# Tagged Questions

**18**

votes

**4**answers

20k views

### Eigenvalues of Matrix Sums

Is there a relationship between the eigenvalues of individual matrices and the eigenvalues of their sum?
What about the special case when they are Hermitian and positive-definite?
I am investigating ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Solving a quadratic matrix equation

This might be a well-known problem but I am having trouble to find this. For square matrices $X, A, B,$ how to obtain the general solution for $X$, for the quadratic matrix equation $X A X^{T} = B$ ? ...

**28**

votes

**20**answers

7k views

### Why linear algebra is fun!(or ?)

Edit: the original poster is Menny, but the question is CW; the first-person pronoun refers to Menny, not to the most recent editor.
I'm doing an introductory talk on linear algebra with the ...

**121**

votes

**19**answers

14k views

### Geometric Interpretation of Trace

This afternoon I was speaking with some graduate students in the department and we came to the following quandry;
Is there a geometric interpretation of the trace of a matrix?
This question ...

**53**

votes

**9**answers

5k views

### Geometric proof of the Vandermonde determinant?

The Vandermonde matrix is the $n\times n$ matrix whose $(i,j)$-th component is $x_j^{i-1}$, where the $x_j$ are indeterminates. It is well known that the determinant of this matrix is $$\prod_{1\leq ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Infinite Tensor Products

Let $A$ be a commutative ring and $M_i, i \in I$ be a infinite family of $A$-modules. Define their tensor product $\bigotimes_{i \in I} M_i$ to be a representing object of the functor of multilinear ...

**30**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Is the non-triviality of the algebraic dual of an infinite-dimensional vector space equivalent to the axiom of choice?

If $V$ is given to be a vector space that is not finite-dimensional, it doesn't seem to be possible to exhibit an explicit non-zero linear functional on $V$ without further information about $V$. The ...

**24**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### The probability for a symmetric matrix to be positive definite

Let me give a reasonable model for the question in the title. In ${\rm Sym}_n({\mathbb R})$, the positive definite matrices form a convex cone $S_n^+$. The probability I have in mind is the ratio ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Dimension of infinite product of vector spaces

This question is motivated by the question link text, which compares the infinite direct sum and the infinite direct product of a ring.
It is well-known that an infinite dimensional vector space is ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

472 views

### A spectral inequality for positive-definite matrices

Question. Given a positive-definite $n \times n$ matrix $A = (a_{ij})$ with eigenvalues
$$
\lambda_1 \leq \cdots \leq \lambda_n ,
$$
is there a sharp upper bound for the product $\lambda_2 \cdots ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

858 views

### Is there a useful generalization of the Schmidt decomposition to the tensoring together of 3 or more vector spaces?

I've rewritten the question in math notation, and I've left the old version in physics bra-ket notation here.
Background
A simple consequence of the singular value decomposition is that any vector ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

781 views

### Does Anyone Know Anything about the Determinant and/or Inverse of this Matrix?

The matrix I am inquiring about here is the $n \times n$ matrix where the entry $A_{ij}$ is $\frac{1}{(i+j-1)^2}$. The $2 \times 2$ matrix looks like
$$
\begin{pmatrix}
1 & 1/4 \\
1/4 & 1/9
...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

348 views

### Codimension of the range of certain linear operators

Assume that $P(x,y), Q(x,y) \in \mathbb{R}[x,y]$ are two polynomials. We define a linear map
$D$ on $\mathbb{R}[x,y]$ with $D(U)=PU_{x}+QU_{y}$. In fact $D$ is the derivational operator correspond ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

198 views

### concentration for eigenvectors

I am interested in bounding from above the ratio between the maximum and minimum entries of a Perron vector. The only results that I found in the literature are from the classic masters (Ostrowski and ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

670 views

### Sizes of bases of vector spaces without the axiom of choice

Assuming the axiom of choice does not hold we have that there is a vector space without a basis. The situation can be, in some sense, worse. It is consistent that there are vector spaces that have two ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### The height of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector

Does the height of a real symmetric matrix with non-negative entries control the height of its Perron-Frobenius eigenvector, under some reasonable definition of heights?
Just as an example of what ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Reference for partial Hadamard matrices

Definition. An $m\times n$ matrix is said to be a partial Hadamard matrix (let's say PHM) if its entries are chosen from $\lbrace -1, 1 \rbrace$ such that the dot product of each pair of row vectors ...

