# Tagged Questions

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

208 views

### an interesting conjecture about even cycle

Let G be a simple graph which is a $2n$-cycle equipped with $n$ chords such that $G$ is $3$-regular,in other words,the set of the $n$ chords is a perfect matching of $G$(that is,every vertex of $G$ is ...

**13**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Representability of finite metric spaces

There have been a couple questions recently regarding metric spaces, which got me thinking a bit about representation theorems for finite metric spaces.
Suppose $X$ is a set equipped with a metric ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

450 views

### Difference Sets

Suppose
$$
P \subseteq \{1,2,\dots,N\},\quad |P| = K
$$
We calculate the differences as: $$d=p_i-p_j\mod N,\quad i\ne j$$
Now let $a_d$ denote the number of occurrence of $d$ (for $d = 1, 2, \dots , N ...

**43**

votes

**8**answers

4k views

### What is a continuous path?

I would like some help, because I am getting mad trying to answer the following
Question: Let $X$ be a topological space, what is a continuous path in $X$?
Well, maybe you're already getting ...

**23**

votes

**9**answers

2k views

### How many groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And what of rings, fields, graphs, partial orders, etc.?

Question. How many (isomorphism types of) finite groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And the same question for rings,
fields, graphs, partial orders, etc.
...

**23**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Adjacency matrices of graphs

Motivated by the apparent lack of possible classification of integer matrices up to conjugation (see here) and by a question about possible complete graph invariants (see here), let me ask the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

945 views

### Cycling through the Zeta Garden: Zeta functions for graphs, cycle index polynomials, and determinants

Zeta functions abound in mathematics. Audrey Terras describes in Zeta Functions and Chaos three zeta functions--the zeta fct. of a projective non-singular algebraic variety; the Artin-Mazur zeta ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

756 views

### Minimal graphs with a prescribed number of spanning trees

As its long ago since Erdős died and mathoverflow is the second best alternative to him (for discussing personal problems), I'd like to start a fruitful discussion about the following problem ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

555 views

### Is the Steiner ratio Gilbert–Pollak conjecture still open?

Gilbert-Pollak conjecture on the Steiner ratio: Consider a set $P$ of $n$ points on the euclidean plane. A shortest
network interconnecting $P$ must be a tree, which is called a Steiner minimum ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

97 views

### genus of a finite simple undirected graph

Let $G$ be a finite simple undirected graph. Suppose there exist subgraphs $G_1,G_2,\dots,G_n$ of $G$, such that $G_i$ and $G_j$, have no common edges and have at most two common vertices, for each ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

177 views

### Graphs with constant edge imbalance

The imbalance of an edge $(u,v) \in E(G)$ of a graph $G$ is defined as $|d(u)-d(v)|$ ($d$ being, as usual the degree). (This concept was introduced by Albertson in 1997)
I'm interested in the set of ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

124 views

### Non-trivial lower bound on the number of “Graph Diagonals”

The definition of Graph Diagonals, that are the subject of this question, is based on the notions of crossing edges and on connected graphs:
Two edges $AC$ and $BD$ of a complete, symmetric and ...

**23**

votes

**15**answers

6k views

### Linear Algebra Proofs in Combinatorics?

Simple linear algebra methods are a surprisingly powerful tool to prove combinatorial results. Some examples of combinatorial theorems with linear algebra proofs are the (weak) perfect graph theorem, ...

**26**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Why are planar graphs so exceptional?

As compared to classes of graphs embeddable in other surfaces.
Some ways in which they're exceptional:
Mac Lane's and Whitney's criteria are algebraic characterizations of planar graphs. (Well, ...

**23**

votes

**18**answers

5k views

### Interesting and Accessible Topics in Graph Theory

This summer, I will be teaching an introductory course in graph theory to talented high school seniors. The intent of the course is not to establish proficiency in graph theory, per se. Rather, I hope ...

**36**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### Do there exist chess positions that require exponentially many moves to reach?

By "chess" here I mean chess played on an $n\times n$ board with an unbounded number of (non-king) pieces. Some care is needed if you want to generalize some of the subtler rules of chess to an ...

