The inequalities tag has no wiki summary.

**23**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### How often are irrational numbers well-approximated by rationals?

Suppose $x\in \mathbb{R}$ is irrational, with irrationality measure $\mu=\mu(x)$; this means that the inequality $|x-\frac{p}{q}|< q^{-\lambda}$ has infinitely many solutions in integers $p,q$ if ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

328 views

### Elementary treatment of elementary functions in constructive math

I would appreciate a reference to constructive math literature with elementary proofs that elementary functions are locally non-constant (i. e. densely apart from any real in any interval with ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

61 views

### Norm inequalities between difference operators

Assume $(v_i)$ to be a sequence in $\ell_\infty(\mathbb{R})$ for $i=1,\dotsc,N$. Define the difference operator as $\Delta v_i:=v_{i+1}-v_i$ and $\Delta^n v_i:=\Delta(\Delta^{n-1} v_i)$. Then, how can ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

96 views

### Vector inequation problem [closed]

$${A_i} = \left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{{A_{i1}}}\\{{A_{i2}}}\\ \vdots \\{{A_{in}}}\end{array}} \right),{B_i} = \left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}{{B_{i1}}}\\{{B_{i2}}}\\ \vdots ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Dimension reduction for low-order moments of Rademacher-weighted sums of vectors

Let $x_1,\dots,x_n$ be vectors in a Euclidean space $H$. Let $\varepsilon_1,\dots,\varepsilon_n$ be independent Rademacher random variables (r.v.'s), so that $P(\varepsilon_i=\pm1)=1/2$ for all $i$.
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

560 views

### Number of solutions in a sum of squares Diophantine equation

Let $n$ be an integer. I'm interested in upper bounding the number of integer solutions of
\begin{equation*}
x_1^2+x_2^2+\ldots+x_p^2=y_1^2+y_2^2+\ldots+y_p^2,
\end{equation*}
where for all ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

51 views

### Constrained optimal control problem

I am trying to solve an optimization problem which is probably reminiscent of optimal control theory but all of this is not exactly my field of expertize and I am a little bit lost in translation. If ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

58 views

### A bound on the $\mathrm{L}^p$ norm in terms of the $\mathrm{L}^2$ norm in periodic Sobolev spaces

(The question was originally posted on Math StackExchange.)
Preliminaries: Given ${s \geq 0}$, let ${\mathrm{H}_P^s}$ denote the ${\mathrm{L}^2}$-based fractional-order Sobolev space of ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

226 views

### Entropy inequality

Let $P,Q$ be probabilities on a finite set $A$ with $Q(a)\gt 0$, for all $a\in A$, and let $H(P)$, $H(Q)$ denote their entropies and $D(P\,\|\,Q)$ denote their Kullback-Leibler distance.
Is it always ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

91 views

### Inequality about moments of a random variable and of its conditional expectation

This is a follow-up to a question I asked earlier: Moments of a random variable and of its conditional expectation
My claim turned out to be false. Here is a new claim.
Let $X$ be a bounded random ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

131 views

### Finding matrices $A$ such that the entries of $A^n$ have specified signs

What techniques are there for ensuring nonnegativity of various entries of matrix powers?
Specific Question: Consider a matrix $A\in SL_2(\mathbb R)$. Let $(A^n)_{i,j}$ denote the $(i,j)$ entry of ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### Moments of a random variable and of its conditional expectation

Let $X$ be a bounded random variable with $\mathbb{E}X=0$. Since $X$ is bounded, all its moments exist. Let $\mathcal{G}$ be any $\sigma$-field and let $Y:=\mathbb{E}[X|\mathcal{G}].$ I am interested ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

35 views

### Column Inner Products vs. Row Inner Products

Given two matrices $A,B\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times r}$ where $A$ has orthogonal columns and $A^TB$ is symmetric, are there any non-trivial interesting relationships / inequalities between the following ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

153 views

### Lower bound for $ \sum_{i=1}^n x_i f(x_i)$ when $\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i = K$

Considering,
the set of all n dim. vectors $\{x_i\}_{i=1,...,n} $ such that $x_i \geq 0 $ and $\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i = K$
Any continuous and strictly increasing function $f^+(x)$ : $ \mathbb R^+ \to ...

**28**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### A curious determinantal inequality

In my study, I come across the following curious inequality, which I do not know a proof yet (so I am asking it here).
Let $A, B$ be $n\times n$ (Hermitian) positive definite matrices. It is very ...

