The inequalities tag has no usage guidance.

**89**

votes

**17**answers

8k views

### Why do we care about $L^p$ spaces besides $p = 1$, $p = 2$, and $p = \infty$?

I was helping a student study for a functional analysis exam and the question came up as to when, in practice, one needs to consider the Banach space $L^p$ for some value of $p$ other than the obvious ...

**39**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Absolute value inequality for complex numbers

I asked this question on stackexchange, but despite much effort on my part have been unsuccesful in finding a solution.
Does the inequality
$$2(|a|+|b|+|c|) \leq |a+b+c|+|a+b-c|+|a+c-b|+|b+c-a|$$
...

**36**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### The sum of squared logarithms conjecture

I am searching for the first proof of (or counterexample to) the following conjecture.
(The sum of squared logarithms conjecture)
For all natural numbers $n$ and positive numbers $x_1,x_2, \ldots , ...

**35**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### the following inequality is true，but I can't prove it

The inequality is
\begin{equation*}
\sum_{k=1}^{2d}\left(1-\frac{1}{2d+2-k}\right)\frac{d^k}{k!}>e^d\left(1-\frac{1}{d}\right)
\end{equation*}
for all integer $d\geq 1$. I use computer to verify ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### A curious determinantal inequality

In my study, I come across the following curious inequality, which I do not know a proof yet (so I am asking it here).
Let $A, B$ be $n\times n$ (Hermitian) positive definite matrices. It is very ...

**30**

votes

**4**answers

9k views

### Is the Jaccard distance a distance?

Wikipedia defines the Jaccard distance between sets A and B as $$J_\delta(A,B)=1-\frac{|A\cap B|}{|A\cup B|}.$$ There's also a book claiming that this is a metric. However, I couldn't find any ...

**30**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### An Entropy Inequality

Let $X,Y$ be probability measures on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$, and set $K=\sum_i\sqrt{X(i)Y(i)}$ so that $Z:=\frac{1}{K}\sqrt{XY}$ is also a probability measure on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$. How can we prove the ...

**27**

votes

**6**answers

20k views

### Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices.
I've proved that $\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional.
Is this true in general for $n$-...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Does a proof of Selberg's 3.2 inequality exist?

A well-known inequality of Montgomery and Vaughan (generalizing a result of Hilbert) states that
$$ \left |\sum_{r \neq s} \frac{w_{r} \overline{w_{s}} }{\lambda_r - \lambda_s} \right| \leq \pi \...

**26**

votes

**0**answers

545 views

### Finding a path through real rooted polynomials

This is a lemma I wanted in order to solve Patrizio Neff's conjecture. It turned out to be the wrong way to think about it, but I am still curious if it is true.
Let $z^n+a_{n-1} z^{n-1} + \cdots + ...

**24**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### How often are irrational numbers well-approximated by rationals?

Suppose $x\in \mathbb{R}$ is irrational, with irrationality measure $\mu=\mu(x)$; this means that the inequality $|x-\frac{p}{q}|< q^{-\lambda}$ has infinitely many solutions in integers $p,q$ if ...

**23**

votes

**9**answers

4k views

### Is there a good reason why a^{2b} + b^{2a} <= 1 when a+b=1?

The following problem is not from me, yet I find it a big challenge to give a nice (in contrast to 'heavy computation') proof. The motivation for me to post it lies in its concise content.
If $a$ and ...

**23**

votes

**0**answers

508 views

### Are there any nontrivial near-isometries of the $n$-dimensional cube?

Consider the $n$-dimensional Hamming cube, $C = \{-1,1\}^n$. Given an $n \times n$ orthogonal matrix $O$, I'll measure "how close $O$ is to being an isometry of $C$" by the following scoring function:...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Curious inequality

Set
$$
g(x)=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{x^{2k+1}+1} \quad \text{for} \quad x>1.
$$
Is it true that
$$
\frac{x^{2}+1}{x(x^{2}-1)}+\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}>0 \quad \text{for}\quad x>1?
$$
The ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### What goes wrong for the Sobolev embeddings at $k=n/p$?

For $u\in W^{k,p}(U)$, where $U\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n$ is open and bounded with $C^1$-boundary, we have the celebrated Sobolev inequalities:
If $k < n/p$ then $u\in L^q(U)$ for $q$ satisfying $\frac{...

**21**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Applications of Hardy's inequality

Every so often I would encounter Hardy's inequality:
Theorem 1 (Hardy's inequality). If $p>1$, $a_n \geq 0$, and $A_n=a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n$, then
$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \left(\frac{A_n}{n}\right)^...

