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89
votes
17answers
8k views

Why do we care about $L^p$ spaces besides $p = 1$, $p = 2$, and $p = \infty$?

I was helping a student study for a functional analysis exam and the question came up as to when, in practice, one needs to consider the Banach space $L^p$ for some value of $p$ other than the obvious ...
38
votes
3answers
3k views

Absolute value inequality for complex numbers

I asked this question on stackexchange, but despite much effort on my part have been unsuccesful in finding a solution. Does the inequality $$2(|a|+|b|+|c|) \leq |a+b+c|+|a+b-c|+|a+c-b|+|b+c-a|$$ ...
36
votes
4answers
2k views

The sum of squared logarithms conjecture

I am searching for the first proof of (or counterexample to) the following conjecture. (The sum of squared logarithms conjecture) For all natural numbers $n$ and positive numbers $x_1,x_2, \ldots , ...
35
votes
3answers
3k views

the following inequality is true,but I can't prove it

The inequality is \begin{equation*} \sum_{k=1}^{2d}\left(1-\frac{1}{2d+2-k}\right)\frac{d^k}{k!}>e^d\left(1-\frac{1}{d}\right) \end{equation*} for all integer $d\geq 1$. I use computer to verify ...
30
votes
4answers
9k views

Is the Jaccard distance a distance?

Wikipedia defines the Jaccard distance between sets A and B as $$J_\delta(A,B)=1-\frac{|A\cap B|}{|A\cup B|}.$$ There's also a book claiming that this is a metric. However, I couldn't find any ...
30
votes
3answers
3k views

A curious determinantal inequality

In my study, I come across the following curious inequality, which I do not know a proof yet (so I am asking it here). Let $A, B$ be $n\times n$ (Hermitian) positive definite matrices. It is very ...
30
votes
2answers
2k views

An Entropy Inequality

Let $X,Y$ be probability measures on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$, and set $K=\sum_i\sqrt{X(i)Y(i)}$ so that $Z:=\frac{1}{K}\sqrt{XY}$ is also a probability measure on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$. How can we prove the ...
26
votes
1answer
1k views

Does a proof of Selberg's 3.2 inequality exist?

A well-known inequality of Montgomery and Vaughan (generalizing a result of Hilbert) states that $$ \left |\sum_{r \neq s} \frac{w_{r} \overline{w_{s}} }{\lambda_r - \lambda_s} \right| \leq \pi ...
25
votes
6answers
20k views

Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices. I've proved that $\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional. Is this true in general for ...
25
votes
0answers
527 views

Finding a path through real rooted polynomials

This is a lemma I wanted in order to solve Patrizio Neff's conjecture. It turned out to be the wrong way to think about it, but I am still curious if it is true. Let $z^n+a_{n-1} z^{n-1} + \cdots + ...
24
votes
2answers
2k views

How often are irrational numbers well-approximated by rationals?

Suppose $x\in \mathbb{R}$ is irrational, with irrationality measure $\mu=\mu(x)$; this means that the inequality $|x-\frac{p}{q}|< q^{-\lambda}$ has infinitely many solutions in integers $p,q$ if ...
23
votes
9answers
4k views

Is there a good reason why a^{2b} + b^{2a} <= 1 when a+b=1?

The following problem is not from me, yet I find it a big challenge to give a nice (in contrast to 'heavy computation') proof. The motivation for me to post it lies in its concise content. If $a$ and ...
23
votes
0answers
504 views

Are there any nontrivial near-isometries of the $n$-dimensional cube?

Consider the $n$-dimensional Hamming cube, $C = \{-1,1\}^n$. Given an $n \times n$ orthogonal matrix $O$, I'll measure "how close $O$ is to being an isometry of $C$" by the following scoring ...
22
votes
1answer
1k views

What goes wrong for the Sobolev embeddings at $k=n/p$?

For $u\in W^{k,p}(U)$, where $U\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n$ is open and bounded with $C^1$-boundary, we have the celebrated Sobolev inequalities: If $k < n/p$ then $u\in L^q(U)$ for $q$ satisfying ...
21
votes
3answers
1k views

Curious inequality

Set $$ g(x)=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^{2k+1}+1} \quad \text{for} \quad x>1. $$ Is it true that $$ \frac{x^{2}+1}{x(x^{2}-1)}+\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}>0 \quad \text{for}\quad x>1? $$ The ...
20
votes
6answers
4k views

Applications of Hardy's inequality

Every so often I would encounter Hardy's inequality: Theorem 1 (Hardy's inequality). If $p>1$, $a_n \geq 0$, and $A_n=a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n$, then $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...
20
votes
3answers
675 views

A sumset inequality

A friend asked me the following problem: Is it true that for every $X\subset A\subset \mathbb{Z}$, where $A$ is finite and $X$ is non-empty, that $$\frac{|A+X|}{|X|}\geq \frac{|A+A|}{|A|}?$$ ...
19
votes
1answer
353 views

