**-2**

votes

**0**answers

83 views

### Examples of weird 'modular like mathematical space' that behaves like as if it is infinite until a threshold value is reached? [on hold]

(Might be a bit layman because I don't have rigorous math term to describe the concept) Generalize it to mathematical spaces, are there spaces which are sort of like
a. Consists of ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

997 views

### Categories of Geometry [closed]

I learn that Geometry has several categories/subfields from Wikipedia. But I am still not clear about the standards according to which they are classified.
It seems Euclidean Geometry, Affine ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

5k views

### How did Bernoulli prove L'Hôpital's rule?

To prove L'Hôpital's rule, the standard method is to use use Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem (and note that once you have Cauchy's MVT, you don't need an $\epsilon$-$\delta$ definition of limit to ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

195 views

### What do you call a fixed point theorem for a mapping from a subset of a space to the whole space?

There are a number of fixed point theorems in which we have a map from some subset of a (metric, topological, ...) space to the whole space. (Usually, there is some condition regarding the behavior ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

666 views

### Von Neumann's consistency proof

In the paper Zur Hilbertschen Beweistheorie, John Von Neumann has proposed a consistency proof for
a fragment of first-order arithmetic (the fragment without induction and with
the successor axioms ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

769 views

### What theorem of Liouville's is Gian-Carlo Rota referring to here?

I am very curious about this remark in Lesson Four of Rota's talk, Ten Lessons I Wish I Had Learned Before I Started Teaching Differential Equations:
"For second order linear differential ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

243 views

### When was Bounded Zermelo set theory first formulated?

Bounded Zermelo set theory, and many variants named for MacLane in some way, are used in equiconsistency proofs for Simple Theory of Types plus infinity, and for the Elementary Theory of the Category ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

908 views

### Does a proof of Selberg's 3.2 inequality exist?

A well-known inequality of Montgomery and Vaughan (generalizing a result of Hilbert) states that
$$ \left |\sum_{r \neq s} \frac{w_{r} \overline{w_{s}} }{\lambda_r - \lambda_s} \right| \leq \pi ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

305 views

### Oldest photographed mathematician [closed]

Who is the most ancient mathematician of which we have a photograph?
(or, in the same vein, what is the oldest photograph of a mathematician)
A quick search on MacTutor History of Mathematics gives ...

**14**

votes

**18**answers

17k views

### Good books on problem solving / math olympiad

Hello,
I would want all book tips you could think of regarding Problem solving and books in general, in elementary mathematics, with a certain flavour for "advanced problem solving". An example would ...

**43**

votes

**5**answers

7k views

### Is the boundary $\partial S$ analogous to a derivative?

Without prethought, I mentioned in class once that the reason the symbol $\partial$
is used to represent the boundary operator in topology is
that its behavior is akin to a derivative.
But after ...

**36**

votes

**31**answers

6k views

### Trichotomies in mathematics

Added. Thanks to all who participated! Let me humbly apologize to those who were annoyed (quite understandably) by this thread, deeming it nothing more than an exercise in futility. If you thought the ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

186 views

### When did “Betti cohomology” come to be used the way it is today? (and how is it used)

This is sort of a mixture of a math and history question.
First the math part: thinking about it, I do not actually know how to properly use the term "Betti cohomology". I know I should, but I ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Genealogy of the Lagrange inversion theorem

A wonderful piece of classic mathematics, well-known especially to combinatorialists and to complex analysis people, and that, in my opinion, deserves more popularity even in elementary mathematics, ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

250 views

### Riemann's formula for the metric in a normal neighborhood

I would love to understand the famous formula $g_{ij}(x) = \delta_{ij} + \frac{1}{3}R_{kijl}x^kx^l +O(||x||^3)$, which is valid in Riemannian normal coordinates and possibly more general situations.
...

**36**

votes

**8**answers

3k views

### What recent programmes to alter highly-entrenched mathematical terminology have succeeded, and under what conditions do they tend to succeed or fail?

