# Tagged Questions

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### Examples of unproven but likely true existential sentence (in the sense of incompleteness)

Some examples of universal statements that are unproven but likely true include the Riemann hypothesis (all non-trivial zeros of the zeta function have real part 1/2) and the Goldbach conjecture (all ...

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**1**answer

96 views

### Definability of arithmetic functions and relations

Motivation: Many "weak" arithmetic functions and/or relations ("relations" for short) are equivalent with relations explicitly definable by relations which were recursively defined by them beforehand ...

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176 views

### Ideas behind Gitik's solution of PCF conjecture

Recently Moti Gitik has refuted Shelah's PCF conjecture (see Short extenders forcings II ) by proving the following theorem:
Theorem. Assuming the consistency of infinitely many strong cardinals, one ...

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**4**answers

826 views

### How short can we state the Axiom of Choice?

How short can we state a principle which is equivalent with the Axiom of Choice under $ZF$? The principle should be a sentence in the language of set theory with only $\in$ and$=$ as extralogical ...

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177 views

### How much mathematics should a student of mathematical logic know? [closed]

I need your advice on further studies in Logic. Here is the question I asked on stackexchange but have not received the satisfactory answer I hoped for. I hope it is not too immature for this forum.
...

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155 views

+50

### Saturated Ultrapowers

I posted it on MSE and didn't receive any comments or answers, so I thought I would post it here.
(See http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/895549/keisler-order-saturated-ultrapowers)
Keisler's ...

**6**

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**1**answer

219 views

### Ultracoproducts and Cartesian products

Let $X$ be a metrizable compact topological space, let $\mathcal U$ be an ultrafilter, and denote by $X^{\mathcal U}$ the ultracopower of $X$ with respect to $\mathcal U$.
As a C$^*$-algebraist, I ...

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183 views

### What is the status of the extreme value theorem in forms of constructive mathematics, such as Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis?

In certain intuitionistic frameworks the extreme value theorem cannot be proved. Depending on the exact framework, counterexamples can be constructed as well; see for example pp. 294-295 in
...

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**2**answers

591 views

### Salvaging Leibnizian formalism?

Can one justify Leibniz's formalism in a suitable algebraic or topological context?
We have published some papers recently where we argue that Leibniz's formalism for the calculus wasn't ...

**7**

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**1**answer

227 views

### Inaccessible becomes successor of singular

Is it possible, starting from any large cardinal assumption, to find a countably closed forcing $\mathbb{P}$ such that for some inaccessible $\kappa$, $\Vdash_\mathbb{P} "\kappa = \lambda^+$ and ...

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vote

**1**answer

290 views

### Is there any current development of a first order formalization of metamathematics?

I hope that this post isn't off topic, but I already asked math.stackexchange about first order formalizations of first order logic. There are provability logics and extensions in modal logic's that ...

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143 views

### Question about higher inductive types and computational rules

I have been trying to make my way through the homotopy type theory book, slowly but surely, and I just finished reading this introductory series of 3 articles on hott on ScienceForAll.
...

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140 views

### Universal quantifier in Russell's Theory of descriptions - Who is the UNIVERSE? [closed]

To moderators: Please don't delete or migrate this thread: It's by no means PURE PHILOSOPHICAL, but mostly a mathematical logic question!
In Russell's 1905 paper "on denoting" in which he introduces ...

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48 views

### LTL - Büchi-automaton Translation [closed]

I need some help in Generalized Büchi automaton ..
I do understand the translation of a LTL-formula ϕ into Generalized Büchi automaton A= (Q, Δ, I, F), with F= {F1,...,Fn}
My problem is F ..
I know ...

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**1**answer

161 views

### continuum many mutually generic filters

Given a countable model $M$ of set theory and an atomless, separative partial order $\mathbb{P} \in M$, can we construct (in the real universe) $2^\omega$ many pairwise mutually $\mathbb{P}$-generic ...

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96 views

### A question about ordinal definable sets of real numbers revisited [duplicate]

Citing (almost)
A question about ordinal definable real numbers
If ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the Axiom of Choice) is consistent, does it remain consistent when the following statement is ...

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98 views

### Can $Ded(\kappa)$ be a supremum?

Definition If there is a dense linear order w/o endpoints of size $\lambda$ with a dense subset of size $\kappa$ then write $D(\kappa,\lambda)$. $Ded(\kappa)=\sup_\lambda \{D(\kappa,\lambda)\}$.
It ...

