**1**

vote

**0**answers

52 views

### History of Cauchy-Euler Equations

As I teach a class in ODE, and following this post and Rota's paper, I wandered what is the history of the research of -
$\sum\limits_{k=0}^n a_k x^k y^{(k)}(x) = g(x),\quad \forall ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

207 views

### Have there been any claims of mathematical breakthroughs while in altered states of consciousness?

This certainly is a related question:
Have you solved problems in your sleep?
Has anyone seriously attempted to make a similar claim for other altered states, besides dreaming?
I know the claim has ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

347 views

### What are the sense and reference of the propositions $R \notin R$, $R \in R$, where $R=\{x \mid x \notin x\}$ in Frege's Grundgesetze?

In the paper,
Aldo Antonelli and Robert May, Frege's new science, Notre Dame J. Form. Log. 41 (2000), no. 3, 242–-270, MR 1943495.
the authors give the following quote of Frege, from his paper ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

199 views

### Pasch axiom and Pythagorean field condition?

I am looking for a reference for the claim that the Pasch axiom is equivalent to the Pythagorean field condition, and with respect to what base theory this should be true.
Since posting the question, ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

93 views

### Historical perspectives on CAT(0) spaces

Does there exist a survey on the early developments of CAT(k) spaces, with the first motivations and the first problems considered? I looked at Bridson and Haefliger's book On metric spaces of ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

181 views

### Early examples of problems that are easier in high dimension

In many areas of mathematics, there are problems that admit a natural formulation in any dimension. It often happens that such a problem is easier to solve in dimension $n>k$ as compared to ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

300 views

### Why do we study symplectic geometry? [closed]

What is the motivation behind studying smooth manifolds with a non-degenerate closed two-form?
The subject certainly originated from physics, but is there a deeper reason for why it is still an ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

180 views

### Fréchet L-Spaces

According to the paper The emergence of open sets, closed sets, and limit points
in analysis and topology famous mathematician Maurice Fréchet who introduced the concept of metric spaces has also ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Nelson's proof of Liouville's theorem

The paper "A proof of Liouville's theorem" by E. Nelson, published in 1961 in Proceedings of AMS, contains just one paragraph, giving a (now) standard proof that every bounded harmonic function in ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

421 views

### origin of analogy “primes as the atoms of number theory/ arithmetic”

a math student recently challenged me on the old comparison/ analogy of prime numbers to "the atoms of number theory or arithmetic" and then was wondering the origin of the phrase.
where does this ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

275 views

### The Zeta Function Before Riemann [duplicate]

Leonhard Euler studied the function that is now known as the Riemann zeta function. I have not found the notation $\zeta$ in any of the works of any mathematicians prior to Bernhard Riemann's paper On ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

203 views

### Have some works by Émile Borel ever been translated from French to English or another foreign language?

I plan to submit a couple of questions around Émile Borel's works in probability theory to MO.
In this scope, I'd like to know if the following works have ever been translated from French to English ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

742 views

### Gauss proof of fundamental theorem of algebra

My question concerns the argument given by Gauss in his "geometric proof" of the fundamental theorem of Algebra. At one point he says (I am reformulating) :
A branch (a component) of any algebraic ...

**-4**

votes

**1**answer

277 views

### Proof of formula for $\pi$ [closed]

The number $\pi$ can be expressed as $\pi=\lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{n\sqrt[n]{-1}-n}{\sqrt{-1}}$ or more poetically $\pi=\frac{\infty\sqrt[\infty]{-1}-\infty}{\sqrt{-1}}$. Here we choose the principal ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

652 views

### Reference for Connes Bourbaki membership or otherwise

Alain Connes being a leading French mathematician today one could ask whether he is a member of the Bourbaki group. Is there a published reference that would either refute or confirm this?

**10**

votes

**1**answer

381 views

### What was a cusp to Hurwitz in 1892?

Let $d\in\mathbb{N}$
be squarefree.
Let $\mathcal{O}_d$
be the ring of integers of $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-d})$.
Let $\Gamma_d=\mathrm{PSL}_2(\mathcal{O}_d)$.
Let $\mathcal{H}^3$
be the upper half-space ...

