Euler's equation for polyhedral, Euler's polyhedral formula, V – E + F = 2, where V, E, and F, are the number of points, edges and faces, was discovered by Leonhard Euler in 1752. However, the basic ...
By a graph I will understand an undirected graph without multiple edges or loops. By a morphism of graphs I will understand a map $f$ between the underlying sets of vertices, such that if $x$ and $y$ ...
We can define the (first) homology of a surface $S$ by working with graphs embedded in $S$. That is, we take any (oriented) graph which is 2-cell embedded in $S$, and take cycles modulo boundaries in ...