The integrable-systems tag has no usage guidance.

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### Importance of a Hamiltonian integrable system be a bi-Hamiltonian system?

Once I know a complete integrable system $(f_1=H,\ldots,f_m):M^{2m}\to\mathbb{R}$, $H$ being the Hamiltonian of the system. What is the importance to know about a second Hamiltonian representation for ...

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### Modular double of elliptic quantum group

By studying dynamical quantum Yang-Baxter equations and corresponding $RLL$ relations, Felder defined an elliptic version of quantum group $E_{\tau, \eta}(sl_2)$, which can be understood as ...

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### Lagrangian foliation

Let $(M,\omega)$ be a sympletic manifold and $\{ \cdot, \cdot \}$ the corresponding Poisson-bracket. Assuming $M$ is completely integrable w.r.t $f=f_1$, so we find $n = \frac{1}{2}\dim M$ functions ...

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### How to write down solutions of Yang-Baxter equations for $sl_3$ explicitly?

In the paper, Stolin classifies all quasi-Frobenius subalgebras of $sl_3$. How to write down solutions of Yang-Baxter equations for $sl_3$ explicitly using these quasi-Frobenius subalgebras? Thank you ...

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### Are all the Lie bialgebra structure on $sl_n$ coboundary?

In the case of $sl_2$, there are three Lie bialgebra structures. We have three cobrackets $\delta: sl_2 \to \Lambda^2 sl_2$. Each $\delta$ can be written as $\delta=d r$ for some matrix $r$. Therefore ...

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### Pulled back foliation is completely integrable

There is a question that arises, while I'm trying to understand Guillemin & Sternbergs paper "On collective complete integrability according to the method of Thimm".
Assume $M$ is a symplectic ...

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### Low-dimensional classical r-matrices

Let $g= gl_2$. Suppose that $r \in g \otimes g$ satisfies the following properties:
(1) $r_{12} + r_{21} \in g \otimes g$ is $g$-invariant, $r_{12} = r$, $r_{21} = \tau \ r_{12}$.
(2) $[r_{12}, ...

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### Classifying Low Dimensional Solutions of the Yang--Baxter Equation

What is the present situation with classifying solutions of the Yang--Baxter equation in low dimensions?
To make my question more specific, have all solutions for dimension $2$ and $3$ been ...

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### Sign problem in a Calogero-Moser system: proof of integrability?

Everyone of us had sometimes this awful feeling that some sign is lost in a calculation and that this sign is perturbing some fundamental understanding of what is going on. I feel the same has ...

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### How to compute $t_0$ and $r^0$ in Belavin-Drinfeld's classification of solutions of classical Yang-Baxter equations?

I tried to understand Belavin-Drinfeld's classification of solutions of classical Yang-Baxter equations.
In the book a guide to quantum groups, on page 83, there is an example of solutions of the ...

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### Integrability of complex gaussian random matrix model

It is known that the partition function
$$ \mathcal{Z}_1=\int dH e^{-N{\rm Tr}(H^2)}e^{-NV(H)},$$ where the integral is over $N\times N$ hermitian matrices $H$, with the potential $$ V(H)=\sum_{j\ge ...

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### What does it mean for a differential equation “to be integrable”? [duplicate]

What does it mean for a differential equation "to be integrable"?
Are "integrable" and "solvable" synonyms?
The first thing that comes to my mind is to say: it's integrable if we can find the ...

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### Why does McMahon formula look like the inclusion-exclusion principle?

The McMahon formula for the number of tilings of an $a \times b \times c$ hexagon by lozenges:
$$ \Big[H(a)H(b)H(c)\Big] \Big[H(a+b)H(b+c)H(c+a)\Big]^{-1} \Big[H(a+b+c)\Big]$$
looks oddly like the ...

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### anomaly polynomial of generalized Hitchin system

I would like to ask about mathematical background of this object. So, I am trying to puzzle out with 4d $\mathcal{N}=2$ SQFT. As far as I can gather this theroy can be described in terms of ...

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### Beauville's Integrable System with singular spectral curves

Let us consider Beauville's Integrable System. So, we live on $\mathbb{P}^1$. There is the moduli space of matrices $M_r(d)/\mathrm{PGL}(r)$ with polynomial entries of degree less than or equal $d$. ...