I think we all occasionally come across terminology that we'd like to see supplanted (e.g. by something more systematic). What I'd like to know is, under what circumstances is it reasonable to believe ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

812 views

### Institutional response to “Esquisse d'un programme”

It is well-known that Grothendieck's "esquisse d'un programme" was submitted in 1984 as part as the author's application for a permanent position of "Directeur de Recherche" at the C.N.R.S. (the main ...

**19**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### When and why did the postdoctoral position originate? [closed]

Does anyone know when and how the system of post-doctoral studies after a Ph. D. originated? I've heard in a few places that there was a time when there was no such thing as a post-doc, and people ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

422 views

### Who first noticed that Stirling numbers of the second kind count partitions?

When the Stirling numbers of the second kind were introduced by James Stirling in 1730, it was not combinatorially; rather, the numbers ${n \brace k}$ were defined via the polynomial identity
$$
x^n = ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

240 views

### Disruptive innovations in mathematical notations [closed]

I am wondering whether there are examples of mathematical notations that, once introduced, have drastically changed or simplified the way to address a problem or a mathematical area, or that have ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

356 views

### How did the summation operation come into use? [closed]

So we've been using summations at least since the dawn of calculus. I'm wondering how the process of summing a function came to be known? Are there events that led to the invention of the summation ...

**18**

votes

**21**answers

3k views

### History Question: AUTObiography of Mathematicians

According to Wikipedia, an autobiography is an account of the life of a person, written by that person sometimes with a collaborator.
An autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

443 views

### Who first defined quantum integers?

Who first gave the defintion of quantum integers
$$ [m]_q = \frac{1 - q^m}{1 - q} $$ and addition as
$$ [m]_q \oplus_q [n]_q = [m]_q + q^m [n]_q $$ and multiplication as
$$ [m]_q \otimes_q [n]_q = ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

274 views

### A. Markov's papers?

A. Markov published several papers on his chains, starting in 1906, so it is written, in the journal:
(1) Извѣстія Физико-математического общества при Казанском университете
I am surprised by the ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

895 views

### History of the Sampling Theorem

In January, 1949, Shannon publishes the paper Communication in the Presence of Noise, Proc. IRE, Vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 10-21, available here, which establishes the Information Theory. In this paper, the ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

484 views

### What was Lambert's solution to $x^m+x=q$?

I've been thinking about Lambert's Trinomial Equation quite a bit, and I want to see his solution. The only solution I could find was in Euler's form, and I still don't quite understand how he got ...

**13**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### “Oldest” bug in computer algebra system?

The goal of this question is to find an error in a computation by a computer algebra system where the 'correct' answer (complete with correct reasoning to justify the answer) can be found in the ...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### What did Rolle prove when he proved Rolle's theorem?

Rolle published what we today call Rolle's theorem about 150 years before the arithmetization of the reals. Unfortunately this proof seems to have been buried in a long book [Rolle 1691] that I can't ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

307 views

### Who first used/gave a coordinate representation of a graph?

In his proof of the Shannon capacity of a graph, Lovasz utilizes a coordinate representation of the pentagon (namely an orthonormal representation). Who first utilized a coordinate representation for ...

**56**

votes

**21**answers

10k views

### Has philosophy ever clarified mathematics?

I've recently been reading some standard textbooks on the philosophy of mathematics, and I've become quite frustrated that (surely due to my own limitations) I don't seem to be gleaning any ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

288 views

### Characterizing triangles unembeddedly

The mathedu mailing list has a recent longish thread at
http://www.nabble.com/Why-do-we-do-proofs--to25809591.html
which discussed among other things whether we should teach triangles as labeled or ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

842 views

### Hausdorff and Naive Set Theory

Erhard Scholz, in his article "Felix Hausdorff and the Hausdorff edition" writes the following:
"Hausdorff considered the contemporary attempts to secure axiomatic foundations for set theory as ...

**60**

votes

**18**answers

7k views

### Can a mathematical definition be wrong?

This question originates from a bit of history. In the first paper on quantum Turing machines, the authors left a key uniformity condition out of their definition. Three mathematicians subsequently ...