**29**

votes

**4**answers

7k views

### Is the Jaccard distance a distance?

Wikipedia defines the Jaccard distance between sets A and B as $$J_\delta(A,B)=1-\frac{|A\cap B|}{|A\cup B|}.$$ There's also a book claiming that this is a metric. However, I couldn't find any ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

122 views

### Do more generalizations of Schur's inequality exist?

I meet this following problem
If $$n\ge 3,\sum_{i=1}^{n}\left(\prod_{j\neq i}(a_{i}-a_{j})\right)\ge 0$$
where $a_{i}$ are real numbers.
when $n=3$, it is Schur's inequality
so which $n$ ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

127 views

### When is alternating sum $\sum_{i}f(a_i)-\sum_{i<j}f(a_i+a_j)+\ldots+(-1)^{n-1}f(a_1+\ldots+a_n)$ always positive?

Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n\geq 1$, and let $f:\mathbb{R}^+\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^+$. Consider the sum
...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

44 views

### An inequality with critical Sobolev exponent

Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n, n\geq 3$ be a nice bounded domain and $2^*=2n/(n-2)$ the critical Sobolev exponent. One may expect that $\forall \epsilon>0$, $\exists C_\epsilon<\infty$ such ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

287 views

### Generalization of Popoviciu's inequality

Popoviciu's inequality states that for convex $f$ and numbers $x_1,x_2,x_3$, we have
$f(x_1)+f(x_2) + f(x_3) + 3\cdot f(\frac{x_1+x_2+x_3}3) \geq 2\cdot f(\frac{x_1+x_2}2)+2\cdot ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

137 views

### inequality in a shape of inclusion exclusion formula

I have two inequalities to show, both of which describe some probabilities. First I know how to handle, and it follows from applying arithmetic-harmonic mean inequality:
consider 9 numbers ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

173 views

### An elementary functional inequality

Let $g$ be a $C^1$ function with $g(0)=0$ and $g(t)>0$ for all $t>0$. I am surprised that for all such $g$ the following seems to hold
$\frac{\int_0^t(g'(s))^2ds}{g^2(t)}\geq \frac{1}{t}$ for ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

739 views

### A delicate elementary inequality

The following "piecewise-quadratic" inequality emerged in a joint work of Rom
Pinchasi and myself. The inequality is surprisingly delicate, and all our
attempts to simplify it made it false. By the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

111 views

### Why hexagons? The maximal minimum of a sum of cosines on the plane with frequencies on the unit circle

We wish to maximize the minimum of a weighted sum of cosines in the plane, when the frequency components are on the unit circle. Formally:
$$\max_{\{ a_i,\theta_i,\phi_i \}_{i=1}^{N} } \min_{(x,y) ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

39 views

### Lower bound on Spectral Gap of Rank one + Diagonal

For some $x\in\mathbb{R}^n, \|x\|_2^2=1$ and $\alpha\geq 0$, consider the positive semi-definite matrix
$$
X_\alpha := xx^T + \alpha\sum_{k=1}^nx_k^2e_ke_k^T.
$$
Suppose for simplicity that the ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

200 views

### If $A>B>0$, can we always find a positive real number $\alpha$, $0<\alpha < 1$ such that $\alpha A \geq B $?

Suppose we have positive-definite matrices $A$, $B$, if $A>B>0$, can we always find a positive real number $\alpha$, $0<\alpha < 1$ such that $ \alpha A \geq B $? If it has, then what ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### An $L^0$ Khintchine inequality

Suppose that $\epsilon_1,\epsilon_2,\ldots$ are IID random variables with the Bernoulli distribution $\mathbb{P}(\epsilon_n=\pm1)=1/2$, and $a_1,a_2,\ldots$ is a real sequence with $\sum_na_n^2=1$. ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

209 views

### Zinn's “doubling” conjecture on weighted sums of independent Rademacher random variables

Let $a_1,\dots,a_n$ be real numbers such that $a_1^2+\dots+a_n^2=1$. Let $\eta_1,\dots,\eta_n$ be independent Rademacher random variables (r.v.'s), so that $P(\eta_i=\pm1)=\frac12$ for all $i$. Let ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### A Normal Distribution Inequality

Let $n(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} e^{-\frac{x^2}{2}}$, and $N(x) = \int_{-\infty}^x n(t)dt$. I have plotted the curves of the both sides of the following inequality. The graph shows that the following ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

358 views

### Derivatives of radial functions can be bounded by derivatives in terms of radial distance?

Suppose $f$ is a radial function, i.e., $f(x)=f(|x|)$,
and $f \in C^\infty(\bar{B})$, where $\bar{B}$ is the closure of the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^n$.
Prove or disprove the following.
Given any ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

386 views

### An inequality for two independent identically distributed random vectors in a normed space

Suppose that $X$ and $Y$ are independent identically distributed random vectors in a separable Banach space $B$. Does it always follow that $E\|X-Y\|\le E\|X+Y\|$?
Some background information on ...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### The sum of squared logarithms conjecture

I am searching for the first proof of (or counterexample to) the following conjecture.
(The sum of squared logarithms conjecture)
For all natural numbers $n$ and positive numbers $x_1,x_2, \ldots , ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

88 views

### Concentration and Correlation for Magnitudes of Gaussian Vectors

Suppose we have a large collection of standard normal random variables $a_i\in\mathbb{R}^n$. We know by standard concentration results that if we take $m \geq C\left(t/\epsilon\right)^2n$ samples, ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

433 views

### Finding a path through real rooted polynomials

This is a lemma I wanted in order to solve Patrizio Neff's conjecture. It turned out to be the wrong way to think about it, but I am still curious if it is true.
Let $z^n+a_{n-1} z^{n-1} + \cdots + ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

