**31**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Why is there a connection between enumerative geometry and nonlinear waves?

Recently I encountered in a class the fact that there is a generating function of Gromov--Witten invariants that satisfies the Korteweg--de Vries hierarchy. Let me state the fact more precisely. ...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

492 views

### “Special” meanders

One of the open problems in combinatorics is enumeration of meanders.
Here on MO I only could find them under the heading not-especially-famous-long-open-problems-which-anyone-can-understand.
Since ...

**31**

votes

**11**answers

4k views

### What is significant about the half-sum of positive roots?

I apologize for the somewhat vague question: there may be multiple answers but I think this is phrased in such a way that precise answers are possible.
Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a semisimple Lie algebra ...

**20**

votes

**17**answers

11k views

### Learning about Lie groups

Can someone suggest a good book for teaching myself about Lie groups? I study algebraic geometry and commutative algebra, and I like lots of examples. Thanks.

**42**

votes

**7**answers

7k views

### What is the symbol of a differential operator?

I find Wikipedia's discussion of symbols of differential operators a bit impenetrable, and Google doesn't seem to turn up useful links, so I'm hoping someone can point me to a more pedantic ...

**32**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Why the Killing form?

I'm teaching a short summer course on algebraic groups and it's time to talk about the Killing form on the Lie algebra. The students are all undergrads of varying levels of inexperience, and I try to ...

**44**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is “semisimple” a dense condition among Lie algebras?

The "Motivation" section is a cute story, and may be skipped; the "Definitions" section establishes notation and background results; my question is in "My Question", and in brief in the title. Some ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Does the quantum subgroup of quantum su_2 called E_8 have anything at all to do with the Lie algebra E_8?

The ordinary McKay correspondence relates the subgroups of SU(2) to the affine ADE Dynkin diagrams. The correspondence is that the vertices correspond to irreducible representations of the subgroup, ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

566 views

### Generators of invariant polynomials of semisimple Lie algebra

Suppose $\mathfrak{g}$ is a complex semi-simple Lie algebra. By a theorem of Chevalley, we know that $S(\mathfrak{g})^\mathfrak{g}$, i.e. the $\mathfrak{g}$ invariant polynomials, is generated by $l$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

259 views

### The existence of a finite dimensional Lie algebra with a given symmetric invariant metric

The question is motivated by a more broad perspective in another MO post and here, but here we would like to understand a specific case (our question potentially connects to / is motivated b Quantum ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

414 views

### Finite dimensional Lie algebra with non-degenerate invariant bilinear forms $\Omega_{ab}$

Firstly, my apology to MO experts that I am in a more science/physics background (a PhD). So please feel free refine/modify/comment my language if I have different math accents than yours. From ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

838 views

### Is homology finitely generated as an algebra?

If a differential graded algebra is finitely generated as an algebra, is its homology finitely generated as an algebra?
Is it easier if we impose any of the three conditions: characteristic zero; ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

824 views

### Is a retract of a free object free?

I wonder whether this is true in the categories of groups, monoids, commutative algebras, associative algebras, Lie algebras?

**8**

votes

**3**answers

723 views

### subgroup of SU(N) with maximal manifold dimension

Given the group SU(N) of NxN unitary matrices, does there exist a subgroup S
with a manifold dimension larger than the SU(N-1) manifold dimension and
smaller than the SU(N) one? S should not ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

394 views

### Quadratic Casimir of fundamental irreps of simply-laced Lie algebras

I have the following question, motivated by the expression for the character of level 1 highest weight integrable representations of simply-laced affine algebras (in terms of the string function). It ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

725 views

### Chevalley Groups over an arbitrary ring.

My question is simply about the Chevalley groups over rings. In many books, including Carter's book on "Simple groups of Lie types", the groups are considered over fields. I have checked the ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

503 views

### Complete classification of six dimensional non-semi simple Lie algebra

I would aim to know the complete classification of 6 dimensional non-semi simple Lie algebra (here the dimension stands for the generators; or the dimension $\leq 6$).
In this paper, in page 7, it ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

224 views

### A question on involutions on the Lie algebra of vector fields

Edite According to the essential comment of Ian Agol I revise the question as follows
For a smooth manifold $M$, is there a non identity involution $\theta$ on the lie algebra $\chi^{\infty}(M)$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

273 views

### Heisenberg Lie algebras

Dear forum,
I would like to ask if $H(m)$ is the Heisenberg Lie algebra of dimension $2m+1$ and $M$ is an ideal of $H(m)$. Can we say that $M$ has a complement in $H(m)$?

