first-order and higher-order logic, model theory, set theory, proof theory, computability theory, formal languages, definability, interplay of syntax and semantics, constructive logic, intuitionism, philosophical logic, modal logic, completeness, Gödel incompleteness, decidability, undecidability, ...

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2
votes
2answers
141 views

When does Skolemization require the axiom of choice?

Skolemization is often used for eliminating existential quantifiers, which is often useful for proving theorems, especially in automated resolution theorem proving. Skolemization in first order ...
-1
votes
0answers
84 views

Deriving $\Box p \rightarrow \Box \Box p$ if we have $\Box(\Box p \rightarrow p) \rightarrow \Box p$ [on hold]

Let $F = (W,R)$ - Kripke frame, $AL \rightleftharpoons \Box(\Box p \rightarrow p) \rightarrow \Box p $ Proof if $F \vdash AL$ then $R$ if transitive
5
votes
1answer
173 views

Existence of internal toposes/inner models in a topos

It has been known for some time that one can define a topos as a model of a (finitary) essentially algebraic theory (or in other words, can be defined internal to any category with finite limits). In ...
27
votes
1answer
600 views

Producing finite objects by forcing!

It is a trivial fact that forcing can not produce finite sets of ground model objects. However there are situations, where we can use forcing to prove the existence of finite objects with some ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Existential statement without witness

Are there existential theorems of ZFC, or PA say, with no witnesses? Ie does there exist a formula $\phi$ such that ZFC $\vdash\exists x \phi(x)$, but for all numerals $\underline{n}$, ZFC $\nvdash ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

A question on recursion and transfinite recursion in extensions of KP

Is the $\Sigma_{n}$-recursion supported by $\Sigma_{n}KP=KP+\Sigma_{n}$-separation + $\Sigma_{n}$-collection equivalent with $\Sigma_{n}$ transfinite recursion? If not, how do these notions differ?
4
votes
0answers
60 views

TCAs (total combinatory algebras) with oracles

Is there a natural, non-trivial example of a TCA (total combinatory algebra, cf. pca) with a natural notion of an oracle?
8
votes
3answers
492 views
+100

Does a left basis imply a right basis, without AC?

If $_DV_D$ is a $D$-$D$-bimodule, and we have a $D$-basis for $V_D$, do we still need AC to get a $D$-basis for $_DV$? (The original question appears below. But this shorter question gets at the ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

Decidability of Frankl's union-closed sets conjecture

Is it conceivable that Frankl's union closed sets conjecture is undecidable in $\mathsf{ZFC}$, or is this quite implausible, perhaps due to the "finitistic" nature of the statement, or for some other ...
5
votes
2answers
152 views

Formal languages with non-unique interpretations of terms

In mathematical logic and model theory, one considers interpretations of syntactic expressions: terms without free variables are interpreted as elements of some structure, formulas without free ...
0
votes
0answers
140 views

Wolfram's axiom completeness

I have been reading Wolfram's A New Kind of Science, and as I was reading the section on systems of logic and axioms, I came across this axiom, for which all of the normal axioms of Boolean logic can ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

Is below every cohesive set a 1-generic?

A set $X$ is called cohesive for $(R_i)_{i\in \mathbb{N}}$ if it is infinite and for each $i$ we have $X\subseteq^* R_i$ or $X\subseteq^* \overline{R_i}$. (Where $X\subseteq^*Y$ means that $X$ is ...
7
votes
1answer
145 views

Base change in homotopy type theory

Recall that with the internal language of 1-toposes, we have the nice, basic, and useful result that geometric sequents are stable under base change along geometric morphisms: If $\varphi$ and $\psi$ ...
7
votes
2answers
313 views

When can we reach a real by forcing?

I'm sure this is well-known, but: suppose I have a non-constructible real $r\in V-L$. Under what conditions is there a poset $\mathbb{P}\in L$ and a $G$ which is $\mathbb{P}$-generic over $L$, such ...
3
votes
1answer
115 views

A question on recursion in Kripke-Platek set theory with infinity and $\Sigma_{3}$-separation and $\Sigma_3$-collection

$\Sigma_{3}KP\omega$ be Kripke-Platek set theory with infinity and $\Sigma_{3}$-separation and $\Sigma_3$-collection. What strengthening of Barwise's Definition by $\Sigma$ Recursion (Theorem 6.4 on ...
9
votes
1answer
235 views

Busy beaver function vs low Turing degrees

Let $BB(n)$ denote busy beaver function. It's well known that $BB(n)$ dominates all computable functions (I'm quite certain it includes partial computable functions too). However, I was wondering if ...
14
votes
1answer
554 views

