**2**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### What is the early history of the concepts of probabilistic independence and conditional probability/expectation?

In the 1738 second edition of The Doctrine of Chances, de Moivre writes,
Two Events are independent, when they have no connexion one with the other, and that the happening of one neither forwards ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

440 views

### $\aleph$ looks like $\mathbb N$?

We all know the notation $\aleph_\lambda$ for the $\lambda$th (or, I guess, $\lambda+1$st) infinite cardinal number; in particular $\aleph_0$ is the cardinality of the the set of natural numbers ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

388 views

### Is it possible to give a fair assessment of the influence of Bourbaki's “Eléments de mathématique”? [closed]

Well, I apologize if this "soft-question" (related to the "Arnold-Serre" debate) is considered as irrelevant for MO, and for possible misunderstandings in the two earlier versions of this post (which ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

147 views

### First Parameterized Subset of Primes that was Related to a Mathematical Result

To my knowledge, Fermat primes, i.e. primes of the form $2^{2^n}+1$ were the first to play a role in a mathematical result, namely in the characterization of constructible regular n-gons. Gauss ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Was Vinogradov's 1937 proof of the three-prime theorem effective?

Was Vinogradov's first proof of the three-prime theorem effective?
Reasons for my question: Vinogradov presented his proof in 1937 in a monograph; the English translation by K.F. Roth and A. ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

245 views

### Who first resolved Hilbert's 20th problem?

Hilbert's 20th problem concerns the existence of solutions to the fundamental problem in the calculus of variations. I understand that Hilbert, Lesbesgue and Tonelli were pioneers in this area.
In ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

637 views

### Ramanujan's tau function

Why was Ramanujan interested in the his tau function before the advent of modular forms? The machinery of modular forms used by Mordel to solve the multiplicative property seems out of context until I ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

746 views

### Who first defined _simply connected_, reference?

The following definition is due to Donald J. Newman:
A connected open subset $D$ of the plane $\mathbb C$
is simply connected
if and only if its complement $\widetilde D = \mathbb C \setminus D$
...

**58**

votes

**9**answers

6k views

### Analogues of P vs. NP in the history of mathematics

Recently I wrote a blog post entitled "The Scientific Case for P≠NP". The argument I tried to articulate there is that there seems to be an "invisible electric fence" separating the problems in P ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

625 views

### Source for Derogatory Quote About Graph Theory

(Edited in accordance with suggestions in comments.)
I remember once I read a quote that sounded like "graph theory is the scum of topology" (please approximate). I can not find it on the web, and I ...

**0**

votes

**3**answers

525 views

### Definition of Prime Numbers [duplicate]

The first time I heard of prime numbers, they were defined as natural numbers $n$ that can only be divided by 1 and themselves without remainder; later, when prime factorization was introduced, I ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

5k views

### Who made the famous error in calculation that 'wasted' the final years of his life?

Sorry, I am merely a Middle School maths teacher at an Australian secondary school. I remember reading years ago about a famous mathematician (18th or 19th Century?) who calculated table upon table of ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

347 views

### Historical quotation search: Equations/formulae in (Latin?) prose, before modern symbolic notation

I have been trying, without success, to find a vaguely-remembered quotation: the quadratic equation (or perhaps the quadratic formula), given in (Latin?) prose, along lines like “Consider that ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

487 views

### Why are they called Specht Modules?

I know that the simple modules of $\mathbb{C}S_n$ are called $\it{Specht}$ $ \it{Modules}$, and they are named after the German Mathematician Wilhelm Specht
because he studied them, but I think these ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

456 views

### Origin of “Woodin cardinal”

Sorry if this is a completely stupid question (I'm a not a set-theorist, though I've been doing some reading in the subject), but I was wondering, specifically, about the exact provenance of the name. ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

567 views

### Felix Klein on infinitesimals

This is a reference request prompted by some intriguing comments made by Felix Klein.
In 1908, Felix Klein formulated a criterion of what it would take for a theory of infinitesimals to be ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

264 views

### Riemann's quote cited by Lakatos: what is the context?

"If only I had the theorems! Then I should find the proofs easily enough."
This quote is generally attributed to Bernhard Riemann. In particular,
on page 9 in Proofs and refutations by Imre ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