Maximum height of intersection of triangles

I'd like some advice regarding the following question, which I have been struggling with for long time. Let's call the shaded region in the below $S_3$. It is the union of three congruent isosceles ...
19
votes
1answer
1k views

A curious eigenvalue inequality

Suppose $A, B$ are positive definite Hermitian matrices, $U$ is a unitary matrix such that $AUB$ is Hermitian. The spectral radius of a square matrix $X$ is denoted by $\rho(X)$. In my study, I ...
17
votes
3answers
709 views

Deceptively simple inequality involving expectations of products of functions of just one variable

For a proof to go through in a paper I am writing, I need to prove the following deceptively simple inequality: $$(*)\qquad E(X^a) E(X^{a+1}\log X) > E(X^{a+1})E(X^a\log X) $$ where $X>e$ has ...
17
votes
4answers
857 views

Proving univariate polynomials (defined by sums, binomial coeffs, etc.) are nonnegative: is it 'routine'?

My colleagues and I are working on a project related to an old paper of C. Borell and we have boiled it down to the following problem: Show, for all integers $1 \leq i \leq k$, that the univariate ...
17
votes
1answer
393 views

A possible extension of a determinant inequality

It is well known that if $A, B$ are positive semidefinite matrices, then $$\det (A+B)\ge \det A+\det B.$$ I am considering a possible extension of this result. Let $\mathbb{M}_m(\mathbb{M}_n)$ ...
16
votes
2answers
982 views

This inequality why can't solve it by now (Only four variables inequality)?

I asked a question at Math.SE last year and later offered a bounty for it, only johannesvalks give Part of the answer; A few months ago, I asked the author(Pham kim Hung) in Facebook, he said that ...
16
votes
2answers
421 views

What is $A+A^T$ when $A$ is row-stochastic ?

This is motivated by this MO question. If $A\in{\bf M}_n({\mathbb R})$ is row-stochastic (entrywise non-negative, and $\sum_j a_{ij}=1$ for all $i$), then $M:=A+A^T$ is symmetric, entrywise ...
15
votes
3answers
463 views

An inequality for two independent identically distributed random vectors in a normed space

Suppose that $X$ and $Y$ are independent identically distributed random vectors in a separable Banach space $B$. Does it always follow that $E\|X-Y\|\le E\|X+Y\|$? Some background information on ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

An $L^0$ Khintchine inequality

Suppose that $\epsilon_1,\epsilon_2,\ldots$ are IID random variables with the Bernoulli distribution $\mathbb{P}(\epsilon_n=\pm1)=1/2$, and $a_1,a_2,\ldots$ is a real sequence with $\sum_na_n^2=1$. ...
15
votes
1answer
262 views

Zinn's “doubling” conjecture on weighted sums of independent Rademacher random variables

Let $a_1,\dots,a_n$ be real numbers such that $a_1^2+\dots+a_n^2=1$. Let $\eta_1,\dots,\eta_n$ be independent Rademacher random variables (r.v.'s), so that $P(\eta_i=\pm1)=\frac12$ for all $i$. Let ...
15
votes
0answers
531 views

Noncommutative arithmetic mean geometric mean inequality and symmetric polynomials

While analyzing convergence speed of stochastic-gradient methods for convex optimization problems, Recht et al (2011) posed a tantalizing conjecture. It seems quite tricky, so after having struggled a ...
14
votes
6answers
3k views

subadditive implies concave

Let $f:R_+\to R_+$ be smooth on $(0,\infty)$, increasing, $f(0)=0$ and $\lim_{x\to\infty}=\infty$. Assume also that $f$ is subadditive: $f(x+y)\le f(x)+f(y)$ for all $x,y\ge 0$. Must $f$ be concave? ...
14
votes
1answer
902 views

Cauchy-Schwarz proof of Sidorenko for 3-edge path (Blakley-Roy inequality)

Is there a "Cauchy-Schwarz proof" of the following inequality? Theorem. Given $f \colon [0,1]^2 \to [0,1]$, one has $$ \int_{[0,1]^4} f(x,y)f(z,y)f(z,w) \, dxdydzdw \geq \left(\int_{[0,1]^2} f(x,y) ...
14
votes
3answers
610 views

An inequality improvement on AMM 11145

I have asked the same question in math.stackexchange, I am reposting it here, looking for answers: How to show that for $a_1,a_2,\cdots,a_n >0$ real numbers and for $n \ge 3$: ...
14
votes
1answer
411 views

Hlawka inequality for determinants of positive definite matrices

It is mentioned here that if $A, B, C\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)$ are positive semidefinite, then $$\det (A+B+C)+\det C\ge \det (A+C)+\det (B+C)$$ (quoted from this article) and the special case ($C=\bf 0$) ...
14
votes
5answers
1k views