Is it possible to define higher cardinal arithmetics

In number theory there are several operators like ‎addition, ‎multiplication and ‎exponentiation defined from ‎$‎‎‎\omega‎‎\times‎‎\omega‎$ ‎to ‎‎$‎‎‎\omega‎$. Each ‎of ‎them ‎is defined as an ...
4
votes
2answers
167 views

Relation between Turing degrees and functions computable with them

Suppose $A<_T B$ ($A$ is a set computable from $B$ but not vice versa). Is it always the case that there exists a $B$-computable function which eventually outgrows all $A$-computable functions? Of ...
11
votes
1answer
706 views

Von Neumann's consistency proof

In the paper Zur Hilbertschen Beweistheorie, John Von Neumann has proposed a consistency proof for a fragment of first-order arithmetic (the fragment without induction and with the successor axioms ...
9
votes
2answers
405 views

Can a parent and child node have the same type in a well-founded digraph tree?

$\newcommand\toward{\rightharpoonup}$It would help me to understand something in a current research project if someone could provide an example of directed graph $\langle G,\toward\rangle$ with the ...
-1
votes
2answers
402 views

Can an algorithm decide whether a program computes all strings? [closed]

I am interested in the type of program, which is given as input to a Universal Turing Machine (UTM) with language $L$, and for which it holds that every possible finite string $s$ of symbols in $L$ ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Non overlapping boxes with constraint modelling [closed]

I'm stucked with this problem for 2 days and i've finished the ideas. Any hint is appreciated. Given a set of squares (2x2, 3x3, 4x4, 5x5), and a rectangular grid (9x7) place the squares on the grid ...
4
votes
0answers
184 views

A question on the size of an admissible ordinal

Let $\mathbf{L}_{\varsigma}$ be the level of ordinal $\varsigma$ of Gödel's constructible universe $\mathbf{L}$. Let $\Sigma_{3}$-KP be Kripke-Platek set theory with infinity and ...
-5
votes
1answer
166 views

An axiomatic system with a set of constants that form a complete ordered field [closed]

I am developing a ZFC axiomatic system where together with the empty set, there is a singular (and huge) set of constants that are themselves sets and form a complete ordered field (cof) these ...
7
votes
2answers
235 views

Peano arithmetic vs. fast-growing hierarchy with pathological fundamental sequences

Fundamental sequence for a countable limit ordinal $\alpha$ is an increasing sequence $\{\alpha[i]\}$ of ordinals of length $\omega$ such that $\lim_{i\rightarrow\omega}\alpha[i]=\alpha$. There are ...
12
votes
1answer
413 views

Is there a nonstandard model of arithmetic having precisely one inductive truth predicate?

$\newcommand\Tr{\text{Tr}}$My question is whether there can be a nonstandard model of PA having a unique inductive truth predicate. Background. If $\mathcal{N}=\langle N,+,\cdot,0,1,<\rangle$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
224 views

How to formalize “Is there a proof for every instance of the halting problem?”? [closed]

In a previous question that I asked here it turned out that for every instance of the halting problem, being the matter whether a certain computer program halts or runs forever, there exists a ...
0
votes
1answer
197 views

Is there a consistent theory for each instance of the halting problem?

I got a bit confused by a discussion about the provability of the Goldbach conjecture and the seemingly different opinions about this subject. Since I understand computer science better, I will ask my ...
5
votes
3answers
332 views

Extensionality in HoTT versus extensionality in internal language of a category

What's the extension of judgmental identity in HoTT (homotopy type theory)? The Martin-Löf intensional dependent type theory with identity types is called (definitionally) extensional if the ...
10
votes
3answers
716 views

Natural examples of Reverse Mathematics outside classical analysis?

Harvey Friedman at the 1974 ICM motivated Reverse Mathematics by the following statement: When the theorem is proved from the right axioms, the axioms can be proved from the theorem. Reverse ...
1
vote
1answer
177 views

Self-similarity for simple algebraic structures [closed]

I'm doing this thread because I have some ideas about how to define self-similarity in algebra, but I don't know if this is known at all. Any critics, comments and references are more than welcomed. ...
11
votes
3answers
994 views

Difference between ZFC and ZF+GCH

I hear that the axiom of choice (AC) derives from The generalized continuum hypothesis(GCH). And also hear that both AC and GCH are independent of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory(ZF). So, I'm just ...
3
votes
2answers
283 views

A Question related to the Formula Hierarchy

Let large Latin symbols as $X$ and $Y$ denote sets of natural numbers and small symbols as $n$ and $n´$ denote natural numbers and small Greek letters stand for formulas. Suppose $\alpha$ is ...
1
vote
1answer
203 views

Concept of synchronizability

This thread is about the concept of synchronizability. It's a concept I tried to formalize in its most general sense but without success. The goal of this thread is therefore to try to formalize it in ...
9
votes
2answers
743 views

Decidability of decidability

The questions I'm going to ask are non formal because they concern decidability of decidability, and I couldn't find any references on that after some quick searches. I hope that this thread is still ...
2
votes
2answers
237 views

System of boolean equations, Satisfiability

Are there any methods to "solve" large systems of boolean equations? $$x_{i1}\vee x_{i2}\vee x_{i3} = b_i, \quad\text{for}\quad i=1,\dots,N,$$ where $x_i, b_i \in\{0, 1\}$ For example $$x_{1}\vee ...
7
votes
1answer
579 views

Does Nelson try to prove PA inconsistent directly?

