# Tagged Questions

This tag is for questions about proving that some statement is independent from a theory, meaning it is neither provable nor refutable from that theory. Common examples are the continuum hypothesis from the axioms of ZFC, and the axiom of choice from the axioms of ZF.

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### Should axiomatic set theory be translated into graph theory?

Recently I saw the abstract of a paper by Nash-Williams: Should axiomatic set theory be translated into graph theory?''. The abstract, taken from Mathscinet says the following: The author ...
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### How undecidable is the spectral gap?

Nature just published a paper by Cubitt, Perez-Garcia and Wolf titled Undecidability of the Spectral Gap, there is an extended version on arxiv which is 146 pages long. Here is from the abstract:"Many ...
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### Bidi: A new cardinal characteristic of the continuum?

This question assumes familiarity with combinatorial cardinal characteristics of the continuum. Identify an infinite set $a\subseteq\mathbb{N}$ with its increasing enumeration. Thus, for each natural ...
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### Independence of the countable axiom of choice

How does one proove that the Countable axiom of choice is not provable in ZF?Is there any brief proof?Does the Independence of the countable axiom of choice implies the independence of the axiom of ...
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### Relationship between fragments of the axiom of choice and the dependent choice principles

The dependent choice principle ${\rm DC}_\kappa$ states that if $S$ is a nonempty set and $R$ is a binary relation such that for every $s\in S^{\lt\kappa}$, there is $x\in S$ with $sRx$, then there ...
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### On Consistency of an Existence

Let $\omega \leq \kappa <2^{\omega}$ , $\omega \leq\lambda \leq \kappa$ and $D(\kappa, \lambda)$ be the statement: For all $\mathfrak{B} \subseteq \mathbf{P}(\omega)$ with $|\mathfrak{B}|=\kappa$...
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### Kaplansky's conjecture and Martin's axiom

Recall Kaplansky's conjecture which states that every algebra homomorphism from the Banach algebra C(X) (where X is a compact Hausdorff topological space) into any other Banach algebra, is ...
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### Intuition behind Pincus' “injectively bounded statements”

In David Pincus, Zermelo-Fraenkel Consistency Results by Fraenkel-Mostowski Methods, The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Dec., 1972), pp. 721-743 Pincus introduces the notion of ...
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### Undecidability and holomorphic functions (Reference request)

The goal of this question is to recall a certain mathematical fact -not in my field- that I was once briefly told and that I have fogotten, and also to collect similar results. The fact, I think, ...
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### Formal proof of Con(ZFC) => Con(ZFC + not CH) in ZFC

Is it possible to prove $Con(ZFC) \rightarrow Con(ZFC + \neg CH)$ purely within ZFC? To prove this (using forcing) one seems to need a countable transitive model of ZFC. The texts I am reading avoid ...
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### Is the Axiom of Union independent of the rest of ZF?

Short version: Is the axiom of union independent of the rest of axioms of ZF? NO) Tourlakis (2003) says in p. 177 that the axiom of union can be derived from the rest of ZF if an appropriate version ...
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### Natural statements independent from true $\Pi^0_2$ sentences

I am looking for sentences in the language of first order arithmetic ($0,1,+,\cdot,\leq$) which are independent from $\Pi^0_2$ consequences of true arithmetic $\Pi^0_2\text{-}\mathsf{Th}(\mathbb{N})$. ...
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### Is there an “undecided” assertion of which a proof that it's not undecidable is known?

Just a curiosity: Is there an assertion of which a proof (formalizable, say, in ZFC) is not known but a proof that it's not undecidable (in ZFC) is known? Edit: after the comments, I think the ...
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### “Simpler” statements equivalent to Con(PA) or Con(ZFC)?

Given any reasonable formal system F (e.g., Peano Arithmetic or ZFC), we all know that one can construct a Turing machine that runs forever iff F is consistent, by enumerating the theorems of F and ...
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### Is the existence of a well-ordering on R independent of ZF?

I am reasonably certain this is the case, but can't find a reference that actually states this, although the Wikipedia article states something close.