**92**

votes

**5**answers

7k views

### Source and context of $\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 dx/(1+x^2)$?

Possibly the most striking proof of Archimedes's inequality $\pi < 22/7$ is an integral formula for the difference:
$$
\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 \frac{dx}{1+x^2},
$$
where the ...

**13**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Why do I need densities in order to integrate on a non-orientable manifold?

Integration on an orientable differentiable n-manifold is defined using a partition of unity and a global nowhere vanishing n-form called volume form. If the manifold is not orientable, no such form ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

232 views

### When does this method for integrals of fractional/integer parts work?

In a question
Agno suggested an interesting way to compute $\{x\}$ and $\zeta(s)$.
Define
$$ F(x) = \{x\} = x - \lfloor x \rfloor = \frac{i \, \log\left(-e^{\left(-2 i \, \pi x\right)}\right)}{2 \, ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### Integration of the product of pdf & cdf of normal distribution [closed]

Denote the pdf of normal distribution as $\phi(x)$ and cdf as $\Phi(x)$. Does anyone know how to calculate $\int \phi(x) \Phi(\frac{x -b}{a}) dx$? Notice that when $a = 1$ and $b = 0$ the answer is ...

**85**

votes

**17**answers

19k views

### Why is differentiating mechanics and integration art?

It is often said that "Differentiation is mechanics, integration is art." We have more or less simple rules in one direction but not in the other (e.g. product rule/simple <-> integration by ...

**58**

votes

**1**answer

4k views

### A hard integral identity on MATH.SE

The following identity on MATH.SE
$$\int_0^{1}\arctan\left(\frac{\mathrm{arctanh}\ x-\arctan{x}}{\pi+\mathrm{arctanh}\ x-\arctan{x}}\right)\frac{dx}{x}=\frac{\pi}{8}\log\frac{\pi^2}{8}$$
seems to be ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

8k views

### Visualization of Riemann–Stieltjes Integrals

The Riemann–Stieltjes integral $\int_a^b f(x)\,dg(x)$ is a generalization of the Riemann integral. It is e.g. heavily used as a starting point for stochastic integration. The approximating ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

396 views

### Non-negative polynomials on $[0,1]$ with small integral

Let $P_n$ be the set of degree $n$ polynomials that pass through $(0,1)$ and $(1,1)$ and are non-negative on the interval $[0,1]$ (but may be negative elsewhere).
Let $a_n = \min_{p\in P_n} \int_0^1 ...

**24**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Can we simplify $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{{\sin}^px}{x^q}dx$?

We know the followings :
$$\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{{\sin}x}{x}dx=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{{\sin}^2x}{x^2}dx=\frac{\pi}{2},\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{{\sin}^3x}{x^3}dx=\frac{3\pi}{8}.$$
Also, we can get
...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### An algebra of “integrals”

When discussing divergent integrals with people, I got curious about the following:
Is there an $\mathbb{R}$-algebra $A$ together with a map (could be defined on just a subspace)
$$\int_0^{\infty}: ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

427 views

### Help with the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\log\left(1+\frac{s^{2}}{4\pi^{2}} \log^{2}(1+ix)\right ) e^{-2\pi nx}dx$

We have the integral :
$$\int_{0}^{\infty}\log\left(1+\frac{s^{2}}{4\pi^{2}} \log^{2}(1+ix)\right ) e^{-2\pi nx}dx$$
Where s is a complex parameter, and n is a positive integer. The integral ...

**12**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Numerical integration over 2D disk

I have a real-valued function $f$ on the unit disk $D$ that is fairly well behaved (real-analytic everywhere) and would like to find the integral $\int_D f(x,y)dxdy$ numerically. After much searching, ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

418 views

### $\pi e$ and an unfamiliar polynomial

Ever since my exposure to this integral involving $\pi e$, I've conjectured and set about evaluating the possible nature of the following integral
$$\int_0^1 x^m \sin(\pi x) x^x (1-x)^{1-x} \ dx, ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

504 views

### Rain droplets falling on a table

Suppose you have a circular table of radius $R$. This table has been left outside, and it begins to rain at a constant rate of one droplet per second. The drops, which can be considered points as they ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

495 views

### $\mathrm{Bessel}^3$ Integral

I'm trying to calculate the following integral:
$\int_0^\infty \mathrm{BesselJ}[l_0,k_0r] \cdot \mathrm{BesselJ}[l_1,k_1r] \cdot \mathrm{BesselJ}[l_0-l_1,kr] \cdot r\,dr$
($\mathrm{BesselJ}[n,x]$ is ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

