**3**

votes

**1**answer

459 views

### What do orbital integrals have to do with reciprocity?

Hi, this is my first question (of many). I am blogging for the Fields Medal Symposium and would like to get into the mathematics involved with our program.
In an attempt to sort through the articles ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

702 views

### Quantum mechanics basics [closed]

Hello. I'm thinking about where does the basic quantum mechanics things comes from. I mean the forms of operators and a Shroedinger equation. The more intuitive explanation is better.
To get forms of ...

**185**

votes

**7**answers

91k views

### Philosophy behind Mochizuki's work on the ABC conjecture

Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### What is the geometric object corresponding to a subalgebra in a polynomial ring

Many introductory texts on algebraic geometry set up some sort of algebra-geometry dictionary in which radical ideals correspond to varieties, and so on. I am wondering if there is a geometric way to ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

459 views

### Arguments against Reductio ad Absurdum [closed]

Could Reductio ad Absurdum not be consireded a valid proof method? Are there any compelling arguments against it, or at it's favor?
I feel like I am assuming some metamathematical hypothesis about my ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

415 views

### High-dimensional geometry: Top-down Vs. Bottom-up

There are several ways to leverage one's intuition from low-dimensional geometry to understand high-dimensional phenomena. For example, one can get a clearer picture of the behaviour of ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

394 views

### What is the intuition for $\mathbb{Q}^{ab}$ having cohomological dimension $1$?

I frequently talk to people who think of finite fields as arithmetic analogs of punctured discs. This makes some sense: the absolute Galois group of a finite field is the profinite completion of ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

362 views

### What is the physical difference between states and unital completely positive maps?

Mathematically, completely positive maps on C*-algebras generalize positive linear functionals in that every positive linear functional on a C*-algebra $A$ is a completely positive map of $A$ into ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

704 views

### Why does the Section Conjecture exclude curves of genus 1?

Let $X$ be an integral proper normal curve over a (perfect) field $F$, of genus $\geq 2$. One variant of Grothendieck's "section conjecture" states that the sections $G_F \rightarrow \pi_1(X)$ of the ...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### A geometric characterization for arithmetic genus

Let $X$ be a smooth projective variety over $\mathbb{C}$. The following information is all equivalent (any of these numbers can be computed by a linear equation from any of the others):
the ...

**13**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Other Homology Theories still Count Holes?

This may be a naive question, but since first learning homology I considered it as a tool which counts appropriate holes in your space (on top of orientation and torsion phenomena). Then I was ...

**15**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Why are lacunary series so badly behaved?

Hi!
I just came across the Ostroski-Hadamard gap theorem, and while I can understand the proofs as well as the principle that the series $\sum_{n=0}^\infty z^{2^n}$ ought to have a singularity at ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Intuition behind generic points in a scheme

In a scheme, each point is a generic point of its closure. In particular each closed point is a generic point of itself (the set containing it only), but that's perhaps of little interest. A point ...

**50**

votes

**8**answers

9k views

### Should the formula for the inverse of a 2x2 matrix be obvious?

As every MO user knows, and can easily prove, the inverse of the matrix $\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\\ c & d \end{pmatrix}$ is $\frac{1}{ad - bc} \begin{pmatrix} d & -b \\\ -c & a ...

**32**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Meaning/Origin of Seiberg-Witten Equations/Invariants

Having now seen and "understood" (quotes necessary) the Seiberg-Witten equations on a closed oriented Riemannian 4-manifold $X$, I have no real understanding of where they came from.
We take an ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

412 views

### Basic examples of induction on scales arguments

An important ingredient in recent progress on Euclidean harmonic analysis has been that of "inductions on scales". A few examples are the papers of Wolff, Tao, and Bourgain and Guth.
Here is a ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

887 views

### Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic [closed]

Undoubtedly, these terms play essential roles in (pure) mathematics. My problem is that I have feelings what they mean in different fields, such as, differential geometry (abstract manifolds vs. ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