**29**

votes

**20**answers

3k views

### Generalizations of Planar Graphs

This is a follow up to Harrison's question: why planar graphs are so exceptional. I would like to ask about (and collect answers to) various notions, in graph theory and beyond graph theory (topology; ...

**15**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Complete graph invariants?

Obviously, graph invariants are wonderful things, but the usual ones (the Tutte polynomial, the spectrum, whatever) can't always distinguish between nonisomorphic graphs. Actually, I think that even a ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

643 views

### Different uses of the word “ergodic”

There appear to be two definitions of the word ergodic.
The dynamical systems definition says that a measure space $(X,\mathit B, \mu)$ and measure preserving transformation $T: X \mapsto X$ is ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

619 views

### A Question on 1, 2 ,3 Conjecture

1, 2, 3 conjecture is well-known:
If $G$ is a simple graph which is not $K_2$ then one can assign a number among $1, 2, 3$ to every edge such that if we label each vertex with the sum of the numbers ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

929 views

### The diameter of the Erdös component of the collaboration graph

This site claims that the diameter of the Erdös component of the collaboration graph in 2004 was 23. What is it now? Is it increasing or decreasing with time? Recall that the vertices of the ...

**23**

votes

**9**answers

2k views

### Is the empty graph a tree?

This is a boring, technical question that I stumbled upon while making a contribution to Sage. I would still like to hear a constructive answer so hopefully the question does not get closed.
The ...

**20**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Monochromatic triangles in every two-coloring of the plane?

An old problem (possibly due to Erdős and Graham?): given a triangle $T$ and a two-coloring of the plane, does there necessary exist a monochromatic congruent copy of $T$? Here "monochromatic" means ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

708 views

### Is there a group whose cardinality counts non-intersecting paths?

Introduction
Graphs are not only important combinatorial objects, but also related to many topological/algebraic structures. In this question I am going to talk about various group structures with ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is non-connectedness of graphs first order axiomatizable?

A recent
question
asked for graph properties that are first order axiomatizable but not finitely axiomatizable.
Connectedness was mentioned in the context. Connectedness can be axiomatized in ...

**32**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Is it easy to produce hard-to-color graphs?

This question arises from my recent visit to my daughter's second-grade class, where I led some discussion and activities on graph coloring (see Math for seven-year-olds). In one such activity, each ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

499 views

### Complexity of equitable partitions

We are talking about undirected simple graphs and partitions of their vertex sets into disjoint non-empty cells. Such a partition is equitable if for any two vertices $v,w$ in the same cell, and any ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

630 views

### Is every graph the center of some other graph?

The center of a graph $G$ is the set of vertices that minimize the largest
distance to vertices in $G$, e.g., in the graph below, that radius is $4$:
Define the ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

494 views

### A Conjecture About Directed Graphs that are the Union of Two Trees

Let D=(V,E) be a directed graph that is the union of two edge-disjoint directed
spanning trees. Suppose that
There no subset X of vertices so that
there is precisely one directed edge
from X ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

903 views

### Graphs in which every spanning tree is an independency tree

It follows from this question
and the corresponding answers, that the complete graphs and the cycles are precisely the graphs
$G$ having the property that, for every spanning tree $T$ of $G$, the ...

**12**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Good algorithm for finding the diameter of a (sparse) graph?

My question on Stack Overflow was recently tagged "math". Despite a bounty, it never received a satisfactory answer, so I thought I would ask it here:
I have a large, connected, sparse graph in ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### On “super connected” graphs

A graph $G$ is called super connected if for every connected subgraph $H\subset G$ the graph $G-H$ obtained from $G$ after deletion of all vertices from $H$ is also connected.
Conjecture: The only ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

410 views

### Is there an algorithm to compute efficiently the dessin d'enfant from a Belyi pair?

Let $(X,f)$ be a Belyi pair, i.e. a Riemann surface $X$ together with a morphism $f: X \to \mathbb{P}^1$, ramified only in $0,1, \infty$. Grothendieck's dessin d'enfant is the pre-image $G$ of the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

889 views

### Non-negative quadratic maximization

For a given symmetric and positive semidefinite $n \times n$ matrix $A$, we want to solve the problem $$\max_{||x|| = 1, \ x\geq 0} x^T A x.$$
Here, $x\geq 0$ indicates that $x$ must be component-wise ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

