**9**

votes

**0**answers

127 views

### On sentences true in all finite groups (revisited)

Let $w$ be a group word with variables $\bar x, \bar y$, where
$\bar x=(x_1,\dots ,x_m)$ and
$\bar y=(y_1,\dots ,y_n).$
I am interested in the following questions.
(1) Is the sentence $(\forall\bar ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

102 views

### Introducing meets while preserving directed closure

A poset $\mathbb{P}$ is called well-met iff every pair of compatible conditions in $\mathbb{P}$ has a greatest lower bound.
Question: Suppose $\mathbb{P}$ is a separative partial order which is ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

70 views

### O-Minimal sentences in $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$?

Is there any meaningful sense in which we can talk about o-minimal sentences of $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$? I can give a first attempt, easily; given a countable fragment $F$ and a sentence $\Phi$ in that ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

681 views

### How hard is it to destroy a diamond? (with a real)

If we start with $V\models\lozenge$, it is not hard to force the failure of diamond. You can blow up the continuum, or destroy all the Suslin trees. You can blow up the continuum of $\aleph_1$, and ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

185 views

### Do non-normal states exist in the Solovay model?

Let H be an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Then there exist non-normal states on B(H) in ZFC (i.e. states that are not represented by a density operator).
Is this also true in the Solovay model ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

99 views

### Are monoids with zero and partial homomorphisms related?

Context: Let $\Sigma=\{U,C,A,G\}$ and $L\subset\Sigma^*$, i.e. $L$ is a language over the alphabet $\Sigma$. Let $\Sigma'=\{0,1\}$ and define a homomorphism $f:\Sigma^*\to\Sigma'^*$ by extending $U ...

**38**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### On sentences true in all finite groups

Let $w$ be a group word with two variables $x$ and $y$.
Is the sentence $(\forall x)(\exists y)w=1$
true in every group if it is true
in every finite group?
The same question about the sentence ...

**-5**

votes

**0**answers

430 views

### What is the single and double derivative of following equation? [closed]

d/dt(e^ (-0.06 pi t))(sin(2t-pi))
using product rule fine the double and single derivative.please help me to solve this?

**0**

votes

**0**answers

21 views

### Lists of sets as objects of ZF axiomatics [migrated]

I have a naive question about foundations of mathematics. A common opinion of most mathematicians is that the essential part of mathematics can be reduced to ZF(C) axioms. I do not quite understand ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

144 views

### Induction and nonstandard halting times of standard machines

For a nonstandard model of enough arithmetic - say, $\mathcal{N}\models I\Sigma_1$ - we can define the set of halting times of standard machines relative to $\mathcal{N}$: ...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

56 views

### Formulating conditional constraints in optimization [closed]

In an optimization problem, is it possible to formulate the following conditional constraint:
If $y > x_1$ then $x_2 \ge y - x_1$, else $x_2=0$.
Here are $x_1$ and $x_2$ are to be determined by ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

125 views

### ${\frak b}$ and ${\frak d}$ defined with $\leq$ instead of $\leq^*$

Let $\omega^\omega$ denote the collection of all functions $f:\omega\to\omega$. For $f,g\in\omega$ we define
$f\leq g$ if $f(n)\leq g(n)$ for all $n\in\omega$;
$f\leq^* g$ if there is $N\in\omega$ ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

35 views

### Logic and Metamath book recommendation [migrated]

Recently, I got interested in Mathematical Logic and now I am looking for good introductory books on Mathematical Logic for beginners. In fact, I plan to read some good books on Metamathematics also. ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

272 views

### Godel's second incompleteness theorem for non-r.e. theories

R. Jeroslow in this paper proves that a non-recursively enumerable theory whose set of theorems is $\Delta_2$-definable may prove consistency of itself
but it can not prove 2-consistency of itself.
...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

12 views

### Expressing conditional statements using quantifiers and predicates in Predicate Logic: how to recognize the hypothesis and conclusion in statement [migrated]

I was solving questions of Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
By Kenneth H. Rosen Chapter 1 The foundations: Logic and Proofs , when i got stuck at this problem; two similar problems are ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

291 views

### Elementary equivalence of the direct product and direct sum of groups

It is well-known that the direct product of any family of abelian groups
is an elementary extension of the direct sum of the family
(see e.g. Lemma A.1.6 in the book `Model Theory' by W. Hodges,
...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

96 views

### Minimal degrees of structures

For this question, a structure means a first-order structure in a computable language with domain $\omega$; a copy of a structure $\mathcal{A}$ is a structure $\mathcal{B}\cong\mathcal{A}$.
Given a ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### If two structures are elementarily equivalent, is there a zigzag of elementary embeddings between them?

