# Tagged Questions

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### Computing the chromatic polynomial of graph modulo $x-3$

The chromatic polynomial of graph $P(G,x)$ is univariate
polynomial which counts the number of colorings of $G$
with $x$ colors for natural $x$.
Graph is not $k$ colorable iff $P(G,k)=0$.
The ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

197 views

### Conjecture: for perfect graphs the fractional chromatic index rounded up equals the chromatic index

Let $\chi'_f(G)$ be the fractional chromatic index.
Based on limited experiments (up to 8 vertices and few larger graphs),
I suspect:
Conjecture For perfect graphs $\lceil \chi'_f(G) \rceil = ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

120 views

### The Universal Labeling of graph

The universal labeling of a graph $G$ is a labeling of the edge set in $G$ such that in every orientation $\ell$ of $G$ for every two adjacent vertices $v$ and $u$, the sum of incoming edges of $v$ ...

**32**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Is it easy to produce hard-to-color graphs?

This question arises from my recent visit to my daughter's second-grade class, where I led some discussion and activities on graph coloring (see Math for seven-year-olds). In one such activity, each ...

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votes

**2**answers

126 views

### Bounds on chromatic number of $k$-planar graphs

A $1$-planar graph can be drawn in the
plane so that each arc is crossed at most once by another arc.
A $k$-planar graph can be drawn so that each arc is crossed at most $k$ times.
Planar graphs are ...

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votes

**0**answers

26 views

### number of bipolar orientations to acyclic ones

Given a $k$-regular graph $G$, is there an upper bound on the number of bipolar orientations that $G$ has?
I am trying to show that the number of bipolar orientations is much much lower than the ...

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votes

**1**answer

53 views

### Graph construction to double coloring & Hadwiger number

For any graph $G$ let $\eta(G)$ be the Hadwiger number of $G$.
Is there for every graph $G$ a graph $2G$ such that
-- $\chi(2G) = 2\chi(G)$, and
-- $\eta(2G) = 2\eta(G)$?
For each one of the above ...

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68 views

### Independence Number of K4-free planar graphs

The independence ratio is defined as the size of the maximum independent set divided by $n$. By the 4-color theorem, every planar graph with $n$ vertices has independence ratio at least $1/4$. ...

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**2**answers

177 views

### Big Mono-Chromatic Subgraphs of Vertex 2-Colourings

I'm not a graph theorist, but the following quantity came up in my work and I'm curious if it has been studied. Given a connected finite graph $\Gamma = (V,E)$ define: $$ c(\Gamma) = \min_{f : V ...

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**1**answer

274 views

### Bipartite Graphs arising from two k-partitions of a given Graph

Let $G$ be an $n$-chromatic connected graph. Let $(V_1, V_2, \cdots, V_n)$ and $(U_1, U_2, \cdots, U_n)$ be two partitions of $V(G)$ corresponding to proper n-colorings of $G$.
Consider the bipartite ...

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votes

**3**answers

639 views

### Are infinite planar graphs still 4-colorable?

Imagine you have a finite number of "sites" $S$ in the positive quadrant
of the integer lattice $\mathbb{Z}^2$,
and from each site $s \in S$, one connects $s$ to every lattice point to which it
has a ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

181 views

### Coloring of subgraphs of G^n

Let $G=(L,R,E)$ be a finite bipartite graph, such that for each $v\in L\cup R: deg(v)>0$. Define $E^{(n)}=\{(\overline{l},\overline{r}) | \overline{l}=(l_1,...,l_n)\in L^n , ...

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**0**answers

72 views

### Size of b-matching constructed from b maximal matchings

The Question: Let $G$ be a (simple) graph and let $b\in\mathbb{N}$. Suppose that we have $b$ disjoint edge-subsets $M_1,\ldots , M_b$ satisfying the following condition: The set $M_1$ is a maximal ...

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**1**answer

226 views

### What is the status of this strong form of Hedetniemi's conjecture?

In this question, a graph is a finite, undirected graph without loops or multiple edges, and a colouring of a graph is a proper vertex colouring. The product $G \times H$ of graphs $G$ and $H$ is the ...

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**1**answer

314 views

### Coloring $K_n$ via edge-weight sums

This is a question inspired by
and tangential to "A Question on 1, 2 ,3 Conjecture"—and certainly
much easier!
Suppose one assigns a random edge weight among $\{1,2,3,\ldots,k\}$ to each
edge ...

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votes

**1**answer

619 views

### A Question on 1, 2 ,3 Conjecture

1, 2, 3 conjecture is well-known:
If $G$ is a simple graph which is not $K_2$ then one can assign a number among $1, 2, 3$ to every edge such that if we label each vertex with the sum of the numbers ...