841 views

### Lagrange's theorem for Hopf algebras

Under what conditions is a Hopf algebra free over any of its sub-Hopf algebras?
I am reading "Hopf algebras and their actions on rings" by Susan Montgomery, specifically chapter 3. Lagrange's theorem ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

374 views

### Geometric picture behind tilting sheaves

I am trying to read "Tilting exercises" and have trouble to see any geometric pictures behind the formulas.
So my questions are, how to think about tilting perverse sheaves?
Are they just formal ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

678 views

### What is the intuition of connections for cubical sets?

I am beggining to do some work with cubical sets and thought that I should have an understanding of various extra structures that one may put on cubical sets (for purposes of this question, ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### When are technical assumptions critical? [closed]

Apart from their technical statement and proof, a usual presentation of theorems is by leading up to them with a definite motivation or intuition, for example putting the results in the wider context ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

557 views

### What is the intuition behind the proof of the algebraic version of Cartan's theorem A?

I am trying to understand the idea behind the proof of GAGA. A crucial step is the following:
Theorem: Let $X=\mathbb{P}^r_{\mathbb{C}}$ (either as a variety or as an analytic space), and let ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Why should the anabelian geometry conjectures be true?

I had probed friends of mine about Grothendieck's motivation for making the anabelian geometry conjectures, and they gave me the following explanation:
If $X$ is a hyperbolic curve over some field ...

**8**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### What is a complex inner product space “really”?

This is an extended re-post of a question that I have asked on MSE not a long time ago. But anyway, it seems more appropriate for MO.
To begin with, in a real inner product space we have a geometric ...

**25**

votes

**6**answers

5k views

### What does Mellin inversion “really mean”?

Given a function $f: \mathbb{R}^+ \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ satisfying suitable conditions (exponential decay at infinity, continuous, and bounded variation) is good enough, its Mellin transform is ...

**48**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Is there an intuitive reason for Zariski's main theorem?

Zariski's main theorem has many guises, and so I will give you the freedom to pick the one that you find to be most intuitive. For the sake of completeness, I will put here one version:
Zariski's ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Intuition for coends

Let $D$ be a co-complete category and $C$ be a small category. For a functor $F:C^{op}\times C \to D$ one defines the co-end
$$
\int^{c\in C} F(c,c)
$$
as the co-equalizer of
$$
\coprod_{c\to ...

**27**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### What is a coalgebra intuitively?

How to think about coalgebras? Are there geometric interpretations of coalgebras?
If I think of algebras and modules as spaces and vectorbundles, what are coalgebras and comodules? What basic ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

328 views

### Relationship between R-transform and free convolution of random matrices?

I've been using the R-transform to calculate the free convolution of the eigenvalue spectra of two random matrices and I am trying to understand how it works, and in particular how it relates to ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

527 views

### Intuition behind the age grading in quantum cohomology of orbifolds

Let $\mathscr{X}$ be a smooth DM-stack with projective coarse moduli space. I am interested in the orbifold cohomology ring $H^\mathrm{orb}(\mathscr{X})$, as defined by Chen-Ruan (for orbifolds) and ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Help motivating log-structures

I'm currently reading a thesis that uses log-structures. I should mention that this is my first encounter with them, and the thesis (as well as my expertise) is scheme-theoretic (in fact ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

212 views

### Weight filtration of MHSs

This is probably a very stupid question, but could someone explain to me where the weight filtration of mixed Hodge structures come from and why we actually need it?
If the Hodge-to-de Rham spectral ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Tomita-Takesaki versus Frobenius: where is the similarity?

I've often heard Alain Connes say that the modular flow of Tomita-Takesaki theory should be thought of as a characteristic zero analog of the Frobenius endomorphism. ... can anyone justify this ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

815 views

### How to solve Ax=b incrementally ?

Hi, everyone.
What I am struggling is the following problem. I have a linear matrix equation $Ax=b$, where $A$ is a known $n \times n$ large sparse real matrix, $x$ and $b$ are known $n \times 1$ ...

