# Tagged Questions

**21**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Was Vinogradov's 1937 proof of the three-prime theorem effective?

Was Vinogradov's first proof of the three-prime theorem effective?
Reasons for my question: Vinogradov presented his proof in 1937 in a monograph; the English translation by K.F. Roth and A. ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

759 views

### Who first defined _simply connected_, reference?

The following definition is due to Donald J. Newman:
A connected open subset $D$ of the plane $\mathbb C$
is simply connected
if and only if its complement $\widetilde D = \mathbb C \setminus D$
...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

347 views

### Historical quotation search: Equations/formulae in (Latin?) prose, before modern symbolic notation

I have been trying, without success, to find a vaguely-remembered quotation: the quadratic equation (or perhaps the quadratic formula), given in (Latin?) prose, along lines like “Consider that ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

456 views

### Origin of “Woodin cardinal”

Sorry if this is a completely stupid question (I'm a not a set-theorist, though I've been doing some reading in the subject), but I was wondering, specifically, about the exact provenance of the name. ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

570 views

### Felix Klein on infinitesimals

This is a reference request prompted by some intriguing comments made by Felix Klein.
In 1908, Felix Klein formulated a criterion of what it would take for a theory of infinitesimals to be ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

269 views

### Riemann's quote cited by Lakatos: what is the context?

"If only I had the theorems! Then I should find the proofs easily enough."
This quote is generally attributed to Bernhard Riemann. In particular,
on page 9 in Proofs and refutations by Imre ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

230 views

### From Frege to Gödel - German equivalent?

I know this question does not quite fit here, but I felt it could best be answered here. I recently stumbled upon the book From Frege to Gödel, which is a sourcebook containing some of the most ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Where are Georg Cantor's Original Manuscripts?

Georg Cantor is famous for introducing transfinite numbers and set theory.
A main part of his mathematical point of view about this new type of "numbers" and this new "realm of mathematics" cannot be ...

**51**

votes

**12**answers

5k views

### Mathematical research published in the form of poems

The article
Friedrich Wille: Galerkins Lösungsnäherungen bei monotonen Abbildungen,
Math. Z. 127 (1972), no. 1, 10-16
is written in the form of a lengthy poem, in a style similar to that
of the ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

157 views

### Reference Request: Topological h-cobordism theorem in higher dimensions

I think this question on math.stackexchange is more appropriate on mathoverflow. Correct me, if you don't think so.
The h-cobordism theorem is true in the topological and in the smooth category in ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

147 views

### Does anyone know what is the right reference for the following simple lemma from harmonic analysis?

The lemma says that given $\lambda\geq 1$, $p\geq 1$, $a_j\geq 0$, for a collection of balls $\{B_j\}_{j\in\mathbb{N}}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$, it holds
$$\|\sum_j a_j\chi_{\lambda B_j}\|_p\leq ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

266 views

### Who first used the cross-ratio to describe shapes in hyperbolic geometry?

I was reading this Wikipedia article today:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shape#Similarity_classes
and I realized that it strongly resembles the use of coss-ratios as "shape parameters" in hyperbolic ...

**23**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Are there some other notions of “curvature” which measure how space curves?

I am learning differential geometry and have a few questions on curvature. -- Background:
Gauss invented "Gauss curvature" to measure how surface curves.
Riemann gives an ingenious generalization ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

851 views

### Fourier transform of the unit sphere

The Fourier transform of the volume form of the (n-1)-sphere in $\mathbf R^n$ is given by the well-known formula
$$
\int_{S^{n-1}}e^{i\langle\mathbf a,\mathbf u\rangle}d\sigma(\mathbf u) = (2\pi)^{\nu ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### What is the source of this E̶r̶d̶ő̶s̶ quote?

Namely, the following one
"All problems appeared once in the [American Mathematical] Monthly."
I remember reading it several years ago... When I first posed the question, I believed that I had ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

286 views

### Who is Petrov of the Petrov-Galerkin method?

I was not able to find the origin of the name Petrov in the Petrov-Galerkin method for the numerical approximation of PDEs.
Wikipedia refers to a certain Alexander G. Petrov, but it is still not ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

165 views

### How to find old papers on Notices of AMS [duplicate]

I need some papers published on notices of AMS almost 40 years ago.
Does someone know if there is any online database that provide these papres? Thank you!