42 views

### Bounds on the spherical measure of sub-level sets of quadratic forms

I'm wondering if there are any bounds on the spherical measure of sets of the form
$$
\mu_n\left(\{y\in S^{n-1} : \frac{y_1^2}{y_2^2} < \alpha\}\right) \leq f(\alpha)
$$
where $\alpha$ is some ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

40 views

### Solving nonlinear inequality that involves norm2 operator

I have an equation of the form
$$ \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\left\lVert#1\right\rVert} \norm{\mathbf{Z} \left[ \sum_{n = 0}^{N - 1} (-1)^n \psi^n \mathbf{C}^n \right] \mathbf{q} }^2 \leq |p|^2, $$ where ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

47 views

### Completing Karlin's proof of variation diminishing transformation theorem

In S Karlin's book total positivity there's a theorem
that says if $K(x,y)$ is $TP_r$ (totally positive with degree $r$) and the sign change count of function $h$, $S(h) = n\leq r-1$,
then ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

280 views

### Minimum of squared sum minus sum of squares

I know that
$$
\min_{\|x\|_2=1=\|y\|_2} \left(\sum_{k=1}^nx_ky_k\right)^2-\sum_{k=1}^nx_k^2y_k^2 \geq -1/2
$$
with equality whenever $|x_k|=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}=|y_k|$ for two coordinates.
I'm ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

34 views

### Finding an explicit constant in finite element error estimates

Background: In a finite element approximation to the solution of a linear PDEs, estimates on the order of convergence of the approximation to the solution rely on a theorem of Bramble and Hilbert ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

305 views

### Maximum height of intersection of triangles

I'd like some advice regarding the following question, which I have been struggling with for long time.
Let's call the shaded region in the below $S_3$. It is the union of three congruent isosceles ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

67 views

### Maximizing the discrepancy in Jensen's inequality for a certain function

Let $\underline{b}=\{b_1,\dots,b_n\}$ be a fixed sequence of positive numbers, and let $a>0$ be a parameter.
Define
$$
D(a;\underline{b}):=\frac{1}{\frac{1}{na}+\frac{1}{\sum_{i=1}^n b_i}}
...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

331 views

### Is the conditional expectation a contraction in weak $\mathbb L^p$ spaces?

Let $(\Omega,\mathcal F,\mu)$ be a probability space. It is well-known that if $\mathcal A$ is a sub-$\sigma$-algebra of $\mathcal F$, $p\geqslant 1$ and $X$ is an element of $\mathbb L^p$ which takes ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

527 views

### Inequality regarding sum of gaussian on lattices

When S is a subset of an inner product space, let d(S) denote ${\sum\limits_{s \in S} e^{- \langle s,s \rangle}}$
Suppose L is a discrete additive subgroup of $\mathbb{R^n}$, M is a subgroup of L, ...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Upper bounds for the sum of primes <= n

Let $s(n)$ denote the sum of primes less than or equal to n. Clearly, $s(n)$ is bounded from above by the sum of the first $n/2$ odd integers $+1$. $s(n)$ is also bounded by the sum of the first $n$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

591 views

### Are there such numbers?

Maybe better to ask for help on this question here: Are there eight numbers $0< x_{1},\ldots,x_{4},y_{1},\ldots,y_{4}<1$,
such that
$$
...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

49 views

### local bernstein type inequality for multivariate polynomials

Let's say $p(x_1,...,x_n)$ is an n-variate degree d homogenous polynomial. Assume $U \subset S^{n-1}$ and $ vol(U) > 0 $ is there any Bernstein type inequality saying
$$ \max_{x \in U , y \in ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

131 views

### Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality using fractional sobolev norm on the RHS

Using Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality, we can prove that:
$$\left| \int_0^1\int_0^1 |x-y|^{-\frac{1}{2}} f(x)f(y) \mathrm{d}x \mathrm{d}y \right| \leq C \left\| f \right\|_{L^{4/3}(0,1)}^2 \leq C ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

268 views

### Variance of truncated normal distribution

Let $ X \sim \mathcal{N} ( \mu, \sigma^2 ) $, $ - \infty \leqslant a < b \leqslant +\infty $ ($ a, b \ne \infty $ simultaneously) and $ Y $ has a truncated normal distribution on $ (a, b )$, i.e. ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

307 views

### Is $1/\max(i,j)$ a bounded matrix on Hilbert spaces?

I would like to know if the infinite matrix $[\frac{1}{\max(i,j)}]_{i,j\geq 1}$ represents a bounded operator on $\ell^2(\mathbb{N}^\star)$.
It would be sufficient to know if the Lehmer matrix ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

187 views

### A Poincare-Type Inequality and its generalization

Let $f(\theta)$ be a fixed positive $2\pi-$periodic $C^1$ function on $\mathbb{R}$ with $$\int_0^{2\pi}f(\theta)\cos\theta d\theta=\int_0^{2\pi}f(\theta)\sin\theta d\theta=0,$$
Does for any ...