**22**

votes

**0**answers

498 views

### History of the Proj construction in algebraic geometry

Projective geometry was introduced by fifteenth century Renaissance painters (like Alberti, da Vinci and Dürer) in the guise of perspective theory, although one could argue that Pappus was already ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Name of amateur who gave a new proof of the Ramanujan-Nagell theorem?

In an article by George Johnson in the New York Times back in 1999, it says that an amateur mathematician from India once sent Ian Stewart a proof of the Ramanujan-Nagell theorem that the Diophantine ...

**20**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### more on “Transalgebraic Theories” (a 19th century yoga)?

Among the talks at occasion of the Galois Bicentennial, one is about "Transalgebraic Theories". Unfortunately I found only this article describing that fascinating idea as " an extremely powerful ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

423 views

### Authorship of Grothendieck universes

Universes seem to first appear in Grothendieck's work in SGA 1, which is credited to Grothendieck, and a lengthy discussion is in the chapter on Prefaisceaux (presheaves) in SGA 4. That chapter is ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

930 views

### Origins of the Nerve Theorem

Recently, I've read two papers which have cited the Nerve Theorem, one crediting Borsuk with the result and another Leray. Here is the question:
Who was the first to prove the Nerve Theorem?

**12**

votes

**0**answers

255 views

### Who stated and proved the “Hopf lemma” on bilinear maps?

If $A\otimes B\rightarrow C$ is a nondegenerate linear map, where $A, B, C$ are vector spaces over an algebraically closed field, then $\dim C\ge \dim A + \dim B -1$.
Nondegenerate here means ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

529 views

### Why did Bourbaki not use universal algebra?

I have seen a discussion about Bourbaki’s usage of categories before. So let me ask a different question: why did he not use universal algebra?
Well, universal algebra is not much older than category ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

534 views

### Where might I find a scanned handwritten copy of Ramanujan's second letter to Hardy?

I am giving a lecture to undergraduates on the lovely identity $$1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + \cdots = -\frac{1}{12}.$$
Ramanujan wrote in his second letter to Hardy (courtesy Wikipedia),
"Dear Sir, I am very ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

197 views

### Who first showed that $SL(n,O_K)$ is a lattice for a number ring $O_K$?

Let $O_K$ be the ring of integers in an algebraic number field $K$. Assume that $K$ has $r$ real embeddings and $s$ pairs of complex conjugate complex embeddings. There is then an injective ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

434 views

### How come Cartan did not notice the close relationship between symmetric spaces and isoparametric hypersurfaces?

Elie Cartan made fundamental contributions to the theory of Lie groups and their geometrical applications. Among those, we can list the introduction of the remarkable family of Riemannian symmetric ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

402 views

### Unpublished Lecture Notes

Hi, Overflowers
There was a time (not so long ago) where lecture notes were not published, not commonly at least, and their reproduction was expensive. In my case, that was precisely the time when ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

851 views

### Galois theory timeline (II)

This question is a sequel. I structured the previous one around Emil Artin's classic treatment of Galois theory from the 1940s, though making clear some reservations of my own about whether Artin ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

280 views

### What is the history of the notion of subdivision of categories?

A recent answer by Peter May prompts me to ask a question which I have been considering to ask for several months. (The reason why I have not asked it before is that it is not directly related to my ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

433 views

### What is Quillen's contribution to index theorem?

In the book "Heat Kernels and Dirac Operators" by Berline, Getzler and Vergne it is said that "Our book is based on a simple principle, which we learned from D. Quillen: Dirac operators are a ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

244 views

### From Frege to Gödel - German equivalent?

I know this question does not quite fit here, but I felt it could best be answered here. I recently stumbled upon the book From Frege to Gödel, which is a sourcebook containing some of the most ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

427 views

### Reference/quote request: “All of combinatorics is the representation theory of $S_n$”

I think I remember reading somewhere a glib (or is it deep?) quote, perhaps due to Rota?, which was something like
"All of combinatorics is essentially [or can be reduced to?] the representation ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

128 views

### Origin of Lie Product Formula

I'm interested in where Lie wrote down the Lie Product formula (for finite matrices)
(the precursor of the Trotter product formula; see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lie_product_formula). With a ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