**17**

votes

**8**answers

6k views

### Why have mathematicians used differential equations to model nature instead of difference equations

Ever since Newton invented Calculus, mathematicians have been using differential equations to model natural phenomena. And they have been very successful in doing such.
Yet, they could have been just ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

197 views

### Who first showed that $SL(n,O_K)$ is a lattice for a number ring $O_K$?

Let $O_K$ be the ring of integers in an algebraic number field $K$. Assume that $K$ has $r$ real embeddings and $s$ pairs of complex conjugate complex embeddings. There is then an injective ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

424 views

### Historical question re: ellipses obtained by certain geometrical constructions

I am a faculty member in the Forensic Science Program at PennState (UP). I am trying to obtain information of a historical nature concerning two closely related topics. I seek historical references ...

**13**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Grothendieck on Topological Vector Spaces

In a short biography article on Alexander Grothendieck, it is mentioned that after Grothendieck submitted his first thesis on Topological Vector Spaces (TVS), apparently, he told Bernard Malgrange ...

**53**

votes

**61**answers

8k views

### Old books still used

It's a commonplace to state that while other sciences (like biology) may always need the newest books, we mathematicians also use to use older books. While this is a qualitative remark, I would like ...

**33**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Did Leibniz really get the Leibniz rule wrong?

A couple of posts ([1], [2]) on matheducators.SE seem to suggest that Leibniz originally got the wrong form for the product rule, perhaps thinking that $(fg)'=f'g'$. Is there any actual historical ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

713 views

### Did differential geometry undergo a notation change?

As a graduate student, I found the old books of differential geometry used a different set of notation from modern textbooks. For example, Chern and Milnor defined the curvature 2-form by ...

**34**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Hilbert's Hotel

Hilbert's Hotel is a famous story about infinity attributed to David Hilbert (1862-1943).
Is it documented that Hilbert's Hotel is in fact due to Hilbert, and if yes, where?

**10**

votes

**1**answer

253 views

### History of powers beyond squares and cubes

The ancient Babylonians understood squares:
Plimpton 322
The ancient Athenians understood cubes, if we can take
doubling the cube, i.e., the Delian problem, as evidence.
My ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

63 views

### Continuous extension of Riemann maps and the Caratheodory-Torhorst Theorem

If $G\subsetneq\mathbb{C}$ is a simply-connected plane domain, then by the Riemann mapping theorem there is a conformal isomorphism $\newcommand{\D}{\mathbb{D}}\varphi:\D\to G$, where $\D$ is the unit ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

408 views

### Discrete Morse theory and chess

There are many mathematical objects that are similar to groups and Cayley graphs of groups but lack homogeneity in some sense. Graphs of webpages with edges corresponding to links are one example. ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

365 views

### How did height in algeb. number theory/elliptic curves started?

Maybe this is obvious but it isn't to me yet. What is the history of heights used in say points of the project plane over a number field or of elliptic curve over a number field? I would guess people ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

141 views

### Motivating mathematics(particularly algebraic number theory) through historical problems [closed]

Most mathematical textbooks start a subject by going backwards, historically. They will define the terms that were invented to solve a problem in their polished form and then use these definitions and ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

483 views

### History of the analytic class number formula

The (general) analytic class number formula gives a value for the residue of the Dedekind zeta function of a number field at the point $s=1$ (or, as I prefer, the leading Taylor coefficient at $s=0$). ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

348 views

### Different approaches to forcing

There are many different approaches to the forcing method, and I am looking for all known such approaches. So my question is:
Question 1. Which different approaches to set theoretic forcing are ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

316 views

### Meaning of historical fluxion notation

I've noticed that in 18th century English books on calculus writers would say that 'the fluxion of $ax$ is $a\dot{x}$' and 'the fluxion of $x^n$ is $n x^{n-1} \dot{x}$'. What does this extra ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Definitive source about Dirichlet finally proving the Unit Theorem in the Sistine Chapel

(This question was posted on math.stackexchange a week ago at http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/187315/definitive-source-about-dirichlet-finally-proving-the-unit-theorem-in-the-sistinbut and ...