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### Singularity Confinement For Differential-Difference Systems

This is a follow-up question to an old question on this site (link) which has a solution that describes the singularity confinement property for discrete systems.
Are there any papers or books that ...

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### Integrability - conditions of lax pairs

I'm trying to understand what the conditions are for the Lax pairs for the zero-curvature representation:
$$
\partial_t U - \partial_x V + [U,V]=0
$$
where $U=U(x,t,\lambda)$ and $V=V(x,t,\lambda)$ ...

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### moduli space of meromorphic $G$-Higgs bundles

I want to clarify with some topics in moduli space of semistable $G$-Higgs bundles on curve $X$ (genus $g$ is large enough) of fixing topological type $d \in \pi_1(G)$. Simpson's construction gives us ...

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### On the Hitchin fibration

I will refer to Simpson's "Higgs bundles and local systems".
Proposition 1.4:
When $X$ is a smooth projective variety, one can build up the moduli space $\mathcal{M}(X,r)$ of rank $r$ Higgs ...

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### Nature of separatrix in Fokker--Planck Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom

Background The semiclassical (weak noise, small $D$) limit of the Fokker--Planck equation
$$\frac{\partial P}{\partial t}=D\frac{\partial^2 P}{\partial x^2}-\frac{\partial}{\partial x}(v(x) P)$$
can ...

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### Weinstein's local classification of Lagrangian foliations

In the paper "Symplectic manifolds and their Lagrangian submanifolds", Weinstein showed that locally all the Lagrangian foliations are symplectomorhic to the fiber foliation of a cotangent bundle.
I ...

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### Toda Flow Embeddings

What are strategies for generating the following types of pictures:
Here's what's going on here. Take a toda flow in 3 variables. The equations of motion are:
...

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### Calogero-Moser eigenfunction

The folllowing function
\begin{equation}
J(t_1,t_2,t_3,m,h)=[(1-e^{t_1-t_2})(1-e^{t_2-t_3})(1-e^{t_1-t_3})]^{-m/h} ...

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### Do principally polarized abelian varieties enjoy a genus expansion?

This is a vague question from an interested outsider:
It is well known that abelian varieties which arise as Jacobian of a curve (or a bit more general as Prym variety) are distinguished by the fact ...

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### J-function of cotangent bundle of complete flag variety

Givental and Kim showed that the $J$-function of the complete flag variety $Fl_n=SL_{n}/B$ becomes an eigenfunction of the Toda Hamiltonian. How about the $J$-function of the cotangent bundle ...

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### Detecting Monodromy in Integrable Systems

Suppose I have a completely integrable system on a symplectic manifold $(M^{2n},\omega)$ with momentum map $H:M \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ that has compact, connected fibers. Further, suppose I know ...

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### Calogero-Moser system: relationship between dual variables and the KKS construction

This is a question about the relationship between two ways of viewing the Calogero-Moser system.
$$\ddot x_i=2\sum_{j\neq i}\frac{1}{(x_i-x_j)^3}\qquad i=1,\ldots N$$
By introducing the $N$ ...

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### What is the amplituhedron?

The paper ”Scattering Amplitudes and the Positive Grassmannian” by Nima Arkani-Hamed, Jacob L. Bourjaily, Freddy Cachazo, Alexander B. Goncharov, Alexander Postnikov, and Jaroslav Trnka, introduces ...

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### A modification of Maurer-Cartan equation

In deformation theory of complex structure, the Maurer-Cartan equation takes the form
$$\bar{\partial}\varphi(t)+\frac{1}{2}[\varphi(t),\varphi(t)]=0.$$
where ...

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### Divisors, factorisations of matrix valued functions, and the Lorentz group

How to construct a complex projective variety with several classes of non-intersecting divisors? How to keep the answer concrete and simple, so that explicit calculations can be done? And the problem ...

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### basic questions on quantum integrable systems

I have been learning about (classical) integrable systems lately, e.g. in the examples of a lax pair etc. I frequently run into the term 'quantum integrable system'. May I ask a few questions:
What ...

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### Any applications integrable systems (pde,ode, q-,…) to math. biology (pharmakinetics, pharmadynamics) ?