**20**

votes

**3**answers

679 views

### A sumset inequality

A friend asked me the following problem:
Is it true that for every $X\subset A\subset \mathbb{Z}$, where $A$ is finite and $X$ is non-empty, that $$\frac{|A+X|}{|X|}\geq \frac{|A+A|}{|A|}?$$
...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

354 views

### Maximum height of intersection of triangles

I'd like some advice regarding the following question, which I have been struggling with for long time.
Let's call the shaded region in the below $S_3$. It is the union of three congruent isosceles ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### A curious eigenvalue inequality

Suppose $A, B$ are positive definite Hermitian matrices, $U$ is a unitary matrix such that $AUB$ is Hermitian. The spectral radius of a square matrix $X$ is denoted by $\rho(X)$. In my study, I ...

**17**

votes

**3**answers

724 views

### Deceptively simple inequality involving expectations of products of functions of just one variable

For a proof to go through in a paper I am writing, I need to prove the following deceptively simple inequality:
$$(*)\qquad E(X^a) E(X^{a+1}\log X) > E(X^{a+1})E(X^a\log X) $$
where $X>e$ has ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

859 views

### Proving univariate polynomials (defined by sums, binomial coeffs, etc.) are nonnegative: is it 'routine'?

My colleagues and I are working on a project related to an old paper of C. Borell and we have boiled it down to the following problem:
Show, for all integers $1 \leq i \leq k$, that the univariate ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

399 views

### A possible extension of a determinant inequality

It is well known that if $A, B$ are positive semidefinite matrices, then $$\det (A+B)\ge \det A+\det B.$$
I am considering a possible extension of this result. Let $\mathbb{M}_m(\mathbb{M}_n)$ ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

993 views

### This inequality why can't solve it by now (Only four variables inequality)?

I asked a question at Math.SE last year and later offered a bounty for it, only johannesvalks give Part of the answer; A few months ago, I asked the author(Pham kim Hung) in Facebook, he said that ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

421 views

### What is $A+A^T$ when $A$ is row-stochastic ?

This is motivated by this MO question.
If $A\in{\bf M}_n({\mathbb R})$ is row-stochastic (entrywise non-negative, and $\sum_j a_{ij}=1$ for all $i$), then $M:=A+A^T$ is
symmetric,
entrywise non-...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

535 views

### Noncommutative arithmetic mean geometric mean inequality and symmetric polynomials

While analyzing convergence speed of stochastic-gradient methods for convex optimization problems, Recht et al (2011) posed a tantalizing conjecture. It seems quite tricky, so after having struggled a ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

468 views

### An inequality for two independent identically distributed random vectors in a normed space

Suppose that $X$ and $Y$ are independent identically distributed random vectors in a separable Banach space $B$. Does it always follow that $E\|X-Y\|\le E\|X+Y\|$?
Some background information on ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### An $L^0$ Khintchine inequality

Suppose that $\epsilon_1,\epsilon_2,\ldots$ are IID random variables with the Bernoulli distribution $\mathbb{P}(\epsilon_n=\pm1)=1/2$, and $a_1,a_2,\ldots$ is a real sequence with $\sum_na_n^2=1$. ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

268 views

### Zinn's “doubling” conjecture on weighted sums of independent Rademacher random variables

Let $a_1,\dots,a_n$ be real numbers such that $a_1^2+\dots+a_n^2=1$. Let $\eta_1,\dots,\eta_n$ be independent Rademacher random variables (r.v.'s), so that $P(\eta_i=\pm1)=\frac12$ for all $i$. Let $S:...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### How to prove a known inequality from a book

The following inequality is from page 125 of D.S. Mitrinovic, J. Pecaric, A.M. Fink, Classical and new inequalities in analysis, Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1993.
If $a_i>...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### subadditive implies concave

Let $f:R_+\to R_+$ be smooth on $(0,\infty)$, increasing, $f(0)=0$ and
$\lim_{x\to\infty}=\infty$. Assume also that $f$ is subadditive:
$f(x+y)\le f(x)+f(y)$ for all $x,y\ge 0$. Must $f$ be concave? ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

906 views

### Cauchy-Schwarz proof of Sidorenko for 3-edge path (Blakley-Roy inequality)

Is there a "Cauchy-Schwarz proof" of the following inequality?
Theorem. Given $f \colon [0,1]^2 \to [0,1]$, one has
$$
\int_{[0,1]^4} f(x,y)f(z,y)f(z,w) \, dxdydzdw \geq \left(\int_{[0,1]^2} f(x,y) \,...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

640 views

### An inequality concerning Lagrange's identity

we know Lagrange's identity
$$(a^2_{1}+a^2_{2}+a^2_{3})(b^2_{1}+b^2_{2}+b^2_{3})=(a_{1}b_{1}+a_{2}b_{2}+a_{3}b_{3})^2+\sum_{i=1}^{2}\sum_{j=i+1}^{3}(a_{i}b_{j}-a_{j}b_{i})^2$$
then we have Cauchy-...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