**8**

votes

**1**answer

391 views

### “'Category' was defined in order to define 'functor', which was defined in order to define 'natural transformation'”

I am looking for the source (and original version) of the above oft-repeated quotation. Mac Lane mentions it in Categories for the Working Mathematician, attributing it to Eilenberg-Mac Lane; however, ...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### The origins of forcing in mathematical logic and other branches of mathematics

As everyone knows, forcing was created by Cohen to answer questions in set theory.
Question 1. What are the first applications of set theoretic forcing in other branches of mathematical logic, like ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

787 views

### Arnold on Newton's anagram

Arnold, in his paper
The underestimated Poincaré, in Russian Math. Surveys 61 (2006), no. 1, 1–18
wrote the following:
``...Puiseux series, the theory which Newton, hundreds of years before ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

280 views

### Good Books on the history of Zero

I am looking for books that discuss the origins of the zero, specifically the differences in the use and concept of the zero number among different civilizations (considering also the Mesoamerican ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

523 views

### What are current trends/questions in algebraic logic?

What are current trends/questions in algebraic logic?I mean the research developed by Paul Halmos.
And anyone could give some reference for overview of it's history?
Also any overview of it's ...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

865 views

### When was the continuum hypothesis born?

The question Solutions to the Continuum Hypothesis states that the continuum hypothesis was posed by Cantor in 1890. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuum_hypothesis the year 1878 is quoted ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Who introduced the terms “equivalence relation” and “equivalence class”?

Consider that the question does not concern the origin of the ideas of equivalence relation and equivalence class. It exactly concerns the origin of the terms "equivalence relation" and "equivalence ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

826 views

### Where did Sophus Lie write the group commutator for two one parameter groups

If $X,Y$ are vector fields and $\def\Fl{\operatorname{Fl}}\Fl^X_t$ and $\Fl^Y_t$ their local flows, let $[\Fl^X_t,\Fl^Y_t]:= \Fl^Y_{-t}\Fl^X_{-t}\Fl^Y_t\Fl^X_t$ denote the group commutator of the ...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### What is the source of this famous Grothendieck quote?

I've seen the following quote many times on the internet, and have used it myself. It is usually attributed to Grothendieck.
It is better to have a good category with bad objects than a bad category ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

892 views

### The Erdős-Turán conjecture or the Erdős' conjecture?

This has been bothering me for a while, and I can't seem to find any definitive answer. The following conjecture is well known in additive combinatorics:
Conjecture: If $A\subset \mathbb{N}$ ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

389 views

### Reference/quote request: “All of combinatorics is the representation theory of $S_n$”

I think I remember reading somewhere a glib (or is it deep?) quote, perhaps due to Rota?, which was something like
"All of combinatorics is essentially [or can be reduced to?] the representation ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

198 views

### What is flexible about flexible algebras?

A possibly non-associative algebra is flexible if it satisfies the identity $$(xy)x=x(yx).$$ This is clearly a very weak form of associativity —and obviously an associative algebra is flexible— but it ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### Citation for subset complement result

Let $S=\lbrace s_1,\ldots,s_n \rbrace \subset \lbrace1,\ldots,2n\rbrace$. Consider two operations on $S$: the complement $C(S)=\lbrace 1,\ldots,2n \rbrace \setminus S$ and a reflection* ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

182 views

### Where was the arithmetic zeta function of a scheme first defined?

Let $X$ be an arithmetic scheme, that is, a scheme of finite type over the integers. We denote the set of closed points of $X$ by $|X|$. For every $x\in|X|$, write $N(x)$ for the cardinality of the ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Similarities between Post's Problem and Cohen's Forcing

Remark: I have since learned that G.H. Moore addresses this question in the third reference listed at the end of this post, beginning on p. 157 in which he cites a letter from Kreisel to Gödel dated ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

543 views

### Ancient method to study Archimedean spiral

It is well-known the properties of Archimedean spiral ($\rho = k\phi$) which is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over time of a point moving away from a fixed point with a constant ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