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votes

**1**answer

144 views

### The word problem of the free left distributive algebra on one generator

A left distributive algebra is a set $A$ together with a binary operation, $\cdot$, satisfying $a\cdot(b\cdot c)=(a\cdot b)\cdot(a\cdot c)$.
One important example of left distributive algebras arises ...

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**1**answer

299 views

### The (un)decidability of Robinson-Arithmetic-without-Multiplication?

I asked this over at math.stackexchange, and though a number of people were interested enough to vote up the question, I didn't get an answer -- which makes me wonder whether it isn't quite so ...

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**1**answer

244 views

### The definition of < in Robinson's Q

I recently had to explain how the basic axioms in Simpson's Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic were interpretable in Robinson's Q. Most of the axioms are actually the same, except that Simpson ...

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**1**answer

120 views

### References for the Keisler Order

Are there any good/modern references on the Keisler order. I have been reading Keisler's original paper, "Ultraproducts which are not Saturated", which introduces the order. However it is somewhat ...

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111 views

### The (global) theory of Borel equivalence relations

What do we know about the complexity of the theory of Borel equivalence relations, with the Borel reducibility order $\leq_B$?
That is, let $\mathcal{B}$ be the set of all Borel equivalence ...

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**1**answer

303 views

### Set-theoretic tautologies

Let us consider unquantifed formulas of a set theory (for example, NBG), more precisely,
the formulas, constructed from variables and the constants $\emptyset, V$ (the empty set
and the class of all ...

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**1**answer

143 views

### Refutation of $A \land \lnot\lnot\lnot A$ by resolution [closed]

$ A \land \lnot\lnot\lnot A $ this is a very simple example. Resolution is refutation complete. So it should be able to refute this formula. However, I don't see how would it do that without using ...

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31 views

### Is the pseudomenon a statement? [migrated]

I'm asking this because I'm teaching a class on paradoxes for kids, and I realized I have no idea what the answer to this question is. It is a research question in the pedagogical sense, I suppose.
...

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**1**answer

76 views

### Is quasivariety generated by all perfect graphs finitely axiomatizable?

Fix logic $L$ with equality and a binary relation symbol $E$.
The class of graphs can be identified with the class of models of the universal first-order Horn $L$-sentences $\forall x,y\; E(x,y) ...

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**1**answer

108 views

### Countable model theory for $\omega$-stable theories?

This is a bit of a fishing expedition, because I'm not sure what I'm looking for. Very vaguely stated, here's the driving question:
What conditions on an $\omega$-stable theory make the class of ...

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**1**answer

241 views

### How do we know if Vaught's Conjecture is Absolute?

Please note that this might be some confusion on my part about the work surrounding Vaught's conjecture.
First of all, Vaught Conjecture states that if a first-order complete theory $T$ in a ...

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**1**answer

259 views

### Question about “Coding the universe”

The following is a result which I know as a weak form of Jensen's coding lemma$^*$ (first published in the book "Coding the universe"; also see http://www.jstor.org/stable/2273986):
For any class ...

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116 views

### Strongly compact cardinal with bad covering properties

This is a continuation of the question covering properties of strongly compact embedding.
Recall that a cardinal $\kappa$ is $\nu$-strongly compact cardinal if there is an elementary embedding ...

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192 views

### Main Gap Phenomenon

Shelah's Main Gap Theorem states that for all first-order, complete theories, T, in a countable language, we have that either $$I(T,\aleph_\alpha)=2^{\aleph_\alpha}$$ or ...

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366 views

### If all reals are generic, is the set of reals generic?

Let $W\subseteq V$ be two models of $\sf ZFC$ with the same ordinals. Is the following situation consistent:
For every $x\in\Bbb R^V$ there is some $P_x\in W$ such that for some $G\subseteq P_x$ ...

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**1**answer

565 views

### Harrington's unpublished note “The constructible reals can be anything”

Around 1974, Leo Harringto wrote an unpublished note entitled "The constructible reals can be anything", in which he proved that it is consistent that being $\Delta^1_n$ is the same as being ...

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526 views

### Is there one binary operation foundational for set theory?

The membership relationship "$\epsilon$" is foundational for set theory, in the sense that the axioms of any set theory are formulated in the language of "$\epsilon$". Naturally, the question arises ...