309 views

### How come Cartan did not notice the close relationship between symmetric spaces and isoparametric hypersurfaces?

Elie Cartan made fundamental contributions to the theory of Lie groups and their geometrical applications. Among those, we can list the introduction of the remarkable family of Riemannian symmetric ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

263 views

### Is there a source linking Robinson's work in wing theory with his theory of infinitesimals?

Abraham Robinson worked in applied mathematics for several decades. MathSciNet lists 12 articles by Robinson in wing theory. His production included the book
Robinson, A.; Laurmann, J. A. Wing ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### Did the notion of “angle” originate with Thales?

Thales (circa 600BC—roughly 50 years before Pythagoras, 200 years before Plato,
and 300 years before Euclid)
certainly knew and reasoned with the concept of a planar angle.
Are there earlier ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

215 views

### Who stated and proved the “Hopf lemma” on bilinear maps?

If $A\otimes B\rightarrow C$ is a nondegenerate linear map, where $A, B, C$ are vector spaces over an algebraically closed field, then $\dim C\ge \dim A + \dim B -1$.
Nondegenerate here means ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

960 views

### Original manuscript of Archimedes' cattle problem

Wikipedia states that
[Archimedes' cattle problem] was discovered by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in a Greek manuscript containing a poem of forty-four lines, in the Herzog August Library in ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

237 views

### What are the Reasons for the Ambiguous Meaning of “Distribution” in Mathematics

The term "distribution" is commonly associated with statistics and, less commonly known, to generalized functions.
Questions:
what is known about the origin of the term in the two fields?
are the ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

293 views

### Why does the gamma function use the symbol $\Gamma(\,)$?

I am aware of some of the history of the gamma function $\Gamma(z)$, partly through
a 2009(!) MO question "Who invented the gamma function?"—Euler, Bernoulli, etc.
My question does not seem to ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

230 views

### From Frege to Gödel - German equivalent?

I know this question does not quite fit here, but I felt it could best be answered here. I recently stumbled upon the book From Frege to Gödel, which is a sourcebook containing some of the most ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

666 views

### history of quaternion algebras

Who is responsible for the generalization of Hamilton's quaternions to other types of quaternion algebras, and when did this occur? In particular, Hamilton's quaternions are the 4-dimensional algebra ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

466 views

### history of calculus of several variables

Everybody knows that Leibniz and Newton (or Newton and Leibniz, if you wish) invented calculus, i.e. they developed the notion of differentiability for a function of one real variable. But who had for ...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Why aren't fields called “bodies” instead?

The discrepancy regarding the names of commutative division algebras in German and English has always startled me. In English they are called fields, whereas their original German name is Körper ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

740 views

### What properties of knots lead Lord Kelvin to hypothesize that atoms were knots in the ether?

I've often heard that Lord Kelvin was one of the first people to study knot theory, as he hypothesized that atoms were knots in the ether. I assume that he had some compelling evidence for this fact.
...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

275 views

### Origin of the name “Torelli group”

The genus $g$ Torelli group $I_g$ is the kernel of the action of the mapping class group of a genus $g$ surface on the first homology group of the surface.
The first paper I am aware of that uses the ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

457 views

### How was Christoffel a 'whimsical eccentric'?

I've seen several citations of a letter from Weierstrass, talking about his dispute with Kronecker, in which he refers to Christoffel as a 'whimsical eccentric' (presumably the German original is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

360 views

### Origin of the term “weight” in representation theory

In representation theory, there are the related concepts of weights and roots. Since both are kinds of generalised eigenvalues, and eigenvalues are roots of e.g. the characteristic polynomial, the ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### History and motivation for Tannaka, Krein, Grothendieck, Deligne et al. works on Tannaka-Krein theory?

I am trying to wrap my mind around Tannaka-Krein duality and it seems quite mysterious for me, as well, as its history. So let me ask:
Question: What was the motivation and historical context for ...

**28**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Did ancient mathematicians know Euler's characteristic for convex polyhedra?

The formula $V-E+F=2$ is so simple that I can't believe that it was really Euler (or perhaps Descartes) who first observed it (I mean the formula itself in some generality, not necessarily a valid ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Where are Georg Cantor's Original Manuscripts?