249 views

### Sophus Lie on the symplectic foliation theorem

Given a Poisson manifold $(P,\{\cdot,\cdot\})$, its characteristic distribution $\mathcal C$ is the singular tangent distribution on $M$ generated by the Hamiltonian vector fields,i.e.
$$\mathcal ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

326 views

### Where do the Kähler Identities first appear?

The Kähler identities (sometimes known as the Hodge identities) are an important collection of relationships between operators on the exterior algebra of a Kähler manifold. These relationships ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

763 views

### Deligne's letter to Looijenga from 1974

Hello,
I wonder if anyone has a copy of Deligne's letter to Looijenga from 1974 mentioned as reference [26] in Bessis' paper Finite complex reflection arrangements are $K(\pi,1)$ from 2006, see ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

421 views

### The Riemann zeros and the heat equation

The Riemann xi function $\Xi(x)$ is defined, with $s=1/2+ix$, as
$$
\Xi(x)=\frac12 s(s-1)\pi^{-s/2}\Gamma(s/2)\zeta(s)=2\int_0^\infty \Phi(u)\cos(ux) \, du,
$$
where $\Phi(u)$ is defined as
$$
...

**11**

votes

**7**answers

1k views

### What are some Applications of Teichmüller Theory?

I'm trying to collect some specific examples of applications of Teichmüller Theory. Here are some things I have collected thus far:
No-wandering-domain Theorem (Sullivan)
Theorems of Thurston ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

339 views

### Who was Hermann Künneth?

Question as in the title:
Who was Hermann Künneth? Where can I find some biographical information beyond what is available on Wikipedia?
The well-known Künneth formula, for example in the form of ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

229 views

### A Question Regarding Boolean-valued Models

What were the intuitions motivating the creation (or discovery, if you will) of Boolean-valued models? I have searched for the Scott-Solovay paper on the subject, but to no avail. There also seems to ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

413 views

### Origin of the theorem on the existence of the smallest field of definition of an affine variety

Weil proved the following theorem in his book Foundations of Algebraic Geometry, p.19.
The proof is somewhat involved.
I wonder if the theorem is his original.
Theorem
Let $K[X_1,\dots, X_n]$ be the ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

951 views

### On a theorem of Galois

I am currently teaching Galois theory and this week, I mentioned the following theorem of Galois :
Let $P(x) \in \mathbf{Q}[x]$ be an irreducible polynomial of prime degree. Then $P$ is solvable by ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

455 views

### Smallest dimension of nontrivial representation of a simple Lie algebra over `$\mathbb{C}$`

The question involved here is natural and very classical, but I'm unsure what has been formally stated and proved in the literature. The only approach I know involves assembling facts that apparently ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

366 views

### Numerical Methods for ODEs - History

Wikipedia presents a timeline of important developments in Numerical Methods for ODEs, namely:
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

132 views

### Fourier-Möller transform

In the book by Antosik, Mikusiński and Sikorski named Theory of Distributions, The Sequential Approach (russian translation, page 217) one can read:
Таким образом, мы видим, что для произвольного ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

878 views

### History of the Fourier transform

Does anyone know a good book or article on the History of the Fourier transform? It's first appearance (of the transform) and use in particular? Or at least some source with some historical ...

**16**

votes

**19**answers

2k views

### History Question: AUTObiography of Mathematicians

According to Wikipedia, an autobiography is an account of the life of a person, written by that person sometimes with a collaborator.
An autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

190 views

### History of provably total functions of a theory

Provably total functions of an arithmetical theory is one of the tools used in proof theoretic analysis of theories.
I am looking for early history of its development. In particular,
Where was ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

836 views

### Raoul Bott's quote on Morse Theory cited by Bestvina and Kahle: where is it from?

I wanted to properly cite the following awesome quote:
Every mathematician has a secret weapon. Mine is Morse theory. - Raoul Bott
Now this has been attributed to Bott in precisely two places ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Why is this theorem attributed to Serre?

Page $117$ of Atiyah, MacDonald's Introduction to Commutative Algebra text has the following theorem. Let $P(M,t)$ denote the Poincare- series of $M$.
$\textbf{Theorem.}$ ...