**2**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Looking for a source for Intended Interpretation

Hao Wang writes: "The originally intended, or standard, interpretation takes the ordinary nonnegative integers $\{0, 1, 2, \ldots \}$ as the domain, the symbols $0$ and $1$ as denoting zero and one, ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

535 views

### Have Grothendieck's notes in Montpellier already been investigated?

Grothendieck, who passed away on November 13, 2014, left a huge amount (around 20.000 sheets) of personal notes in the University of Montpellier that he thought he was the only one to be able to ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### What did Euler do with multiple zeta values?

When reading about multiple zeta values, I often find the claim that the case of length two
$$
\zeta(s_1, s_2)=\sum_{n>m \geq 1} \frac{1}{n^{s_1}m^{s_2}}, \qquad s_1 \geq 2, \quad s_2 \geq 1
$$
...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

943 views

### Wanted, dead or alive: Have you seen this curve? (circular variant of cardioid)

Let me start with the context. This is definitely not a "research level" question, but I'm hoping that the research community will be able to settle for me whether or not a particular construction ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

377 views

### History of the functor of points

Until now, I thought the functor of points approach was introduced by Grothendieck at the 1973 Buffalo seminar.
However, in this note by Lawvere the author writes:
"I myself had learned the ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

189 views

### Backgrounds of the p-Laplacian Operator

Motivation
I encountered the following partial differential equation (PDE) in a mathematical paper
$$\begin{array}{}
u_{tt}+\Delta^2u-\nabla\cdot\left(|\nabla u|^{p-2}\nabla u\right)-\Delta ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

372 views

### Who is the original author of this simple paradoxical decomposition?

Paradoxical decompositions of sets usually require the axiom of choice; Hausdorff or Banach-Tarski are well-known examples. A paradoxical decomposition of a point set without the axiom of choice has ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

470 views

### The $\zeta-$word [closed]

I was wondering about classical notations in number theory. I will not ask here about special functions in general but about the more ubiquitous number theory functions. That which made me wonder ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

551 views

### Who was the first to discover that the curvature of an embedded surface is the product of the principal curvatures?

The invention of intrinsic differential geometry is usually attributed to Gauss in the context of his theorema egregium but the notion of the curvature of an embedded surface existed before. Who was ...

**-4**

votes

**1**answer

173 views

### When do Theorems (or Algorithms or Methods) Become Celebrated? [closed]

I recently noticed that certain theorems (e.g. Tutte's 1-factor theorem or, Edmond's Blossom algorithm) are attributed celebrated.
A quick search on the internet yields further examples:
...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

397 views

### What are “Artin fractions”?

The German Wikipedia entry for Ernst Witt https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Witt has a photo of his grave in Hamburg. The bottom part has a visible text "Artin Brueche" (Artin fractions) but the ...

**39**

votes

**14**answers

5k views

### Do mathematical objects disappear?

I am asking this question starting from two orders of considerations.
Firstly, we can witness, considering the historical development of several sciences, that certain physical entities ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### Historical refererences for Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity

Does anyone know a good reference to understand the historical background of Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity?
I know the backgound for the modern commutative-algebra approach (using free graded ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

164 views

### Why the Castelnuovo exact sequence is named after Castelnuovo

I have seen variations of the following exact sequence referred throughout the literature as the Castelnuovo sequence:
$$0\longrightarrow \mathscr I_{X:H}(-d)\longrightarrow \mathscr ...

**24**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### History of Mathematical Notation

I would like to see a simple example which shows how mathematical notation were evolve in time and space.
Say, consider the formula
$$(x+2)^2=x^2+4{\cdot}x+4.$$
If I understand correctly, Franciscus ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

804 views

### Where did the term “additive energy” originate?

A fundamental object in modern additive combinatorics and harmonic analysis is additive energy. Given a subset $A$ of (say) an abelian group $G$ the additive energy of $A$ is defined to be the ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

274 views

### Congruent numbers and elliptic curves

Who first explicitly stated the link between $N$ being a congruent number and the existence of rational points of infinite order on $y^2=x(x^2-N^2)$?