Fix a first-order signature $\Sigma$. There is an equivalence relation $\sim$ on the class $\Sigma\mathrm{-Str}$ of all $\Sigma$-structures given by $M \sim N$ iff $M$ and $N$ are elementarily ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

83 views

### Explanation of the definition of Saturated Sets in Lambda Calculus

I have a question on the definition of Saturated Sets, as particular subset of the set of strongly normalizing terms in lambda calculus.
Here is the definition: a set $S$ of strongly normalizing ...

**28**

votes

**0**answers

680 views

### Bidi: A new cardinal characteristic of the continuum?

This question assumes familiarity with combinatorial cardinal
characteristics of the continuum.
Identify an infinite set $a\subseteq\mathbb{N}$ with its increasing
enumeration. Thus, for each natural ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

271 views

### Is second-order ZFC categorical with regard to its proper class models

Second-order ZFC offers partial categoricity in the sense that, given any two models, one of them must be isomorphic to an initial segment of the other [1]. However, this leaves questions regarding ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

169 views

### Is there a 'largest' second-order categorical axiomatization of set theory, extended from ZFC2

While it's possible to obtain categorical second-order axiomatizations of set theory by extending ZFC2 with additional axioms (see [1]), these axioms tend to be somewhat arbitrary (e.g. adding an ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

91 views

### PA proves that functions are total

Is there a total recursive function $f:N \to N$ such that for no $\Sigma_1$ formula $\phi(x,y)$ which defines it (i.e., defines its graph), is it true that PA proves that "$\phi$ defines a total ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

107 views

### Is the lowenheim-skolem number of nth order logic larger than the corresponding number for 2nd order logic

According to this paper, by Vaananen, the $LS$ number for $2^{nd}$ order logic is given by "the supremum of $Π_{2}$-definable ordinals", where "The Lowenheim-Skolem number $LS(L)$ of $L$ is the ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### What consistency results follow the assumption: $\forall\alpha(\aleph_{\alpha+1}\nleq2^{\aleph_\alpha})$?

In a recent question on Math.SE it was asked whether or not For every infinite cardinal $\mathfrak m$ there is no $\aleph$ number, $\kappa$, such that $\mathfrak m<\kappa<2^{\mathfrak m}$.
By ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

643 views

### Is there a Leibnizian model with no definable elements, in a finite language?

A first-order structure $M$ is Leibnizian, if any two distinct
elements $a,b\in M$ satisfy different $1$-types; that is, if there
is some formula $\varphi$ such that $M\models\varphi(a)$ and
...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

426 views

### Whatever happened to $L(j)$?

So this question probably shows my inner model theoretic ignorance, but:
In "Two remarks on elementary embeddings of the universe" (http://projecteuclid.org/download/pdf_1/euclid.pjm/1102969567), ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

213 views

### Comparing the Kolmogorov complexity of theories - Part 2

Chaitin's incompleteness theorem says no sufficiently strong theory of arithmetic can prove $K(x) > L$ where $K(x)$ is the Kolmogorov complexity of natural number $x$ and $L$ is a sufficiently ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

122 views

### What can be said about a Boolean-valued structure from what the Boolean-valued forcing extension thinks about it?

Suppose that $\phi$ is a formula in the language of set theory such that
there are some $n_{1},...,n_{k}$ such that if $V\models\phi(x)$, then $x=(X,R_{1},...,R_{k})$ and ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

319 views

### Decidability of $x^3+y^3+z^3 = c$

I wondering if it is known whether the following problem is algorithmically decidable or undecidable by Turing machines: given an integer c, determine if there are integers $(x,y,z)$ such that ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### How can nontrivial elementary embeddings of the universe to some inner model be surjective? [migrated]

Consider $\kappa$ to the least measurable cardinal, or equivalently $\kappa$ is the critical point for an elementary embedding $j:V \rightarrow M$ from the universe $V$ to an inner model $M$ (critical ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

245 views

### Reference for “if the set $A$ is Suslin, then every $\Sigma^1_1(A)$ set is Suslin”

Does anyone know of a reference for one or both of the following facts (in $\mathsf{ZF}$)?
If the set of reals $A$ is Suslin, then every $\Sigma^1_1(A)$ set of reals is Suslin.
If $T$ is a tree on ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

