a sentence of first order logic that is consistent, but has no models with underlying set $\mathbb{N}$ and recursive functions and relations. Do there also exist consistent ...
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### What countable ordinals are called $\kappa_\alpha$?

Jervell has a notation for countable ordinals up to the small Veblen ordinal using trees: • Herman Ruge Jervell, How to wellorder finite trees and get good ordinal notations, Berkeley Logic ...
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### On the use of Weisfeiler-Leman refinement in Babai's GI proof

This question is for those familiar with the methods behind Babai's recent proof that graph isomorphism can be decided in quasipolynomial time. I am a newcomer to the GI problem, so I apologize if my ...
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### Why relative consistency results by forcing arguments are provable in finitistic metatheory

It is claimed in many textbooks that relative consistency results, such as $\text{Con}(\text{ZFC})\rightarrow\text{Con}(\text{ZFC}+2^{\aleph_0}\geq\aleph_2)$, are provable in the finitistic metatheory....
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### What do we call this quantifier (“binder”)?

There's a quantifier ("binder", whatever), call it $\alpha$, defined as follows: $\alpha x.\tau$ is the (usually infinite) expression obtained by applying the substitution $\{x \mapsto \tau\}$ to the ...
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### Construction of model of arithmetic from an arbitrary model

Let $M$ be a non-standard model of $PA$, $a\in |M|$ be an arbitrary non-standard number and $T$ be a theory of arithmetic. We want to choose a subset $M'\subsetneq M$ such that: $M'\models PA^-$ (or ...
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### Model existence and consistency conditions for $\Pi_1^0$ oracles

Let a $\Pi_1^0$ sentence be a sentence asserting that some given Turing machine never halts at the empty input tape. Let Q1 be a (potentially consistently lying) oracle for deciding $\Pi_1^0$ ...
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### O-minimal spectrum is a spectral space

I'm trying to understand a proof on "Sheaves of Continuous Definable Functions" (Pillay, Anand. "Sheaves of continuous definable functions." The Journal of symbolic logic 53.04 (1988): 1165-1169.) ...
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### Definability using rudimentary function

Denote by RUD the set of all rudimentary functions, together with the function that takes any set to its transitive closure. Assume that I know that a binary relation $R$ is definable by some ...
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### Transfer with minimal choice

Let FUF postulate the existence of a Free UltraFilter on $\mathbb{N}$ and ACC the axiom of countable choice. Consider the superstructure on $\mathbb{R}$ and its inclusion in the bounded ultrapower. ...
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### Let's keep adding once undecidable statements

This present thread is inpired by the previous thread the true reason of the incompleteness of formal systems. I have the following intuitive idea: Gödel's second incompleteness theorem states that a ...
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### Example of $\aleph_1$-categorical linear order

Is it possible to have an $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence $\phi$ in a vocabulary that includes $<$ that satisfies the following? $<$ is a linear order on a definable subset; $\phi$ is $\aleph_1$...
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### Proper full submodels of full models of type theory

Let $N$ be the standard full model of the simply typed lambda calculus with infinite base type $o$ and let $X$ be an infinite and coinfinite subset of $N(o)$. I want to know if there's a full ...
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### Rigid structure which is generically homogeneous

Is it possible to have a structure $T$ in some language which is rigid in $V$, but in a cardinal-preserving extension $T$ is homogeneous (in a suitable sense of the word)? If this is not possible, is ...
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### Can noncomputable sets be distinguishable in $RCA_0$?

Say that a set $X\subseteq\omega$ is distinguishable if there is some Turing machine $\Phi_e$ which, when given two sets exactly one of which is $X$, can determine which set is $X$. Formally, $X$ is ...
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### Full epsilon-induction and bounded epsilon-induction

epsilon-induction is the scheme: $\forall x(\forall y\in x\varphi (y)\rightarrow \varphi (x))\rightarrow \forall x\varphi (x)$. Let "bounded epsilon-induction" be the above scheme, but only for ...
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