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votes

**1**answer

98 views

### Achieving the largest possible minimum spacing between vertices of the same color in an integer lattice

Consider an infinite integer lattice, or an infinite hexagonal lattice with unit length edges. Provided a set of $k$ possible vertex colors, is there a known largest possible minimum spacing that can ...

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votes

**3**answers

190 views

### Crystal structure, lattice, Graph and coloring

I am working across mathematics, physics and engineering. And I am looking for whether there exists already formally established knowledge in the field.
Given a periodic graph (actually a physical ...

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**1**answer

212 views

### When does graph Laplacian have eigenvalue -1?

Consider an undirected graph $G$ with (symmetric) adjacency matrix $A \in \{0,1\}^{n \times n}$ and degree sequence $d = (d_i)$ where $d_i = \sum_{j} A_{ij}$. Assume that every node has degree at ...

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**0**answers

144 views

### Colouring a graph whose edge set is a special union of cliques

I am trying to show that a certain family of graphs can always be properly coloured with at most $6$ colours (where "properly coloured" means that each vertex gets a colour and no edge has both ends ...

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**3**answers

1k views

### Can one measure the infeasibility of four color proofs?

Terms like "impractical" and "unfeasible" are used to say the Robertson, Sanders, Seymour, and Thomas proof of the four color theorem needs computer assistance. Obviously no precise measure is ...

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**1**answer

251 views

### Minimal graphs of prescribed girth and chromatic number

The well known result of ErdÅ‘s, states that
Given integers $g > 2$ and $k > 1$ there exist a graph $G$ with $\chi(G) \geq k$ and girth at least $g.$
What I am wondering is
When can we ...

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votes

**1**answer

190 views

### Probability that a random edge coloring of the complete graph is proper

This is a repost of this math.se question that I am posting here since it received no attention there.
What is the probability that a random edge coloring of $K_n$ with
$m \geq n$ colors ...

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votes

**2**answers

120 views

### Is There a Graph that is Ramsey for $P_{2n}$ but is $C_{2n+1}-$free

Write $F\to G$ to mean that for every two coloring of the edges of $F$, there exists a monochromatic copy of $G$. Nesetril and Rodl proved that for a graph $G$, there exists a graph $F\to G$ with ...

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votes

**2**answers

243 views

### Fractional chromatic number, find reference to a particular alternate definition for

I'm searching for a reference to a particular alternate definition of the fractional chromatic number of graphs.
Let me review the most common definition and basic properties first.
Let $ G $ be ...

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vote

**3**answers

213 views

### Strategic vertex labeling

We are given a graph $G=(V,E)$ with positive edge weights $w_{i}$ and numerical {0,1,-1} labels $l$ for all vertices . We know that $G$ has a subset $G'$ with all vertices labeled 0(all vertices with ...

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votes

**1**answer

272 views

### bipartite graph coloring

Hi, I don't know much about graph theory so I would need to know if the following problem has a positive answer or a reference. There is a bipartite graph G with the two vertex sets V1, V2. Each ...

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**0**answers

120 views

### Clique number of a $k$th power of a graph in terms of maximum degree?

Let $G$ be a graph of maximum degree $d$. Are there any known/easy bounds on the clique number of $G^k$, in terms of $d$ and $k$? I would like something at least epsilon better than the bound on the ...

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**0**answers

236 views

### Maximum fractional chromatic number of a 4-regular triangle-free graph (updated)

Let $G$ be a graph with maximum degree 4 and clique number 2. The fractional version of Reed's Conjecture tells us that $\chi_f(G) \leq 7/2$. But how high can $\chi_f(G)$ be?
The ChvÃ¡tal graph has ...

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votes

**1**answer

438 views

### Vector chromatic number and Lovasz theta

For $\alpha \ge 2$, an $\alpha$-vector coloring of a graph $X$ is an assignment of unit vectors to the vertices of $X$ such that vectors assigned to adjacent vertices have inner product less than or ...

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votes

**1**answer

226 views

### coincidence between minimal triangulation numbers and chromatic numbers

A friend and I were reading up on the classification of compact surfaces when we realized that the minimal number of triangles in a triangulation of the sphere, torus, and projective plane are 4 ...

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votes

**3**answers

399 views

### Edge-coloring of the complete graph without any rainbow paths

For a given $2k-1$ edge coloring of the complete graph $K_{2k}$,
say a Hamiltonian path $P$ is a rainbow path if every color appears exactly once in $P$.
My question is
"For each $2k (k \geq 2)$, is ...

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votes

**2**answers

367 views

### Coloring a graph by Maximum Independent Set extraction

recursively extracting a MIS from an undirected simple graph $G$ does produce a minimal coloring for $G$ ?
I searched extensively the internet and found a paper [1] which answer partially to this ...