**23**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Overview of the interplay of Harmonic Analysis and Number Theory

I'm kind of disappointed that the question here was never sharpened.
The Laplacian $\Delta$ on the upper half-plane is $-y^{2}(\partial^{2}/\partial x^{2}+\partial^{2}/\partial y^{2}))$. Suppose $D$ ...

**31**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### What is a Lagrangian submanifold intuitively?

What are good ways to think about Lagrangian submanifolds?
Why should one care about them?
More generally: same questions about (co)isotropic ones.
Answers from a classical mechanics point of view ...

**28**

votes

**13**answers

3k views

### Surprising and Useful Physical Intuition for Mathematical Objects

I believe I.M. Gelfand said that when beginning to learn a new subject, one should learn it like a physicist.
In this spirit, what are some helpful and surprising physical intuitions accompanying ...

**24**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Algebraic P vs. NP

I recently attended a lecture where the speaker mentioned that what he was talking about was connected to the algebraic version of the $P$ vs. $NP$ problem. Could someone explain what that means in a ...

**43**

votes

**29**answers

9k views

### What notions are used but not clearly defined in modern mathematics?

"Everyone knows what a curve is, until he has studied enough mathematics to become confused through the countless number of possible exceptions."
Felix Klein
What notions are used but not ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

677 views

### Geometric interpretation of $BN$-pairs

My question is relative to a geometric interpretation of the $BN$-pairs that arise in Tits' theory of buildings. Here is a definition that comes from an article by G. Stroth (Nonspherical spheres).
...

**58**

votes

**9**answers

6k views

### Why should I believe the Mordell Conjecture?

It was Faltings who first proved in 1983 the Mordell conjecture, that a curve of genus 2 or more over a number field has only finitely many rational points.
I am interested to know why Mordell and ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is there a way to graphically imagine smash product of two topological spaces?

Recently I've been reading "Topology" by Klaus Janich. I find this book very entertaining as it contains lots of graphical illustrations that appeal to my "geometrical" imagination. In paragraph 3.6 ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Intuition for the Hardy space $H^1$ on $R^n$

the standard intuition for Lebesgue spaces $L^p(\mathbb R^n)$ for $p \in [1,\infty]$ are measurable functions with certain decay properties at infinity or at the singularities.
In particular, a ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

104 views

### Removing a hypersurface when applying the Representation theorem to prove Positivstellensatz with uniform denominators

Let $f$ and $g$ be positive definite forms in the polynomial ring ${\mathbb{R}}[x_0,\ldots, x_n]$ such that $\deg(g)$ divides $\deg(f)$. A generalization of a theorem by Reznick is that $g^N f$ is a ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

794 views

### A synopsis of Adyan’s solution to the general Burnside problem?

Where can I find a high-level overview
of Adyan’s original proof of the existence of finitely generated infinite groups with finite exponent?
Additionally:
If possible, would an expert ...

**27**

votes

**13**answers

6k views

### Examples of using physical intuition to solve math problems

For the purposes of this question let a "physical intuition" be an intuition
that is derived from your everyday experience of physical reality. Your
intuitions about how the spin of a ball affects ...

**41**

votes

**11**answers

4k views

### How to introduce notions of flat, projective and free modules?

In the coming spring semester I will be teaching for the first time an introductory (graduate) course in Commutative Algebra. As many people know, I have been plugging away for a while at this ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Wick rotation and the Riemann zeta function

The goal of this question is to conceptualize in some way the fact that the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s)$, and other zeta functions like it, have analytic continuations.
Background
I have by now ...

**48**

votes

**11**answers

5k views

### How should one think about non-Hausdorff topologies?

In most basic courses on general topology, one studies mainly Hausdorff spaces and finds that they fit quite well with our geometric intuition and generally, things work "as they should" ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

739 views

### Intuition for rational functions

I asked this on mathematics stack exchange and did not receive answer . I hope it is good manners to ask here. Thank you very much.
Let $X$ be integral scheme and $\mathcal K$ sheaf of rationnal ...