182 views

### Reference Request: Topological h-cobordism theorem in higher dimensions

I think this question on math.stackexchange is more appropriate on mathoverflow. Correct me, if you don't think so.
The h-cobordism theorem is true in the topological and in the smooth category in ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

460 views

### Has anyone pursued Frege's idea of numbers as second-order concepts?

Gottlob Frege was a pivotal figure in the history of mathematical logic. He gave an analysis of numbers that proceeded along roughly the following lines, in his books "The Foundations of Arithmetic" ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

218 views

### What is the historical connection between Zeeman's twist spinning and Fox's Examples?

Both Ralph Fox and (at that time, yet to be knighted) Sir Christopher Zeeman attended the 1961 Georgia topology conference. Fox's paper from that conference was his seminal work, "A Quick Trip through ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

225 views

### First Table of Random Numbers

What was the first table of random numbers of any sort?
The best I can do is Tippett and Pearson's Random Sampling Numbers of 1927.
Can anybody identify an earlier table?
Thanks for any ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

631 views

### Innovations in deformation theory

I've been trying to get into deformation theory lately, and I became thirsty for a bit of context.
Has Deformation Theory seen a lot of development since its inception? If I read Michael Artin's ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

587 views

### Original references for the homotopy groups pi_5 of SU(3) and pi_4 of SU(2)?

For revision of a paper (http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.1189), I'd like to
correct my references to the original work on aspects of the homotopy
groups pi_5 of SU(3) and pi_4 of SU(2). I'm not a ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

225 views

### Silver's unpublished work on reverse Easton iteration

Silver was the first person who used the method of reverse Easton iterations in connection with large cardinals, and used it to force the failure of $GCH$ at some measurable cardinal.
At most papers ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

210 views

### History of the characterization of commutative Artin rings

When it comes to the world of "classical" (pre-homological) Noetherian commutative algebra, I tend to think of most of the results (Krull's intersection theorem, the principal ideal theorem, etc.) as ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

178 views

### what's the role of $H^{p}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ in modern (harmonic) analysis?

The classical theory of $H^p$,due to it's heavy dependence on the complex function theory(such as Blaschke products), seemed to have an insurmountable obstacle barrying its extension to several ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

325 views

### Why the $M$ for Thom spaces?

I've heard $E$ is for entire space, $B$ is for base space, so what is $M$ for?

**6**

votes

**0**answers

400 views

### Does mathematical fecundity ever deviate from its applicability?

We are all familiar with Wigner's "unreasonable effectiveness
of mathematics" thesis (1), and of Hardy's opinion
that "the great bulk of higher mathematics is useless" (2).
I am wondering if there are ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

451 views

### Historical and terminological questions about Dan Kan's Ex functor and its relation to the classical case of simplicial complexes

Recall that we may define a functor $\xi:\Delta\to \operatorname{Poset}$ sending a simplex $[n]$ to the set of monotone injections $[k]\hookrightarrow [n]$ for $k\geq 0$ (effectively, $k\leq n$ as ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

186 views

### When did “Betti cohomology” come to be used the way it is today? (and how is it used)

This is sort of a mixture of a math and history question.
First the math part: thinking about it, I do not actually know how to properly use the term "Betti cohomology". I know I should, but I ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

178 views

### Did the notion of “angle” originate with Thales?

Thales (circa 600BC—roughly 50 years before Pythagoras, 200 years before Plato,
and 300 years before Euclid)
certainly knew and reasoned with the concept of a planar angle.
Are there earlier ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

260 views

### Sophus Lie on the symplectic foliation theorem

Given a Poisson manifold $(P,\{\cdot,\cdot\})$, its characteristic distribution $\mathcal C$ is the singular tangent distribution on $M$ generated by the Hamiltonian vector fields,i.e.
$$\mathcal ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

466 views

### functor before cat?

As i read the literature, derived functors were there several years before derive categories - right?