**37**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### Slick proof?: A vector space has the same dimension as its dual if and only if it is finite dimensional

A very important theorem in linear algebra that is rarely taught is:
A vector space has the same dimension as its dual if and only if it is finite dimensional.
I have seen a total of one proof ...

**23**

votes

**15**answers

6k views

### Linear Algebra Proofs in Combinatorics?

Simple linear algebra methods are a surprisingly powerful tool to prove combinatorial results. Some examples of combinatorial theorems with linear algebra proofs are the (weak) perfect graph theorem, ...

**29**

votes

**17**answers

5k views

### Wonderful applications of the Vandermonde determinant

This semester I am assisting my mentor teaching a first-year undergraduate course on linear algebra in Peking University, China. And now we have come to the famous Vandermonde determinant, which has ...

**52**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Does linearization of categories reflect isomorphism?

Given a category $C$ and a commutative ring $R$, denote by $RC$ the $R$-linearization: this is the category enriched over $R$-modules which has the same objects as $C$, but the morphism module between ...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### explicit big linearly independent sets

In the following, I use the word "explicit" in the following sense: No choices of bases (of vector spaces or field extensions), non-principal ultrafilters or alike which exist only by Zorn's Lemma (or ...

**25**

votes

**16**answers

21k views

### Linear Algebra Texts?

Can anyone suggest a relatively gentle linear algebra text that integrates vector spaces and matrix algebra right from the start? I've found in the past that students react in very negative ways to ...

**21**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Using linear algebra to classify vector bundles over P^1

There is a theorem of Grothendieck stating that a vector bundle of rank $r$ over the projective line $\mathbb{P}^1$ can be decomposed into $r$ line bundles uniquely up to isomorphism. If we let ...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Does the fact that this vector space is not isomorphic to its double-dual require choice?

Let $V$ denote the vector space of sequences of real numbers that are eventually 0, and let $W$ denote the vector space of sequences of real numbers. Given $w \in W$ and $v \in V$, we can take their ...

**19**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Is there a preferable convention for defining the wedge product?

There are different conventions for defininig the wedge product $\wedge$.
In Kobayashi-Nomizu, there is $\alpha\wedge\beta:=Alt(\alpha\otimes\beta)$,
in Spivak, we find ...

**23**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### “A gentleman never chooses a basis.”

Around these parts, the aphorism "A gentleman never chooses a basis," has become popular.
Is there a gentlemanly way to prove that the natural map from V to V** is surjective if V is finite ...

**21**

votes

**8**answers

9k views

### Fast Matrix Multiplication

Suppose we have two $n$ by $n$ matrices over particular ring. We want to multiply them as fast as possible. According to wikipedia there is an algorithm of Coppersmith and Winograd that can do it in ...

**23**

votes

**9**answers

5k views

### Can a vector space over an infinite field be a finite union of proper subspaces?

Can a (possibly infinite-dimensional) vector space ever be a finite union of proper subspaces?
If the ground field is finite, then any finite-dimensional vector space is finite as a set, so there are ...

**25**

votes

**10**answers

3k views

### real symmetric matrix has real eigenvalues - elementary proof

Every real symmetric matrix has at least one real eigenvalue. Does anyone know how to prove this elementary, that is without the notion of complex numbers?

**22**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Linearity of the inner product using the parallelogram law

A norm on a vector space comes from an inner product if and only if it satisfies the parallelogram law. Given such a norm, one can reconstruct the inner product via the formula:
2<u,v> = |u + ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

756 views

### Are the only local minima of $\angle(v, Av)$ the eigenvectors?

Let $A$ be an invertible $n \times n$ complex matrix. For $v \in \mathbb{CP}^{n-1}$, define
$$d(v) = \frac{|\langle A \tilde{v}, \tilde{v} \rangle |^2}{ \langle A \tilde{v}, A \tilde{v} \rangle ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Number of unique determinants for an NxN (0,1)-matrix.

I'm interested in bounds for the number of unique determinants of NxN (0,1)-matrices. Obviously some of these matrices will be singular and therefore won't have a determinant. While it might also be ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Is there a name for the matrix equation A X B + B X A + C X C = D?

I happen to be working on a problem that reduces to solving the following equation:
$$\mathbf{A X B} + \mathbf{B X A} + \mathbf{C X C} = \mathbf{D}$$
where A through D are known matrices ( A, B, D ...

