# Tagged Questions

**2**

votes

**1**answer

124 views

### Cambridge Mathematical Tripos papers from late 19th century

Are the scanned images of Cambridge Mathematical Tripos papers from late 19th century available anywhere on Internet?

**4**

votes

**2**answers

649 views

### Unreasonable application of mathematics to the other areas [on hold]

What are some papers or talks on the philosophy of mathematics which contains some statements about the unnecessary and unreasonable application of mathematics in other areas of science?
I found ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

307 views

### Trinity College, Cambridge, circa 1896 maths scholarship papers [on hold]

I've been searching around looking for the (maths component) of the scholarship papers to Trinity College (Cambridge) from around 1890. Can anyone provide a link to a pdf scan of these papers?
Was ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### A certain mathematical competition in the UK

There is a foreword, written by professor Snow, to the book A mathematician's apology.
In the foreword, it is written some thing like the following:
"Hardy was opposed to a certain mathematical ...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

85 views

### What are some of the most complete genealogies of mathematical subject areas? [closed]

Cross-posted from HSM:
I am interested in the way scientific and mathematical subject areas developed (and are still developing). One of the great visual tools that can help us gain insight in how ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

170 views

### Origin of the name ''momentum map''

Why is the momentum map in the differential geometry of symmetries called the ''momentum'' (or ''moment'') map?

**7**

votes

**1**answer

368 views

### What was Gödel's Constitutional Problem? [closed]

It is well known that Kurt Gödel had doubts concerning the US constitution and believed that it somehow was inconsistent and opened up for a dictatorial grab.
What was he thinking?

**30**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Did Euler prove theorems by example?

In his 2014 book, Giovanni Ferraro writes at beginning of chapter 1, section 1 on page 7:
Capitolo I
Esempi e metodi dimostrativi
Introduzione
In The Calculus as Algebraic ...

**18**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Mathematics contests before 1800

Aside from well known examples of mathematics contests in 1535 and 1548, what are some other examples before 1800?
Background: In The History of Mathematics: an Introduction, 3rd edition (1995), ...

**5**

votes

**5**answers

546 views

### Important results with one or more than one proof [closed]

Can you give examples of deep, important results that have only one known proof, and not just because the first proof is fairly recent, or because not many people really cared to think about it? How ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

186 views

### Does the collection of algebraic/number-theoretic methods applied to Euclidean Geometry have a name?

I am currently writing an essay on the history of geometry. To educate myself on the subject, I sometimes read the following Wikipedia article on the history of Euclidean Geometry. It seems to me that,...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

156 views

+50

### Jets of sections of vector bundles expressed by symmetrized iterated covariant derivatives - who did it first?

The (non-unique) bundle isomorphism between the bundle $J^r E$ of $r$-th order jets of sections of a vector bundle $\pi:E\rightarrow M$ and the direct sum $$\bigoplus^r_{k=0}\vee^kT^*M\otimes E\...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

228 views

### Historical reference request on Nilpotent groups

From Wikipedia:
"Abelian groups were named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel by Camille Jordan because Abel found that the commutativity of the group of a polynomial implies that the ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Has Dedekind's proof of existence of infinite sets been analyzed by historians?

This pdf by David Joyce notes that in paragraph 66 of his famous essay, Dedekind claims to prove the existence of an infinite set.
The proof exploits the assumption that there exists a set $S$ of all ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

62 views

### Reference request: Uniformly totally bounded classes of compact metric spaces are Gromov-Hausdorff precompact

The following Theorem can be found for instance here (Theorem 7.4.15):
Theorem. (author ?) Any uniformly totally bounded class $\mathfrak X$ of compact metric spaces is pre-compact in the Gromov-...

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vote

**0**answers

56 views

### History of Cauchy-Euler Equations

As I teach a class in ODE, and following this post and Rota's paper, I wandered what is the history of the research of -
$\sum\limits_{k=0}^n a_k x^k y^{(k)}(x) = g(x),\quad \forall k=0,\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

221 views

### Have there been any claims of mathematical breakthroughs while in altered states of consciousness?

This certainly is a related question:
Have you solved problems in your sleep?
Has anyone seriously attempted to make a similar claim for other altered states, besides dreaming?
I know the claim has ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

369 views

### What are the sense and reference of the propositions $R \notin R$, $R \in R$, where $R=\{x \mid x \notin x\}$ in Frege's Grundgesetze?