Question Are there any relations/applications of integrable system theory (take it as broadly as one can: ODE, PDE, quantum, box-ball,...) to mathematical biology (in particular pharmacokinetics, ...

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### functions whose average along orbits is zero or a constant

Is there some name in ergodic theory or integrable systems theory for a function whose average value on every orbit is zero? (Of course when I say "every orbit" in the context of ergodic theory I ...

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### Integrability of the Cohen map

In the 1990's, Henri Cohen asked whether the map $(x,y) \mapsto (\sqrt{1+x^2}-y,x)$ from $\mathbb{R}^2$ to itself is integrable. In other words, are the orbits confined to the level curves of some ...

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### Constructing Markov traces simply

Short version: I wondering how to simply check if a proposed Markov trace, $\phi$ had the correct property using techniques similar to those from the Akutsu-Wadati 1987 paper `Exactly solvable models ...

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### What is soliton

I am new to this word.. This is not research level problem and it is soft question in nature. Just for curiosity, i am asking..
In literature, i am finding following words:(Wikipedia+ others).
...

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### Krichever-Novikov-Dubrovin description for not-algebraic spectral curve

Non-algebraic curves play an increasing role in string theory, sometimes they are known to be related to the integrable systems of the KP/Toda type.
Are there any investigated examples of the ...

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### From Sato grassmannian to spectral curve

Assume a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy is fixed by the point of the Sato grassmannian (that is by a semi-infinite set of Laurant series $\varphi_k(z)=\sum_{m>0}a_{km}z^{-k+m}$). Can ...

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### Multiple Hodge integrals and integrability

It is known that a generating function of the linear Hodge integrals is a tau function of the KP hierarchy, namely a one-parameter deformation of the Kontsevich-Witten tau-function (see Kazarian). ...

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### Non-polynomial integrals of motion for polynomial dynamical systems

Does there exist a polynomial Hamiltonian function $H$ on some $\mathbb{R}^{2n}$ such that
Any polynomial function $P$ such that $\{P,H\}=0$ is of the form $p(H)$ for some polynomial $p$ in one ...

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### Find a second integral for Arnold's example

Consider Arnold's example for Arnold diffusion 1964.
$$H=I_1^2/2+I_2^2/2+\epsilon(1-\cos\theta_2)(1+\mu(\sin\theta_1+\sin t)) $$
We can first make it a system of three degrees of freedom.
Then we ...

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### About the geometry of completely integrable systems

During a conversation I heard an assertion that I found at least dubious for the lack of adeguate hypothesis, but I am not able to imagine a counterexample, even if it is probably obvious to some of ...

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### Weakest condition for an integrable, almost-symplectic manifold?

I was recently speaking with someone who works in Computational Chemistry and they mentioned that in a lot of the computational simulations they do, they have systems that are not symplectic but still ...

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### Why doesn't the argument of circular law convergence of Ginibre spectrum give the same result for GUE?

It appears I am profoundly confused in the following nice argument of Ginibre and Mehta and beautifully presented in Djalil Chafai's blog ...

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### What's up with Wick's theorem?

Sorry about the dumb title.
I'd like to understand Wick's theorem. More specifically, I have seen it pop up in several different contexts and I am really puzzled by the different statements of it ...

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### Uniqueness for solution of a d-dbar system related to Davey-Stewartson Solitons

This question concerns a system of equations that arise in the study of one-soliton solutions to the Davey-Stewartson equation.
In what follows, $f(z)$ denotes a function which depends smoothly (but ...

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### Gromov-Witten and integrability.

The generation function of the Gromow-Witten invariants (with descendants) of the point is known to be Kontsevich-Witten tau-function of KdV, partition functions of $P^1$ and equivariant $P^1$ are ...

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### Solitary waves and their symmetries

This is probably a very naive question from a field that I don't have much background from, but a combination of curiosity and the fact that conceptual questions get very good answers here on MO ...

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### Two interacting bodies in an external field

Hope, MO is the right place for this question (if not so: where would you pose it?).
Consider a two-body system in classical mechanics. As long as the interaction depends only on the distance of the ...

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### Differential equation of line tangent to caustics

This problem (or rather, statement that I cannot understand) has arisen in a paper I have been reading "Geometry of Integrable Billiards and Pencils of Quadrics" by Dragovic and Radnovic. I'd be most ...