**69**

votes

**13**answers

17k views

### why study Lie algebras?

I don't mean to be rude asking this question, I know that the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras is a very deep one, very aesthetic and that has broad applications in various areas of mathematics ...

**83**

votes

**3**answers

6k views

### Has the Lie group E8 really been detected experimentally?

A few months ago there were several math talks about how the Lie group E8 had been detected in some physics experiment. I recently looked up the original paper where this was announced,
"Quantum ...

**40**

votes

**15**answers

5k views

### What does the generating function $x/(1 - e^{-x})$ count?

Let $x$ be a formal (or small, since the function is analytic) variable, and consider the power series
$$ A(x) = \frac{x}{1 - e^{-x}} = \sum_{m=0}^\infty \left( -\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...

**32**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### What role does the “dual Coxeter number” play in Lie theory (and should it be called the “Kac number”)?

While trying to get some perspective on the extensive literature about highest weight modules for affine Lie algebras relative to "level" (work by Feigin, E. Frenkel, Gaitsgory, Kac, ....), I run into ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Isometry group of a homogeneous space

Background
Let $(M,g)$ be a finite-dimensional riemannian (or more generally pseudoriemannian) manifold. Suppose that I know that a certain Lie group $G$ acts transitively and isometrically on $M$ ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### How to Compute the coordinate ring of flag variety?

Let $G$ be algebraic group over $\mathbb(C)$(semisimple), $B$ be Borel subgroup. consider flag variety $G/B$. It is known that $G/B$ is projective variety. So one consider the homogeneous coordinate ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Cohomology of Lie groups and Lie algebras

The length of this question has got a little bit out of hand. I apologize.
Basically, this is a question about the relationship between the cohomology of Lie groups and Lie algebras, and maybe ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

993 views

### What's the status of the following relationship between Ramanujan's $\tau$ function and the simple Lie algebras?

Qiaochu asked this in the comments to this question. Since this is really his question, not mine, I will make this one Community Wiki. In MR0522147, Dyson mentions the generating function $\tau(n)$ ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### When is a finite dimensional real or complex Lie Group not a matrix group

I have a smattering of knowledge and disconnected facts about this question, so I would like to clarify the following discussion, and I also seek references and citations supporting this knowledge. ...

**23**

votes

**8**answers

3k views

### Is every finite-dimensional Lie algebra the Lie algebra of an algebraic group?

Harold Williams, Pablo Solis, and I were chatting and the following question came up.
In Lie group land (where you're doing differential geometry), given a finite-dimensional Lie algebra g, you can ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### How to interpret the Sugawara construction from a physical or mathematical viewpoint?

In theoretical physics, the Sugawara theory is a set of formulae and theorems that allow one to construct a stress-energy tensor of a specific type of conformal field theory from a bilinear expression ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

694 views

### What is a Homotopy between $L_\infty$-algebra morphisms

A $L_\infty$-algebra can be defined in many different ways. One common way, that
gives the 'right' kind of morphisms, is that a $L_\infty$-algebra is a graded cocommutative and coassociative ...

**10**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Polynomial invariants of the exceptional Weyl groups

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a simple complex Lie algebra, and let $\mathfrak{h} \subset \mathfrak{g}$ be a fixed Cartan subalgebra. Let $W$ be the Weyl group associated to $\mathfrak{g}$. Let ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Basis-free definition of Casimir element?

Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional vector space and let $\mathfrak g \subset \mathfrak{gl}(V)$ be a representation of a semisimple Lie algebra on $V$. Let $e_1, \dots, e_n$ be a basis for $V$. Let $e_1', ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

453 views

### factorization of the regular representation of the symmetric group

Let $\mathbb{C}[S_n]$ be the regular representation of the symmetric group $S_n$, and let $\mathbb{C}^n$ be the vector representation.
Question: Does there exist a representation $V$ (of dimension ...