In the paper,
Aldo Antonelli and Robert May, Frege's new science, Notre Dame J. Form. Log. 41 (2000), no. 3, 242–-270, MR 1943495.
the authors give the following quote of Frege, from his paper "&...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

201 views

### Pasch axiom and Pythagorean field condition?

I am looking for a reference for the claim that the Pasch axiom is equivalent to the Pythagorean field condition, and with respect to what base theory this should be true.
Since posting the question, ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

102 views

### Historical perspectives on CAT(0) spaces

Does there exist a survey on the early developments of CAT(k) spaces, with the first motivations and the first problems considered? I looked at Bridson and Haefliger's book On metric spaces of non-...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### Early examples of problems that are easier in high dimension

In many areas of mathematics, there are problems that admit a natural formulation in any dimension. It often happens that such a problem is easier to solve in dimension $n>k$ as compared to ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

317 views

### Why do we study symplectic geometry? [closed]

What is the motivation behind studying smooth manifolds with a non-degenerate closed two-form?
The subject certainly originated from physics, but is there a deeper reason for why it is still an ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

187 views

### Fréchet L-Spaces

According to the paper The emergence of open sets, closed sets, and limit points
in analysis and topology famous mathematician Maurice Fréchet who introduced the concept of metric spaces has also ...

**23**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Nelson's proof of Liouville's theorem

The paper "A proof of Liouville's theorem" by E. Nelson, published in 1961 in Proceedings of AMS, contains just one paragraph, giving a (now) standard proof that every bounded harmonic function in $\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

427 views

### origin of analogy “primes as the atoms of number theory/ arithmetic”

a math student recently challenged me on the old comparison/ analogy of prime numbers to "the atoms of number theory or arithmetic" and then was wondering the origin of the phrase.
where does this ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

280 views

### The Zeta Function Before Riemann [duplicate]

Leonhard Euler studied the function that is now known as the Riemann zeta function. I have not found the notation $\zeta$ in any of the works of any mathematicians prior to Bernhard Riemann's paper On ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

214 views

### Have some works by Émile Borel ever been translated from French to English or another foreign language?

I plan to submit a couple of questions around Émile Borel's works in probability theory to MO.
In this scope, I'd like to know if the following works have ever been translated from French to English ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

765 views

### Gauss proof of fundamental theorem of algebra

My question concerns the argument given by Gauss in his "geometric proof" of the fundamental theorem of Algebra. At one point he says (I am reformulating) :
A branch (a component) of any algebraic ...

**-4**

votes

**1**answer

282 views

### Proof of formula for $\pi$ [closed]

The number $\pi$ can be expressed as $\pi=\lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{n\sqrt[n]{-1}-n}{\sqrt{-1}}$ or more poetically $\pi=\frac{\infty\sqrt[\infty]{-1}-\infty}{\sqrt{-1}}$. Here we choose the principal ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

655 views

### Reference for Connes Bourbaki membership or otherwise

Alain Connes being a leading French mathematician today one could ask whether he is a member of the Bourbaki group. Is there a published reference that would either refute or confirm this?

**10**

votes

**1**answer

383 views

### What was a cusp to Hurwitz in 1892?

Let $d\in\mathbb{N}$
be squarefree.
Let $\mathcal{O}_d$
be the ring of integers of $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-d})$.
Let $\Gamma_d=\mathrm{PSL}_2(\mathcal{O}_d)$.
Let $\mathcal{H}^3$
be the upper half-space ...

**2**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Looking for a source for Intended Interpretation

Hao Wang writes: "The originally intended, or standard, interpretation takes the ordinary nonnegative integers $\{0, 1, 2, \ldots \}$ as the domain, the symbols $0$ and $1$ as denoting zero and one, ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

544 views

### Have Grothendieck's notes in Montpellier already been investigated?

Grothendieck, who passed away on November 13, 2014, left a huge amount (around 20.000 sheets) of personal notes in the University of Montpellier that he thought he was the only one to be able to ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### What did Euler do with multiple zeta values?