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votes

**1**answer

197 views

### Isomorphism of connected, rigid, N-regular graphs with chromatic index N?

Background/Motivation
I'm working on algorithms for canonical labeling of a certain class of graphs (motivated by biology). The "difficult" instances of this problem can be reduced to graphs of the ...

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votes

**0**answers

162 views

### A copy of the Vizing's classic article about List Coloring.

Does anyone know where I get a copy of the Vizing's classic article about List Coloring?
"V. G. Vizing, Coloring the vertices of a graph in prescribed colors, Metody Diskret. Anal. v Teorii Kodov i ...

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votes

**1**answer

163 views

### Hypergraph coloring

I am investigating whether the following hypergraph is $2$-colorable.
Let $0\le c < d < e$ be fixed natural numbers and consider a graph on $2e$ vertices, with the vertices labelled as ...

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vote

**1**answer

267 views

### Graph Theory Terminology Question

Given a (non-multi)graph $G$ let $N_G$ be the least number of nodes that must be colored (by a single color) such that every other node in $G$ shares an edge with at least one colored node. (I am only ...

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votes

**1**answer

190 views

### Coloring tensor products of graphs

Let $ G,H $ are simple finite graphs and $A = G \times H$. Here $ G \times H $ is the tensor product (also called the direct or categorical product) of $ G $ and $ H $.
Let $G$ has smaller chromatic ...

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votes

**1**answer

189 views

### maps with a large number of 4-colorings

I brought this up in January, but now know more and can be more precise.
I will have two questions.
How much of this is known?
If you don't know the answer to 1, then who does?
I invite all ...

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vote

**1**answer

386 views

### Regular graph colorings

[Since I didn't get any feedback at MSE, I dare to post this question here, too.]
Call a coloring $C:V(G) \rightarrow \lbrace 1,\dots,n \rbrace$ of a graph $G$ regular when every vertex with color ...

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votes

**1**answer

173 views

### A Ramsey-like lower bound?

Does there exist a graph $G$ which cannot be properly vertex-coloured with 3 colours (i.e. $G$ has chromatic number at least 4), such that for every graph $H$, if $H$ contains a triangle but there ...

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votes

**1**answer

254 views

### Edge Colorings of Directed Graphs which Respect an Involution

Let G be a graph and let C be a set of coloring. Suppose that there is an involution $\phi$ from C to C. We can think about the element of C as the nonzero elements of some Abelian group and ...

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**0**answers

220 views

### A maximum discrepancy hypergraph 2-colouring problem

This is sort of a hypergraph-ish question that I feel should be easy to prove or disprove but I can't see it right now.
The setup is as follows. We have a vertex set partitioned in to sets ...

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votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Highly symmetric 6-regular graph with 20 vertices

I'm interested in (node/edge-)symmetric 6-regular graphs on 20 vertices and 60 edges, especially ones with a A5/icosahedral/dodecahedral symmetry group and especially their chromatic number. So far I ...

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votes

**1**answer

456 views

### What is the chromatic number of the graph whose vertices dimension $n-2$ subsimplicies of $\Delta^n$ and an edge between two vertices is given if the two associated $n-2$ vertices are contained in the same $n-1$ subsimplex?

Let us first remark that all of this takes place on the boundary of $\Delta^n$. The question that I wanted to solve that led to the question in the title is as follows: Let ...

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votes

**1**answer

442 views

### Graph Coloring - searching for some interesting problems

Hi,
I'm a high school student and writing a paper about graph coloring. Can you tell me something about some interesting problems in graph theory connected with graph coloring? Such as full triangle ...

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**0**answers

1k views

### a new lower bound for the chromatic number of a graph?

Let S+(G) denote the sum of the squares of the positive eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of a graph G. Let S-(G) denote the sum of the squares of the negative eigenvalues and q the chromatic ...

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**0**answers

176 views

### Maximum number of 4-colorings of planar graphs (precise version)

This is a redo of my earlier question.
I'm trying again with more precision. I ignored one of the dicta in the "how to ask" page.
For a fixed $n$, what is known (references preferred) about the ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

356 views

### Maximum number of different 4-colorings of planar graphs of a given size

I understand that it is computationally hard to count the 4-colorings of a given graph. See answers to
this question
In a given class of planar graphs (will leave choice of class open) is there a ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

504 views

### Graphical representation of chromatic polynomial

Suppose $c(G,u)$ is chromatic polynomial of connected simple graph $G$. We know that
$|c(G,-1)|$, as Stanley proved, is the total number of directed graph on $G$, without any cycle.
Also, we know ...