**25**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### A mysterious Heisenberg algebra identity from Sylvester, 1867

I am trying to understand two papers by James Joseph Sylvester:
P92: "Note on the properties of the test operators which occur in the calculus of invariants, their derivatives, analogues, and laws of ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Invariants for the exceptional complex simple Lie algebra $F_4$

This is an edited version of the original question taking into account the comments below by Bruce. The original formulation was imprecise.
Let $\mathfrak{g}$ denote a complex simple Lie algebra of ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

824 views

### What is the Zariski closure of the space of semisimple Lie algebras?

Given Leonid Positselski's excellent answer and comments to this question, I expect that the present one is a hard question. Recall that the Lie algebra structures on a (finite-dimensional over ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

655 views

### Sign conventions for a Chevalley basis of a simple complex Lie algebra

Let $R$ be the root system of a simple complex Lie algebra $g$ with respect to some Cartan subalgebra $h$. Chevalley showed there is a basis of $g$ given by the simple coroots ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

198 views

### Does the normal ordered product on differential operators lift to $U\left(\mathfrak{gl}_n\right)$?

Let $n\in\mathbb N$. Let $k$ be a commutative ring in which $1,2,3,\ldots$ are invertible. Let $\Omega$ denote the $k$-algebra of polynomial differential operators on $n$ variables $x_1$, $x_2$, ..., ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

493 views

### Small sum of group elements acting as rank 1 matrix.

I am interested in constructing small (as possible) group $G$ with large dimensional irreducible representation $\rho,V$ such that exist three elements of $g_1,g_2,g_3\in G$ such that for some ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

761 views

### Lie algebra admitting some hyperbolic automorphism is nilpotent

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a finite dimensional Lie algebra over $\mathbb{R}$ and $\phi:\mathfrak{g}\to\mathfrak{g}$ be a Lie algebra automorphism.
Viewing $\mathfrak{g}$ as a linear space and $\phi$ a ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

399 views

### Cohomology Ring of the Flag Manifolds, Cartan Subalgebras, and Weyl Groups

I've recently read the following line in an interesting paper:
It is well-known that the cohomology ring of a flag variety $G/B$ is isomorphic to the quotient ring of the ring of polynomial ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

278 views

### $(L, \nabla)$ comes from a $G$-bundle with connection for some abelian algebraic subgroup $G \subset GL(n)$?

Let $A$ be an abelian variety over a field $k$ of characteristic $0$. How do I prove, without using transcendental methods, that if $\nabla$ is an integrable connection on a vector bundle $L$ on $A$ ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

466 views

### Which nilpotent Lie algebras appear as nilradicals of parabolic subalgabras?

I am interested to identify (ideally classify) nilpotent Lie algebras that occur as nilradicals of parabolic subalgebras in (say) reductive Lie algebras.
For example, all Heisenberg Lie algebras ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

552 views

### Uniform proof of dimension formula for minimal special nilpotent orbit?

Given a simple Lie algebra over an algebraically closed field of good characteristic such
as $\mathbb{C}$, its subvariety $\mathcal{N}$ of nilpotent elements has dimension $2N$ (where $N$ is the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

**12**

votes

**4**answers

429 views

### Ternary “Lie structure”

One of the motivation of the theory of Lie Algebras is that every associative algebra $A$ is a LA when the bracket is defined by $[a,b]=ab-ba$ : this is skew-symmetric and satisfies the Jacobi ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

383 views

### Construction of the Lie functor: left vs. right invariant vector fields on Lie groups and Lie groupoids

When constructing the Lie algebra $L(G)$ of a Lie group $G$, one usually uses the identification of the tangent space $T_1 G$ with left invariant vector fields $\mathcal{V}^l(G)$ to construct the Lie ...

**8**

votes

**5**answers

793 views

### Applications of Chevalley Restriction Theorem

Let $G$ be a simple linear algebraic group (over $\mathbb{C}$, say) and $\mathfrak{g}$ be its Lie algebra, $\mathfrak{t}\subset \mathfrak{g}$ the Lie algebra of a maximal torus in $G$ and $W$ the ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

617 views

### Failure of Jacobson Morozov in positive characteristics

The Jacobson-Morozov theorem that any nilpotent $e$ in the lie algebra of a simple algebraic group $G$ can be embedded in an $sl_2$-triple, has a restriction (in terms of the coxeter number) on the ...