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**1**answer

581 views

### solvable word problem without algorithm

Let $G$ be a finitely generated group. I wonder if there are examples where:
1) The word problem is known to be solvable in $G$ but there is no algorithm known.
2) The word problem is known to be ...

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193 views

### Does forcing with recursively pointed perfect trees add a Turing degree that is minimal over $V$?

A tree $T$ on $\omega$ is recursively pointed if it is recursive in each of its branches. We can consider a variant of Sacks forcing where the conditions are recursively pointed perfect trees ordered ...

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216 views

### Does V=L imply transitive containment over, say, Z?

In Zermelo set theory, the axiom of constructibility V=L seems to imply every set has a transitive closure. But does that argument have to assume transitive closure in the first place, to get an ...

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178 views

### Is anyone talking about partial interpretations of theories? (Edited)

Consider the concept of a module. This can be understood a multisorted algebraic theory $\mathsf{Mod}$ on two sorts, a scalarsort $S$ and a vectorsort $V$. An interpretation of $\mathsf{Mod}$ in ...

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219 views

### Forcing, cuts, and Dedekind-finite cardinalities

Tl;dr version: there are two natural classes of cuts in the nonstandard model of arithmetic consisting of the Dedekind-finite sets (if, in fact, they constitute such a model); both these classes are ...

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844 views

### How much of GCH do we need to guarantee well-ordering of continuum?

It's well known that, if GCH holds, then every cardinal can be well-ordered. However, I'm sure we don't need full power of GCH to prove it for specific cardinal, e.g. continuum. I have been wondering, ...

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573 views

### Meta$^{n{-}th}$ mathematics [duplicate]

Metamathematics has a reasonably clear connotation,
enough to have a Wikipedia page,
with Gödel, Tarski, and Turing playing leading roles;
Kleene's book (Introduction to Metamathematics (Amazon ...

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271 views

### What is the large cardinal strength of the assertion that every $\kappa$-complete filter on $\kappa$ extends to a $\kappa$-complete ultrafilter?

It is well-known that an uncountable regular cardinal $\kappa$ is strongly compact if and only if every $\kappa$-complete filter on any set extends to a $\kappa$-complete ultrafilter on that set. The ...

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143 views

### If questions are formalized as ideals of a boolean algebra, what kind of algebra of questions appears from Stone representation theorem?

Affirmative propositions make up a Boolean algebra, and Boolean algebras became part of classical algebra for over one century ago - in this sense they are "simple". But I did not encounter in ...

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157 views

### Elementary chains of $\aleph_1$-saturated models

If $X$ and $Y$ are two sets linearily ordered by $<$, $X$ is called cofinal in $Y$ if $X \subseteq Y$ and and for every $y \in Y$, there is a $x \in X$ with $y < x$.
If $M$ is some model and ...

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vote

**1**answer

75 views

### A question on Carnap's modal semantics on the basis of Cochiarelli's primary semantics

I believe I learned that Carnap's state description semantics for propositional modal logic suffered from validating $\lozenge p$ for all atomic variables p. Re-reading Nino Cochiarelli's primary ...

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190 views

### Does Sageev's result need an inaccessible?

In 1981, building on work by Ellentuck in 1974, Sageev showed ("A model of ZF + there exists an inaccessible, in which the Dedekind cardinals constitute a natural non-standard model of arithmetic," ...

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votes

**1**answer

225 views

### What axioms (other than choice) have a taming effect on the ordering of cardinalities?

Axiom of choice arranges all cardinalities into a well-ordered chain but without it their ordering can be wild in general ZF models, e.g. two cardinalities may not even have inf or sup. However, ...

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216 views

### Valid statement in submodel? (Consistency lemma in Cohen's CH book)

In Paul Cohen's
Set Theory and the Continuum Hypothesis
(Page 71) there is a lemma with the assumption that
$\exists x\, P(x)$.
The ''proof'' there, uses the following argument:
Intuitively the ...

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94 views

### How to prove a Lefschetzesque principle for relative homology and absolute homology

Here is my conjecture:
If H is some homology theory from some abelian category A to some abelian category B, E is the class of all epimorphism in A, E' is some closed class of epimorphisms in A and ...

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**1**answer

421 views

### Does Turing determinacy imply full determinacy?

The axiom of Turing determinacy is a weakening of the full axiom of determinacy, $AD$, in which only games with payoff sets which are $\equiv_T$-invariant are demanded to be determined.
In "Turing ...