When reading about multiple zeta values, I often find the claim that the case of length two
$$
\zeta(s_1, s_2)=\sum_{n>m \geq 1} \frac{1}{n^{s_1}m^{s_2}}, \qquad s_1 \geq 2, \quad s_2 \geq 1
$$
...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

949 views

### Wanted, dead or alive: Have you seen this curve? (circular variant of cardioid)

Let me start with the context. This is definitely not a "research level" question, but I'm hoping that the research community will be able to settle for me whether or not a particular construction ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

388 views

### History of the functor of points

Until now, I thought the functor of points approach was introduced by Grothendieck at the 1973 Buffalo seminar.
However, in this note by Lawvere the author writes:
"I myself had learned the ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

200 views

### Backgrounds of the p-Laplacian Operator

Motivation
I encountered the following partial differential equation (PDE) in a mathematical paper
$$\begin{array}{}
u_{tt}+\Delta^2u-\nabla\cdot\left(|\nabla u|^{p-2}\nabla u\right)-\Delta u_{t}+\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

374 views

### Who is the original author of this simple paradoxical decomposition?

Paradoxical decompositions of sets usually require the axiom of choice; Hausdorff or Banach-Tarski are well-known examples. A paradoxical decomposition of a point set without the axiom of choice has ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

471 views

### The $\zeta-$word [closed]

I was wondering about classical notations in number theory. I will not ask here about special functions in general but about the more ubiquitous number theory functions. That which made me wonder ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

556 views

### Who was the first to discover that the curvature of an embedded surface is the product of the principal curvatures?

The invention of intrinsic differential geometry is usually attributed to Gauss in the context of his theorema egregium but the notion of the curvature of an embedded surface existed before. Who was ...

**-4**

votes

**1**answer

181 views

### When do Theorems (or Algorithms or Methods) Become Celebrated? [closed]

I recently noticed that certain theorems (e.g. Tutte's 1-factor theorem or, Edmond's Blossom algorithm) are attributed celebrated.
A quick search on the internet yields further examples:
Carleson'...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

398 views

### What are “Artin fractions”?

The German Wikipedia entry for Ernst Witt https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Witt has a photo of his grave in Hamburg. The bottom part has a visible text "Artin Brueche" (Artin fractions) but the ...

**39**

votes

**14**answers

6k views

### Do mathematical objects disappear?

I am asking this question starting from two orders of considerations.
Firstly, we can witness, considering the historical development of several sciences, that certain physical entities "disappeared"...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### Historical refererences for Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity

Does anyone know a good reference to understand the historical background of Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity?
I know the backgound for the modern commutative-algebra approach (using free graded ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

165 views

### Why the Castelnuovo exact sequence is named after Castelnuovo

I have seen variations of the following exact sequence referred throughout the literature as the Castelnuovo sequence:
$$0\longrightarrow \mathscr I_{X:H}(-d)\longrightarrow \mathscr I_X\...

**24**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### History of Mathematical Notation

I would like to see a simple example which shows how mathematical notation were evolve in time and space.
Say, consider the formula
$$(x+2)^2=x^2+4{\cdot}x+4.$$
If I understand correctly, Franciscus ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

816 views

### Where did the term “additive energy” originate?

A fundamental object in modern additive combinatorics and harmonic analysis is additive energy. Given a subset $A$ of (say) an abelian group $G$ the additive energy of $A$ is defined to be the ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

280 views

### Congruent numbers and elliptic curves

Who first explicitly stated the link between $N$ being a congruent number and the existence of rational points of infinite order on $y^2=x(x^2-N^2)$?

**4**

votes

**1**answer

202 views

### Motivation for cyclotomic units

I am wondering the original motivation for considering cyclotomic units. Maybe one can rephrase the question as:
Why did people initially consider such units in $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_p)$ specially?
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

210 views

### How to divide a square into three similar rectangles

Preparing some exercises for my High School pupils I came across this question: How can you tile a square into three similar (ie., same shape, different size) rectangles?
With a bit of algebra it can ...