**4**

votes

**1**answer

200 views

### Motivation for cyclotomic units

I am wondering the original motivation for considering cyclotomic units. Maybe one can rephrase the question as:
Why did people initially consider such units in $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_p)$ specially?
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

199 views

### How to divide a square into three similar rectangles

Preparing some exercises for my High School pupils I came across this question: How can you tile a square into three similar (ie., same shape, different size) rectangles?
With a bit of algebra it can ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

393 views

### Examples of abstractions that did *not* turn out to be useful [closed]

I’ve read (but cannot find any reference now) that new abstract mathematical concepts like set theory and – not too long ago – category theory were in their time often considered too abstract to be ...

**70**

votes

**30**answers

11k views

### What are some very important papers published in non-top journals?

There has already been a question about important papers that were initially rejected. Many of the answers were very interesting. The question is here.
My concern in this question is slightly ...

**53**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### What was Hilbert's view of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems?

According to Solomon Feferman, in his slide presentation "Three Problems for Mathematics", Hilbert wrote (in regards to Gödel's second incompleteness theorem):
...the end goal [is] to establish as ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

456 views

### Two Vinogradovs? Is one the son of the other? [closed]

Forgive me for my ignorance, but I'm very surprised to learn that there are two Vinogradovs, both famous in the field of analytic number theory. Guessing from their names and the Russian naming ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

441 views

### Hahn-Banach theorem with convex majorant

At least 99% of books on functional analysis state and prove the Hahn-Banach theorem in the following form: Let $p:X\to \mathbb R$ be sublinear on a real vector space, $L$ a subspace of $X$, and ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

585 views

### First formulation of the Dedekind and Hasse-Weil conjectures

I'm looking for the original statement of two important conjectures in number theory concerning L-functions. I'm particularly interested in pinning down the year in which they were first formulated:
...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Hilbert's (cancelled) 24th problem

Hilbert's 23 problems, ten of which were presented at the 1900 ICM in Paris, are too famous for any mathematician to not know. If one reads the descriptions of the problems in Hilbert's paper, one ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

116 views

### When did mathematicians begin to use the letter x to denote unknown values? [duplicate]

When did mathematicians begin to use the letter x to denote unknown values ?
Gérard Lang

**22**

votes

**1**answer

789 views

### How and why did mathematicians develop spin-manifolds in differential geometry?

First of all, I am neither a physicist nor a mathematician. And I am afraid that mathoverflow is not a suitable place for my question, but having asked similar questions on math SE it is obvious that ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

321 views

### 'Updated' book in the same spirit as Dieudonné's Panorama des mathématiques pures

Today a colleague of mine asked me if I knew of any "more modern version" of J. Dieudonné's Panorama des mathématiques pures. Le choix bourbachique.
The very first thing that instantly came to my ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

180 views

### History of spectral methods to the study of real analytic $GL_2$-Eisenstein series

I'm trying to sort out the history of spectral methods in the study of real analytic $GL_2$-Eisenstein series. From what I read so far, I would say that the subject was really kicked off by the ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

561 views

### History of set-class distinction

I have two questions concerning the history of set theory, both related to the distinction between the notion of a set and the notion of a class:
Who was the first mathematician to make this ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

241 views

### Why do some people adamantly insist on 'toposes' instead of 'topoi'? [closed]

I've heard that several category and topos theorists, first and foremost Johnstone (see the comments to this question) adamantly insist on 'toposes' as the plural of 'topos'. I was wondering whether ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

744 views

### Windows into new mathematical worlds [closed]

Yitang Zhang's Annals of Mathematics primes-gap result
opened a new window, which
Polymath's reduction from $70\times 10^6$ to $246$ attests.
Perhaps
Harald Helfgott's
celebrated proof of the odd ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

804 views

### Can I find Fermat's complete works anywhere?

I admire the mathematician very much and want to look at his writings. Is there anywhere in book or web form that has a collection of his writings?