# Tagged Questions

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### Simple curves on non-orientable surfaces.

Given an element in the (first) homology group of a surface, I would like to know if it can be represented as a simple closed curve. For orientable surfaces, this is well-known, but I wasn't able to ...
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### What is the Hopf algebra structures in the homology of the based loop spaces of $E_7$ and $E_8$?

Since $\Omega X$ is a $H$-space, if it has homology of finite type, the homology acquires the structure of a Hopf algebra. Bott has shown that for $X=G$ a Lie group, in fact $H_*(\Omega X)$ is free ...
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### Are the homology and cohomology Serre spectral sequences dual to each other?

If we use homology and cohomology over a field $k$, if a space has homology and cohomology groups of finite type in each degree, then $H_\ast(X;k)$ is dual to $H^\ast(X;k)$ using the universal ...
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### Why torsion is important in (co)homology ?

I've once been told that "torsion in homology and cohomology is regarded by topologists as a very deep and important phenomenon". I presume an analogous statement could be said in the context of ...
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### Request: intermediate-level proof: every 2-homology class of a 4-manifold is generated by a surface.

Hi, everyone: For the sake of context, I am a graduate student, and I have taken classes in algebraic topology and differential geometry. Still, the 2 proofs I have found are a little too terse for ...
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### Working with Intersection Forms in Homology. Computation.

Hi, everyone: I am trying to work with the intersection form in 4-manifolds. Specifically, I am working with $CP^2$ (complex projective 2-space.), whose form is given by $(1)$. Now, I know how to ...
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### What would be the ramifications of homotopy theory being as easy as homology theory?

Greg Muller, in a post called Rational Homotopy Theory on the blog "The Everything Seminar" wrote "I tend to think of homotopy theory a little bit like ‘The One That Got Away’ from mathematics as a ...
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### Are fundamental groups of aspherical manifolds Hopfian?

A group $G$ is Hopfian if every epimorphism $G\to G$ is an isomorphism. A smooth manifold is aspherical if its universal cover is contractible. Are all fundamental groups of aspherical closed smooth ...
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### Given a ramified cover of a Riemann surface, is there a good choice of basis for H_1 of the source?

Suppose we are given a map $f: X \to Y$ between two Riemann Surfaces, with branch points $p_1,p_2,\dots,p_n$ and known multiplicities at these points. Assuming we have a basis of $H_1(Y, \mathbb{Z})$,...
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### Homology of Surfaces with Holes

The classification theorem for surfaces says that the complete set of homeomorphism classes of surfaces is { $S_g : g \geq 0$ } $\cup$ { $N_k : k \geq 1$ }, where $S_g$ is a sphere with $g$ ...
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### “Homotopy-first” courses in algebraic topology

A first course in algebraic topology, at least the ones I'm familiar with, generally gets students to a point where they can calculate homology right away. Building the theory behind it is generally ...
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### Homology with Coefficients

We can define the (first) homology of a surface $S$ by working with graphs embedded in $S$. That is, we take any (oriented) graph which is 2-cell embedded in $S$, and take cycles modulo boundaries in ...
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### De Rham homology

Suppose M is an arbitrary smooth manifold and D is its bundle of 1-densities. On the category of finite-dimensional vector bundles over M and linear differential operators between them there is a ...
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### homology with compact supports

In one of the exercises in McDuff and Salamon, they mention homology with compact supports. I know how to define *co*homology with compact supports, but I can't picture the homology version. How do ...
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### Intersection form in twisted homology (homology with local coefficients)

The answer to this question should be obvious, but I can't seem to figure it out. Suppose we have a surface $F$, and a representation $\rho : \pi_1(F)\to SU(n)$. We can define the homology with local ...
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### What can be said about the homotopy groups of a CW-complex in terms of its (co)homology?

One example is the Hurewicz theorem which tells us that (e.g) a CW-cx with only one 0-cell has a nontrivial fundamental group if H_1 is nontrivial. What other examples are there? (The CW-complexes I ...
Let $X$ be a smooth projective variety. If I've understood correctly, the Weil conjectures imply that it is possible to compute the Betti numbers of $X(\mathbb{C})$ by computing the local zeta ...
The following is probably well known, but I wasn't able to locate a reference in the literature. Let $f$ be a Morse function on a smooth compact manifold $M$ without boundary and let $\rho$ be a ...