880 views

### When does Vopěnka's principle hold?

Vopěnka's principle (VP) is the statement that, given any proper class $\{\mathcal{A}_\eta: \eta\in ON\}$ of first-order structures in the same language, there are some $\alpha\not=\beta$ with ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

356 views

### Explicit counter example to Vopěnka's principle in the constructible universe?

Vopěnka's principle is a large cardinal axiom which has many equivalent formulations. One of them, which I find especially appealing, is the following: if the universe is satisfies Vopěnka's principle ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

89 views

### When is a formula preserved under taking factors in a reduced product or the stalk in a Boolean product?

I want to know if there is a nice characterization of when a formula is preserved under taking reduced factors.
We say that a formula $\phi$ is closed under taking reduced factors if whenever $I$ is ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

100 views

### A question on complexity notation

I am considering writing ''$\Pi^{n}_{i_{0},...,i_{n-1}}$-comprehension'' as abbreviation for ''$\Pi^{0}_{i_{0}}$-comprehension plus ... plus $\Pi^{n-1}_{i_{n-1}}$-comprehension'' in the context of an ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

146 views

### Maximality statements that cannot be proved using $\mathsf{ZL}$ [closed]

What are examples for maximality statements that cannot be proved using Zorn's Lemma?

**7**

votes

**1**answer

86 views

### Strongly minimal set with DMP

Recall that a strongly minimal theory $T$ has the Definable Multiplicity Property (DMP) if for all natural $k$, $m$ and $\varphi(\bar{x},\bar{b})$ of rank $k$, multiplicity $m$, there exists a formula ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

167 views

### Universal anti-Horn classes?

Is there published work about universal anti-Horn classes?
Anti-Horn formulas are also sometimes known as dual Horn.
See also related question Is there any research of universal algebras ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

92 views

### saturated model [closed]

Suppose you have a saturated model N of a complete theory T without finite models. How is it possibile to construct a proper saturated elementary substructure of N of the same cardinality of N ?
I ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

578 views

### How do I apply the Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem?

I have become aware of an amazing phenomenon from a myriad of questions and answers here on MathOverflow: many of the results that I would typically prove using the Axiom of Choice can actually be ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

176 views

### Seeking reference to result in this talk by Voevodsky [duplicate]

In this presentation by Vladimir Voevodsky [1], he mentions a result that there is a formula over the natural numbers with a single free variable such that one can prove that there is no algorithmic ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

87 views

### Fixed Points of the Friedman Stanley Jump

Consider the situation of a pair $(X,E)$, where $X$ is a standard Borel space and $E$ is an invariant equivalence relation on $X$*. The Friedman-Stanley jump of this pair is an equivalence relation ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

251 views

### Logical strength of “choice functions exist for well-ordered families”?

A colleague of mine suggested the following weakening of the axiom of choice:
If $\mathscr{F} := \{F_\alpha\}$ is a well-ordered family of non-empty sets (i.e., there is a bijection between ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

160 views

### Degree of unsolvability of finding a open approximation to a Borel set, given its Borel code

It is well known that every Borel set has the property of Baire. That is, for every Borel set $B$, there is an open set $U$ and a sequence of dense open sets $D_n$ such that for every $x\in \cap_n ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

177 views

### Existence of $\lambda$-transitive linear orders for $\lambda \geq \aleph_0$

A linear order $(L, <)$ is $\lambda$-transitive iff any order-preserving bijection between sets of size $\lambda$ can be extended to an order automorphism of $L$.
For $\lambda < \aleph_0$, ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

151 views

### Embedding of classical into intuitionistic linear logic

Following on from this recent question, there is another construction that is well-known, but I don’t know a good primary source for: the Kolmogorov-style double-negation embedding of classical into ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### Consistency strength of $\aleph_2$-Souslin hypothesis

Question 1. What is known about the consistency strength of $\aleph_2$-Souslin hypothesis?
Question 2. What is known about the consistency strength of having both $\aleph_2$-Souslin hypotheis and ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

175 views

### Conservativity of multiplicative linear logic over intuitionistic multiplicative linear logic

It is well known that multiplicative linear logic (MLL) is conservative over intuitionistic multiplicative linear logic (IMLL). In other words, if an IMLL formula is provable in MLL then it is already ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

219 views

### What is the Turing degree of $\mathbb{C}_{exp}$?

Let $\mathbb{C}_{exp}$ be the theory of the complex numbers in the language of exponential rings. I am interested in the Turing degree of $\mathbb{C}_{exp}$. As the natural numbers are definable in ...