**22**

votes

**13**answers

2k views

### Elementary applications of linear algebra over finite fields

I'm teaching axiomatic linear algebra again this semester. Although the textbooks I'm using do everything over the real or complex numbers, for various reasons I prefer to work over an arbitrary ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

582 views

### Eigenvalues of an “oblique diagonal” matrix

I am looking for guidance about the behavior of powers of a particular matrix (call it $A_n$ for $n\ge2$), which has come up in a counting problem about quantum knot mosaics (a good reference for ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### If $V$ is a vector space with a basis. $W\subseteq V$ has to have a basis too?

Suppose $V$ is a vector space, we say that $\mathcal B$ is a basis for $V$ if:
Every $v\in V$ can be written as a linear combination of elements of $\mathcal B$;
If $\sum\alpha_i b_i = 0$, where ...

**17**

votes

**6**answers

10k views

### Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices.
I've proved that $\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional.
Is this true in general for ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Rings over which every module is free

We know that modules over skewfields are free. Is the converse true? In other words, is it true that a nontrivial ring over which every module is free is a skewfield?
If the ring A is commutative, ...

**15**

votes

**4**answers

995 views

### Condition for two matrices to share at least one eigenvector?

Suppose that I have two matrices $A$ and $B$, and I want them to share a common eigenvector $x$. For simplicity let's just assume that the eigenvalue associated with $x$ is $1$ for both matrices, so ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

467 views

### Symbols of elliptic operators

First let me state the problem, then I'll explain its origin and finally, I'll ask the main question..
Problem S. Fix a positive integer $n$. Find all the pairs $(V, S)$, whith the following ...

**8**

votes

**5**answers

697 views

### Non-conjugate words with the same trace

Let n>=2, p a large prime, G = SL_n(Z/pZ).
If n=2, there are words that, while not conjugate in the free group, do have identical trace in G. For example, tr(g h^2 g^2 h)= tr(g^2 h^2 g h) for all g, ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

989 views

### 2-norm of the upper triangular “all-ones” matrix

Let $M_n$ be the $n\times n$ matrix
$$
(M_n)_{ij}=\begin{cases}1 & i\leq j,\\\\ 0 &i>j.\end{cases}
$$
Is there around an explicit expression or at least an asymptotic for $\left\Vert M_n ...

**26**

votes

**2**answers

839 views

### What are the algebras for the double dualization monad?

Let $k$ be a field, and let $\mathbf{Vect}$ denote the category of vector spaces (possibly infinite-dimensional) over $k$. Taking duals gives a functor $(\ )^*\colon \mathbf{Vect}^{\mathrm{op}} \to ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

272 views

### Eigenvalues of permutations of a real matrix: how complex can they be?

This is sort of complementary to this thread. I’ll repeat the definitions here:
For a matrix $M\in GL(n,\mathbb R)$, consider the $n!$ matrices obtained by permutations of the rows (say) of $M$ and ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

526 views

### Free subgroups of GL(2,Z)

Is there a bound $B$ such that every 2-generator subgroup
$G = \langle a, b \rangle < {\rm GL}(2,\mathbb{Z})$
whose generators do not satisfy a relation of length $\leq B$ is free?
If it exists, ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

539 views

### Eigenvectors of a particular transition matrix

I am considering a Markov chain with $n$ states with a particularly nice structure. The transition matrix is as follows:
\begin{equation}\mathbf{P}=\begin{pmatrix}
0 & 0& \dots&0 & 0 ...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

761 views

### Elements of finite order of $\mathrm{PGL}(n,\mathbb{Q})$

For some research work, I need to know the classification of elements of finite order of $\mathrm{PGL}(n,\mathbb{Q})$, up to conjugation.
Since I essentially need $n\le 4$, I think that I can show it ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### How to solve this quadratic matrix equation?

I would like to solve for $X$ in the matrix equation
$$
XCX + AX = I
$$
where all the matrices are $n\times n$, have real components, $X$ is positive semidefinite and $C$ is symmetric. My (possibly ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

194 views

### Solving for a set of points from projections

Consider a set of $N$ points in $n$-dimensional space, i.e.
\begin{align*}
S = \{x_1, \dots, x_N\} \subset \mathbb R^n.
\end{align*}
Let $v \in \mathbb R^n$ and consider the image set (not counting ...