422 views

### Interesting triple integral

Some time ago I stumbled on an alleged identity
$$\int\limits_0^\infty \frac{dx}{x} \int\limits_0^x \frac{dy}{y}
\int\limits_0^y \frac{dz}{z} [\sin{x}+\sin{(x-y)}-\sin{(x-z)}-\sin{(x-y+z)}]=
...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

402 views

### How to integrate an exponential function of an exponential function?

Does any one know how to calculate the following integration?
$$
\int_{\mathbb{R}} \left(\exp(z \: e^{-y^2})-1\right)^2 dy=?,\quad z>0.
$$
This post is related to my previous question here , ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

327 views

### Positivity of the Coulomb energy in two dimensions

In dimensions $d\geq 3$ the Coulomb energy is always non-negative (since the Fourier transform of $\frac{1}{\|\cdot\|^{d-2}}$ is non-negative). What can one say about positivity properties of the ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

657 views

### Riesz's representation theorem for non-locally compact spaces

Every version of Riesz's representation theorem (the one expressing linear functionals as integrals) that I have found so far assumes that the underlying topological space is locally-compact. (For ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

332 views

### Convergence of an oscillatory integral

Given $f\in H^1(\mathbb{R}^3)$ and $t>0$, consider the following integral:
$$I_f(t):=\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}\int_0^{+\infty}e^{-s+i\frac{(s+|x|)^2}{t}}f(x)dsdx$$
I need to show that $I_f(t)$ is finite, ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

282 views

### When is this multiple integral finite?

Consider the following integral:
$$
I_k(\alpha)=\int_{[0,1]^k}|x_1-x_2|^{\alpha}|x_2-x_3|^{\alpha}\ldots|x_{k-1}-x_k|^{\alpha}|x_k-x_1|^{\alpha}d\mathbf{x}.
$$
where $k=2,3,4,\ldots$
The question is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

320 views

### Improper integral $\int_0^1 \frac{\exp(ctx)}{\sqrt{(\exp(bt)-1)(1-\exp(atx))-(1-\exp(at))(\exp(btx)-1)}} dx$ with $-a$ and $b$ positive

Is the following function real analytic in $t>0$:
$$F(t)=\int_0^1\frac{\exp(ctx)}{\sqrt{(\exp(bt)-1)(1-\exp(atx))-(1-\exp(at))(\exp(btx)-1)}} dx,$$
where $-a$ and $b$ are positive, and $c\not=a$?
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

113 views

### Mean value of a function associated with continued fractions

Suppose that an irrational $x$ in $(0,1)$ has convergents $c(k,x)$, and let
$$d(x) = \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \mid x - c(k,x)\mid.$$
What is the mean value of $d$?

**2**

votes

**2**answers

257 views

### Integrating a barycentric monomial over a simplex

Are there standard formulas for the integral over a simplex of a monomial in the barycentric coordinates? Can someone supply a reference? I think I have seen such formulas, but I am unable to find ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

258 views

### Definite integral probably equal to zeta with known (but unusable) closed form for the indefinite integral

Related to this and
this questions.
Basically got definite integral that experimentally equals
$\zeta(s)$ both numerically and symbolically.
Closed form for the indefinite integral is known, but I ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

280 views

### convolution integral involving modified Bessel functions of the first kind

I'm stuck with this convolution integral ($z \geq 0$)...
\begin{equation}
f_{Z}(z)=\int^{\infty}_{-\infty}f_{1}(x)f_{2}(z-x)dx = \mbox{ } ???
\end{equation}
which represents the pdf of the sum $Z = ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

164 views

### $\int_{R^2}\varphi(x)d\mu(x)=0$ $\Leftrightarrow$ $\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z^2} d\mu(x-2\pi n)=0$

Let $\mu$ be a finite measure supported by $\Gamma $ (a smoth finite curve) and absolutely continuous with respect to the length measure on $\Gamma$ such that $\Gamma \cap (\Gamma+x)$ is a finite ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

129 views

### Unimodality of a certain parametric integral

Suppose $f: [0,1] \to [0,\infty)$ is a smooth, concave and strictly increasing function satisfying $f(0)=0$.
Is it true that the map
$$
F(y) = \int_0^1 \frac{y^{3/2}}{(y+f(x))^2} dx
$$
has exactly one ...