**5**

votes

**0**answers

269 views

### Cutting and pasting in Galois theory

I want to ask who was the first to use cut-paste construction in Galois theory.
This question is motivated from the trend in contemporary Galois theory to use patching methods to construct Galois ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

237 views

### Proof of Lomnicki and Ulam on Infinite Product Probability Spaces

Given an arbitrary, nonempty family $(\Omega_i,\Sigma_i,\mu_i)_{i\in I}$ of probability spaces, there exists a probability measure $\mu$ on $\otimes_i\Sigma_i$ such that for every finite set ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

212 views

### origin of the notion of “network” in graph theory

In current graph theory, a "network" is a precisely defined object: It is a directed graph associated with a function, the "capacity", which is defined on the edge set and has certain specific ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

718 views

### What did Hilbert do on Hilbert spaces to deserve his name?

This question is just curiosity. When I had my first course in Functional Analysis, most of basic theorems about Banach spaces were presented to me as attributed to Banach (Hahn-Banach, ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

65 views

### Continuous extension of Riemann maps and the Caratheodory-Torhorst Theorem

If $G\subsetneq\mathbb{C}$ is a simply-connected plane domain, then by the Riemann mapping theorem there is a conformal isomorphism $\newcommand{\D}{\mathbb{D}}\varphi:\D\to G$, where $\D$ is the unit ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

121 views

### Citation for subset complement result

Let $S=\lbrace s_1,\ldots,s_n \rbrace \subset \lbrace1,\ldots,2n\rbrace$. Consider two operations on $S$: the complement $C(S)=\lbrace 1,\ldots,2n \rbrace \setminus S$ and a reflection* ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

203 views

### Where was the arithmetic zeta function of a scheme first defined?

Let $X$ be an arithmetic scheme, that is, a scheme of finite type over the integers. We denote the set of closed points of $X$ by $|X|$. For every $x\in|X|$, write $N(x)$ for the cardinality of the ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

253 views

### A Question Regarding Boolean-valued Models

What were the intuitions motivating the creation (or discovery, if you will) of Boolean-valued models? I have searched for the Scott-Solovay paper on the subject, but to no avail. There also seems to ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

421 views

### sine and Archimedes' derivation of the area of the circle

The elementary "opposite over hypotenuse" definition of the sine function defines the sine of an angle, not a real number. As discussed in the article "A Circular Argument" [Fred Richman, The College ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

205 views

### Key variety technique, a history question

I have a history question about the technique called "key variety technique" used in algebraic geometry. (see eg http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.9.6880). One can find many ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

522 views

### Missing exposes in SGA 5, and the composition of the SGA's

Over the past couple of years I had to look in SGA for various results, and I can't but marvel at how poorly constructed it is. In SGA1 expose VII "n'existe pas", SGA 1 references higher SGA's, and so ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

95 views

### History of limit point compact -/-> compact example

A standard example in elementary topology (e.g. Munkres) of a space which is limit-point compact (every infinite subset of the space has a limit point) but not compact is the minimal uncountable ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

170 views

### Does anyone know what is the right reference for the following simple lemma from harmonic analysis?

The lemma says that given $\lambda\geq 1$, $p\geq 1$, $a_j\geq 0$, for a collection of balls $\{B_j\}_{j\in\mathbb{N}}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$, it holds
$$\|\sum_j a_j\chi_{\lambda B_j}\|_p\leq ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

134 views

### Reference for original paper (but translated to English) of Matiyasevich's proof of Fibonacci relation being Diophantine?

Hello. I am a maths undergraduate. I am doing a project about history of mathematics. I am looking for the original solution to Hilbert's 10th problem, or at least the theorems that is accessible to ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

332 views

### What is the oldest known evidence of application of mathematics?

According to Wikipedia the Lebombo bone (age 35 KY) and the Ishango bone (age at least 20 KY) presently are believed to show the first evidence for application of mathematics by humans. (Possibly ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

107 views

### First Description of how to Remove Radicals from Equations

Who first described the technique of removing radicals as indicated in the answers to questions Tools for Removing Radicals from Equations and Rewrite sum of radicals equation as polynomial equation ? ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

429 views

### Area Under Generalized Parabolas and Hyperbolas without Calculus.

This is shorter and more specific version of certain questions about a rather simple quadrature method. The answers I got were great but not what I asked. The terms in the title for $y=x^p$ look ...