A Normal Distribution Inequality

Let $n(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} e^{-\frac{x^2}{2}}$, and $N(x) = \int_{-\infty}^x n(t)dt$. I have plotted the curves of the both sides of the following inequality. The graph shows that the following ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

How to prove a known inequality from a book

The following inequality is from page 125 of D.S. Mitrinovic, J. Pecaric, A.M. Fink, Classical and new inequalities in analysis, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1993. If ...
13
votes
2answers
449 views

A matrix norm inequality

Suppose that $A, B$ are Hermitian positive definite matrices of the same order and $0\le p\le 1$. Using a standard approach in matrix analysis, one can show that $\|A^{1-p}B^p\|\ge \|A\sharp_p B\|$, ...
13
votes
3answers
455 views

regular polygon question

Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n$ be distinct points on the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ and $L$ be a circle in $\mathbb{C}$ such that $$f(z):=\sum_{i=1}^n|z-a_i|^{2n-2}$$ is constant on $L.$ Could somebody ...
13
votes
0answers
342 views

Determinant inequality involving Hermitian, positive definite matrices

Question: Let $A,B,C\in M_{n}(C)$ be Hermitian and positive definite matrices such that:$$A+B+C=I_{n}$$ Show that: $$\det\left(6(A^3+B^3+C^3)+I_{n}\right)\ge 5^n\det(A^2+B^2+C^2)$$ This question ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Bounding the absolute sum of entries of the inverse of a 0-1 matrix

I have a non-singular square 0-1 matrix and I want to bound the sum of absolute values of its inverse as a function of n (or the vector 1-norm). Asymptotic results are also useful. Does anyone know ...
12
votes
6answers
2k views

Understanding Gibbs's inequality

Short version Gibbs's inequality is a simple inequality for real numbers, usually understood information-theoretically. In the jargon, it states that for two probability measures on a finite set, ...
12
votes
1answer
474 views

Is the heat kernel more spread out with a smaller metric?

Suppose M is a smooth manifold, and we have two Riemannian metrics on M, say g and h, with g bigger than h (i.e. for every tangent vector at every point, the norm according to g is bigger than the ...
12
votes
2answers
293 views

Subset of vectors whose sum has a large norm

In Rudin - Real & Complex Analysis we have the following Lemma 6.3. If $z_1, \ldots, z_n \in \mathbb{C}$ then there is a subset $S \subseteq \{1,\ldots,n\}$ for which $$\left|\sum_{k \in S} ...
12
votes
1answer
771 views

A delicate elementary inequality

The following "piecewise-quadratic" inequality emerged in a joint work of Rom Pinchasi and myself. The inequality is surprisingly delicate, and all our attempts to simplify it made it false. By the ...
11
votes
2answers
631 views

Conjecture on maximum of symmetric combinatoric function

A curious symmetric function crossed my way in some quantum mechanics calculations, and I'm interested its maximum value (for which I do have a conjecture). (The question was first asked at math.SE, ...
11
votes
2answers
639 views

Quadratic Farkas' Lemma?

The Farkas Lemma says that if a system of linear inequalities implies yet another linear inequality, then this last inequality can be obtained by taking a positive linear combination of the ...
11
votes
1answer
440 views

An inequality for the spectral radius of matrices used by J. Bochi

I am interested in the history of an inequality for the spectral radius of a $d\times d$ real or complex matrix, which occurs in Jairo Bochi's 2002 article Inequalities for numerical invariants of ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Hölder's inequality for matrices

I was wondering if the Hölder's inequality was true for matrix induced norms, i.e. if $$\|AB\|_1 \leq \|A\|_p\|B\|_q, \quad\forall p,q \in [1,\infty] \text{ s.t. } \tfrac{1}{p}+\tfrac{1}{q} = 1.$$ But ...
11
votes
1answer
605 views

Inequality regarding sum of gaussian on lattices

When S is a subset of an inner product space, let d(S) denote ${\sum\limits_{s \in S} e^{- \langle s,s \rangle}}$ Suppose L is a discrete additive subgroup of $\mathbb{R^n}$, M is a subgroup of L, ...
11
votes
2answers
544 views

A property of unimodal sequences

It is well-known that $(-1)^j \sum_{i=0}^j (-1)^i\binom{n}{i} \geq 0$. This inequality can be used to prove Bonferroni's inequalities for example. Recently I noticed that a similar inequality applies ...
11
votes
2answers
773 views

Positivity of sequences via generating series

There are different ways of showing that a given sequence $a_0,a_1,a_2,\dots$ of integers, say, is nonnegative. For example, one can show that $a_n$ count something, or express $a_n$ as a (multiple) ...
10
votes
2answers
393 views

Inequalities for averaging over partially ordered sets

Let's start from a classical inequality: If $0\le a_1\le\cdots\le a_k$ and $0\le b_1\le\cdots\le b_k$ then $(a_1+\cdots+a_k)(b_1+\cdots+b_k)\le k(a_1b_1+\cdots+a_k b_k)$. It can be written also in ...