877 views

### Delaunay triangulations and convex hulls

This is a reference request.
I have the impression that those who work in computational geometry are accustomed to the following. You have some locally finite set of sites in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and you ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

301 views

### spectrum of an adjacency matrix

The adjacency matrix of a non-oriented connected graph is symmetric, hence its spectrum is real.
If the graph is bipartite, then the spectrum of its adjacency matrix is symmetric about 0. A few ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

190 views

### A question on graphic sequences

Let $G$ be a graph and $d_{G}(u)$ denotes degree of a vertex $u$ in $G$. Consider the next multiset $$M_{G}:=\{|d_{G}(u)-d_{G}(v)|:\ uv\in E(G)\}.$$
Conjecture: $M_{G}$ is graphical for every $G$.
...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

549 views

### Paul Erdős: Determine or estimate the number of maximal triangle-free graphs on n vertices

Among the collections of the open problems of Paul Erdős on the website of
Professor Fan Chung, there is one called "number of triangle-free graphs".
...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

580 views

### Who first dubbed them “expander graphs”?

Expander graphs
("sparse graphs that have strong connectivity properties")
burst onto the mathematical scene around the millennium, but I have not
been successful in tracing the origin of
(a) the ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Determinants in Graph Theory

In graph theory, we work with adjacency matrices which define the connections between the vertices. These matrices have various properties in themselves. For example, their trace can be calculated (it ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

783 views

### Classification of degree (bi-)sequences of bipartite graphs?

It is known that the sequence $d_1 \geq d_2 \geq \ldots \geq d_n$ of nonnegative integers is the degree sequence of a graph if and only if the sum of the $d_i$ is even and we have
\[
\sum_{i = 1}^k ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### How many $p$-regular graphs with $n$ vertices are there?

Suppose that there are $n$ vertices, we want to construct a regular graph with degree $p$, which, of course, is less than $n$. My question is how many possible such graphs can we get?

**5**

votes

**1**answer

571 views

### Algorithm for embedding a graph with metric constraints

Suppose I have a graph $G$ with vertex set $V$, edge set $E \subseteq {V \choose 2}$, and a weight function $w:E \to \mathbb{R}^{+}$. Is there a nice algorithmic way to decide if there is an ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

229 views

### Can the Vertices of cubic graph be partitioned into and induced cycle and a forest?

Let $G$ be a $2$-connected $3$-regular graph. Can $V(G)$ be partitioned into $V_1$ and $V_2$ where
$G[V_1]$(the induced subgraph on $V_1$) is a cycle of $G$ and $G[V_2]$ is a forest (Acyclic ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

357 views

### Path cardinality for random $(a+b)$-ary infinite trees

Consider a random infinite binary tree $T(a,b)$, so that $a$ denotes the probability of a left edge branching from any root-connected node,and $b$ denotes the probability of a right edge branching ...

**11**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Are there more connected or disconnected graphs on n vertices?

Suppose we are talking about graphs with $n$ labeled vertices. Which graphs are more common: connected or non connected?

**9**

votes

**1**answer

339 views

### Uniquely hamiltonian graphs with minimum degree 4

A graph is uniquely hamiltonian if it has exactly one Hamilton cycle.
As every edge in a cubic graph lies in an even number of Hamilton cycles, a cubic graph cannot be uniquely hamiltonian, and a ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

329 views

### Graphs with many edges avoided by Hamiltonian cycles

Let $G$ be a $3$-connected Hamiltonian graph with at least one edge that belongs to each H-cycle of $G$. Some authors (e.g. in the link given here) call such an edge an a-edge and an edge that belongs ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

284 views

### the length of paths in a specific graph

Let $n$ be a positive integer and $K$ be the set of all the $2$-elements subsets of $\{1,2,...,n\}$,then $|K|= \binom{n}{2}$. Define $$S=\{P\subseteq K:\bigcup_{I\in P}I=\{1,2,...,n\}\}.$$
For any ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

651 views

### Self-defining structures

The relations $R$ in abstract graphs (with genuinely propertyless vertices) cannot be defined because there is nothing the relations can base on: they have to be presupposed.
But consider derived ...