Georg Cantor is famous for introducing transfinite numbers and set theory.
A main part of his mathematical point of view about this new type of "numbers" and this new "realm of mathematics" cannot be ...

**37**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### The Arnold – Serre debate

I have read (but I cannot now find where) that Arnold & Serre had a public debate on the value of Bourbaki. Does anyone have more details, or remember or know what was said?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

139 views

### why the difference between terms and propositional variables?

Reading some old logic texts (written around 1930) I noticed that these texts make no difference between propositional variables and terms.
They do make difference between identity and truthvalue
...

**51**

votes

**12**answers

5k views

### Mathematical research published in the form of poems

The article
Friedrich Wille: Galerkins Lösungsnäherungen bei monotonen Abbildungen,
Math. Z. 127 (1972), no. 1, 10-16
is written in the form of a lengthy poem, in a style similar to that
of the ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

156 views

### Reference Request: Topological h-cobordism theorem in higher dimensions

I think this question on math.stackexchange is more appropriate on mathoverflow. Correct me, if you don't think so.
The h-cobordism theorem is true in the topological and in the smooth category in ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

146 views

### Does anyone know what is the right reference for the following simple lemma from harmonic analysis?

The lemma says that given $\lambda\geq 1$, $p\geq 1$, $a_j\geq 0$, for a collection of balls $\{B_j\}_{j\in\mathbb{N}}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$, it holds
$$\|\sum_j a_j\chi_{\lambda B_j}\|_p\leq ...

**-3**

votes

**2**answers

552 views

### Accidental, unplanned breakthroughs in Mathematics [closed]

In math/physics, or generally in science, there are many moments where the success and the triumph come from the accidental, unplanned attempts. Moreover, there are some cases that originally having ...

**45**

votes

**18**answers

7k views

### Examples of major theorems with very hard proofs that have NOT dramatically improved over time

This question complement a previous MO question: Examples of theorems with proofs that have dramatically improved over time.
I am looking for a list of major theorems in mathematics whose proofs are ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

258 views

### Why did Alonzo Church choose the letter $\lambda$ as the “binding operator”?

Is there any known reason why Alonzo Church chose Greek $\lambda$ as the "binding operator" for the Lambda Calculus?

**5**

votes

**1**answer

279 views

### History of Jordan Canonical Form?

Can anyone suggest a reference that discusses the history of the Jordan canonical form? In particular, I am interested in:
When and how was it first stated? (I understand it was independently stated ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

263 views

### Who first used the cross-ratio to describe shapes in hyperbolic geometry?

I was reading this Wikipedia article today:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shape#Similarity_classes
and I realized that it strongly resembles the use of coss-ratios as "shape parameters" in hyperbolic ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

528 views

### Institutional response to “Esquisse d'un programme”

It is well-known that Grothendieck's "esquisse d'un programme" was submitted in 1984 as part as the author's application for a permanent position of "Directeur de Recherche" at the C.N.R.S. (the main ...

**20**

votes

**6**answers

885 views

### Was lattice theory central to mid-20th century mathematics?

Four years ago, I read a book on the history of mathematics up to 1970 or so. It was very interesting up until the end. The last few chapters, though, were on lattices. The author claimed that ...

**23**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Are there some other notions of “curvature” which measure how space curves?

I am learning differential geometry and have a few questions on curvature. -- Background:
Gauss invented "Gauss curvature" to measure how surface curves.
Riemann gives an ingenious generalization ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

391 views

### Well founded induction attributed to Noether

What I know as well founded induction, namely the rule
$$ \big(\forall y.(\forall z.z\lt y\Rightarrow\phi z)\Rightarrow\phi y\big)\Longrightarrow\big(\forall x.\phi x\big), $$
whose validity is the ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

843 views

### Fourier transform of the unit sphere

The Fourier transform of the volume form of the (n-1)-sphere in $\mathbf R^n$ is given by the well-known formula
$$
\int_{S^{n-1}}e^{i\langle\mathbf a,\mathbf u\rangle}d\sigma(\mathbf u) = (2\pi)^{\nu ...