Edward Nelson is known for his serious attempts to show that Peano axioms, and sometimes even weaker theories, are inconsistent. I wasn't able to find Nelson's papers anywhere, so I wanted to ask a ...
10
votes
1answer
367 views

Is there an $L$ like inner model for $\sf Z$?

Godel proved the consistency of the axiom of choice with the axioms of $\sf ZF$ by showing that given any model of $\sf ZF$, there is a definable class which satisfies $\sf ZFC$. The proof uses a lot ...
9
votes
0answers
252 views

Reinhardt cardinals and iterability

Work in $ZF$. Let $j:V\to V$ be a non-trivial elementary embedding which is iterable, so that we can iterate it and form models $M_\alpha, \alpha\in ON,$ with $M_0=V,$ and elementary embeddings ...
7
votes
0answers
157 views

Countable choice in $L(\mathbb{R}^*_G)$

Let $\lambda$ be a singular strong limit cardinal and let $G \subset \text{Col}(\omega,\mathord{<}\lambda)$ be a $V$-generic filter. Let $\mathbb{R}^*_G = \bigcup_{\alpha < \lambda} ...
6
votes
1answer
171 views

O-minimal Theories with Non-Dense Order Type

I asked this question on MSE, but I haven't received any comments or responses (also, it has a very low view count), so I thought I would also ask it here. In this paper, Knight, Pillay, and ...
7
votes
1answer
265 views

On $V$-decisive and weakly homogeneous forcings

Suppose that $\Bbb P$ is a forcing in $V$, we say that $\Bbb P$ is $V$-decisive if whenever $\varphi(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ is a statement in the language of forcing, and $u_1,\ldots,u_n\in V$ then $1_{\Bbb ...
6
votes
0answers
213 views

Canonical functions in set theory and their applications

Given regular cardinal $\kappa>\omega,$ we can define the canonical functions $f_\alpha: \kappa\to \kappa,$ for $\alpha<\kappa^+.$ Some of their properties are presented in Chapter 22 of the ...
10
votes
3answers
452 views

The continuum hypothesis for packing shapes without overlapping

Consider the finite cross $C$ (=union of line segments $\overline{(0, -1)(0, 1)}$ and $\overline{(-1, 0)(1, 0)}$) and the unit half-circle $H$. It is easy to see that we may pack continuum-many ...
14
votes
1answer
381 views

Is the regularity of finitely generated rings decidable?

Q: Is there an algorithm to decide whether a given finitely generated (over $\mathbb{Z}$) commutative ring is regular? I mean by regular that the localization at every prime ideal is a regular local ...
10
votes
2answers
420 views

Is every order type of a PA model the \omega of some ZFC model?

Let $N$ be a model of first-order Peano arithmetic, and let $\sigma$ be its order-type. Does it follow that there is a (non-transitive, expect when $M$ is the standard model) $ZFC$-model $M$ such that ...
2
votes
2answers
102 views

proof that “small” sets in an extension by iterated forcing already appear in an earlier stage

In Kunen's book (introduction to independence proofs, ) the following lemma is proved (chapter 8, lemma 5.14): Assume that in M, $\alpha$ is a limit ordinal, $( ( \mathbb{P}_\xi : \xi \leq \alpha) , ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Is it possible to formulate the axiom of choice as the existence of a survival strategy?

Consider the following situation: There is an infinite set $G$ of giraffes. A lion comes and announces a set $C$ of all possible colours and an infinite cardinal $\kappa$. The hungry lion ...
3
votes
1answer
198 views

How to change the successor of a singular with a Woodin?

I'm looking for references on how to change the successor of a singular cardinal from "more or less" minimal assumptions. If possible, then without adding bounded subsets to the singular either. In ...
5
votes
1answer
178 views

Consistency of Weak Diamond with a Weak Version of Martin's Axiom

If $S \subset \omega_1$ is stationary, then the weak diamond principle $\Phi(S)$ states that for any $F: 2^{<\omega_1} \to 2$, there is a $g: \omega_1 \to 2$ such that for all $f: \omega_1 \to 2$, ...