620 views

### An inequality improvement on AMM 11145

I have asked the same question in math.stackexchange, I am reposting it here, looking for answers:
How to show that for $a_1,a_2,\cdots,a_n >0$ real numbers and for $n \ge 3$:
$$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

429 views

### Hlawka inequality for determinants of positive definite matrices

It is mentioned here that if $A, B, C\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)$ are positive semidefinite, then $$\det (A+B+C)+\det C\ge \det (A+C)+\det (B+C)$$ (quoted from this article) and the special case ($C=\bf 0$) $...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### A Normal Distribution Inequality

Let $n(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} e^{-\frac{x^2}{2}}$, and $N(x) = \int_{-\infty}^x n(t)dt$. I have plotted the curves of the both sides of the following inequality. The graph shows that the following ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

453 views

### A matrix norm inequality

Suppose that $A, B$ are Hermitian positive definite matrices of the same order and $0\le p\le 1$. Using a standard approach in matrix analysis, one can show that
$\|A^{1-p}B^p\|\ge \|A\sharp_p B\|$, ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

459 views

### regular polygon question

Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n$ be distinct points on the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ and $L$ be a circle in $\mathbb{C}$ such that
$$f(z):=\sum_{i=1}^n|z-a_i|^{2n-2}$$
is constant on $L.$ Could somebody ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

393 views

### Determinant inequality involving Hermitian, positive definite matrices

Question:
Let $A,B,C\in M_{n}(C)$ be Hermitian and positive definite matrices such that:$$A+B+C=I_{n}$$
Show that:
$$\det\left(6(A^3+B^3+C^3)+I_{n}\right)\ge 5^n\det(A^2+B^2+C^2)$$
This question ...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Bounding the absolute sum of entries of the inverse of a 0-1 matrix

I have a non-singular square 0-1 matrix and I want to bound the sum of absolute values of its inverse as a function of n (or the vector 1-norm).
Asymptotic results are also useful.
Does anyone know ...

**12**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Understanding Gibbs's inequality

Short version
Gibbs's inequality is a simple inequality for real numbers, usually
understood information-theoretically. In the jargon, it states that
for two probability measures on a finite set, ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

487 views

### Is the heat kernel more spread out with a smaller metric?

Suppose M is a smooth manifold, and we have two Riemannian metrics on M, say g and h, with g bigger than h (i.e. for every tangent vector at every point, the norm according to g is bigger than the ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

294 views

### Subset of vectors whose sum has a large norm

In Rudin - Real & Complex Analysis we have the following
Lemma 6.3. If $z_1, \ldots, z_n \in \mathbb{C}$ then there is a subset $S \subseteq \{1,\ldots,n\}$ for which
$$\left|\sum_{k \in S} z_k\...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

779 views

### A delicate elementary inequality

The following "piecewise-quadratic" inequality emerged in a joint work of Rom
Pinchasi and myself. The inequality is surprisingly delicate, and all our
attempts to simplify it made it false. By the ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

296 views

### Inequalities for marginals of distribution on hyperplane

Let $H = \{ (a,b,c) \in \mathbb{Z}_{\geq 0}^3 : a+b+c=n \}$. If we have a probability distribution on $H$, we can take its marginals onto the $a$, $b$ and $c$ variables and obtain three probability ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

633 views

### Conjecture on maximum of symmetric combinatoric function

A curious symmetric function crossed my way in some quantum mechanics calculations, and I'm interested its maximum value (for which I do have a conjecture).
(The question was first asked at math.SE, ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

641 views

### Quadratic Farkas' Lemma?

The Farkas Lemma says that if a system of linear inequalities implies
yet another linear inequality, then this last inequality can be obtained by
taking a positive linear combination of the ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

457 views

### An inequality for the spectral radius of matrices used by J. Bochi

I am interested in the history of an inequality for the spectral radius of a $d\times d$ real or complex matrix, which occurs in Jairo Bochi's 2002 article Inequalities for numerical invariants of ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Hölder's inequality for matrices

I was wondering if the Hölder's inequality was true for matrix induced norms, i.e. if
$$\|AB\|_1 \leq \|A\|_p\|B\|_q, \quad\forall p,q \in [1,\infty] \text{ s.t. } \tfrac{1}{p}+\tfrac{1}{q} = 1.$$
But ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

618 views

### Inequality regarding sum of gaussian on lattices

When S is a subset of an inner product space, let d(S) denote ${\sum\limits_{s \in S} e^{- \langle s,s \rangle}}$
Suppose L is a discrete additive subgroup of $\mathbb{R^n}$, M is a subgroup of L, ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

546 views

### A property of unimodal sequences

It is well-known that $(-1)^j \sum_{i=0}^j (-1)^i\binom{n}{i} \geq 0$. This inequality can be used to prove Bonferroni's inequalities for example. Recently I noticed that a similar inequality applies ...