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47
votes
8answers
6k views

The “sensitivity” of 2-colorings of the d-dimensional integer lattice

Consider the $d$-dimensional integer lattice, $Z^d$. Call two points in $Z^d$ "neighbors" if their Euclidean distance is 1 (i.e., if they differ by 1 on exactly one coordinate). Let $C$ be a ...
27
votes
0answers
777 views

Does every triangle-free graph with maximum degree at most 6 have a 5-colouring?

A very specific case of Reed's Conjecture Reed's $\omega$,$\Delta$, $\chi$ conjecture proposes that every graph has $\chi \leq \lceil \tfrac 12(\Delta+1+\omega)\rceil$. Here $\chi$ is the chromatic ...
25
votes
4answers
2k views

Why is “P vs. NP” necessarily relevant?

I want to start out by giving two examples: 1) Graham's problem is to decide whether a given edge-coloring (with two colors) of the complete graph on vertices $\lbrace-1,+1\rbrace^n$ contains a ...
24
votes
4answers
3k views

Algebraic Proof of 4-Colour Theorem?

4-Colour Theorem. Every planar graph is 4-colourable. This theorem of course has a well-known history. It was first proven by Appel and Haken in 1976, but their proof was met with skepticism ...
24
votes
2answers
637 views

chromatic number of the hyperbolic plane

A notorious problem in combinatorics is the following: If we color $\mathbb{R}^2$ so that no pair of points at unit distance get the same color, what is the fewest number of colors required? This ...
21
votes
3answers
1k views

Can one measure the infeasibility of four color proofs?

Terms like "impractical" and "unfeasible" are used to say the Robertson, Sanders, Seymour, and Thomas proof of the four color theorem needs computer assistance. Obviously no precise measure is ...
20
votes
12answers
3k views

Strengthening the Induction Hypothesis

Suppose you are trying to prove result $X$ by induction and are getting nowhere fast. One nice trick is to try to prove a stronger result $X'$ (that you don't really care about) by induction. This ...
17
votes
8answers
4k views

Why is edge-coloring less interesting than vertex-coloring?

I was wondering why there is (apparently) much more research directed towards vertex-coloring than edge-coloring? Prima facie, it seems that edge-coloring is just as "natural" a thing to investigate. ...
16
votes
1answer
570 views

A Question on 1, 2 ,3 Conjecture

1, 2, 3 conjecture is well-known: If $G$ is a simple graph which is not $K_2$ then one can assign a number among $1, 2, 3$ to every edge such that if we label each vertex with the sum of the numbers ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

Making a non-monotone function monotone

Consider a function $f: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{1..R\}$. This function can be interpreted as a coloring $Color(v)$ of vertices in a unit n-dimensional hypercube in $R$ colors. We say there is a ...
14
votes
6answers
3k views

Lower bounds for chromatic number of a graph

I am trying to find a good lower bound for chromatic number of one family of graphs. I'm curious what are the known lower bounds for chromatic number. There are two obvious: $\chi(G) \geq \omega(G)$ ...
12
votes
3answers
600 views

Are infinite planar graphs still 4-colorable?

Imagine you have a finite number of "sites" $S$ in the positive quadrant of the integer lattice $\mathbb{Z}^2$, and from each site $s \in S$, one connects $s$ to every lattice point to which it has a ...
12
votes
6answers
2k views

A decision problem in graph coloring

It'll be great to get a pointer or answer to the following question: What is the complexity of the following problem? Given an unweighted and undirected graph, can we have a proper (not necessarily ...
10
votes
9answers
2k views

What is the Tutte polynomial encoding?

Pretty much exactly what it says on the tin. Let G be a connected graph; then the Tutte polynomial T_G(x,y) carries a lot of information about G. However, it obviously doesn't encode everything about ...
10
votes
2answers
171 views

Big Mono-Chromatic Subgraphs of Vertex 2-Colourings

I'm not a graph theorist, but the following quantity came up in my work and I'm curious if it has been studied. Given a connected finite graph $\Gamma = (V,E)$ define: $$ c(\Gamma) = \min_{f : V ...
10
votes
1answer
308 views

Coloring $K_n$ via edge-weight sums

This is a question inspired by and tangential to "A Question on 1, 2 ,3 Conjecture"—and certainly much easier! Suppose one assigns a random edge weight among $\{1,2,3,\ldots,k\}$ to each edge ...
10
votes
2answers
530 views

Can we select a rainbow matching if each degree is 6 and each colorclass is a C_6?

Suppose that we have a 2d-regular graph whose edges are colored such that the edges of each color form a cycle of length 2d. (So if the graph has 2n vertices, then there are n colors.) Is it true that ...
10
votes
3answers
707 views

Is there a matrix whose permanent counts 3-colorings?

Actually, I suppose that the answer is technically "yes," since computing the permanent is #P-complete, but that's not very satisfying. So here's what I mean: Kirchhoff's theorem says that if you ...
9
votes
2answers
427 views

Labelled spanning trees without edge crossings

Draw the complete graph $K_n$ on a plane in general position with every edge a straight line and randomly label the edges $0$ or $1$. Does this graph always have a spanning tree with no edges crossing ...
9
votes
1answer
588 views

Which lattices have more than one minimal periodic coloring?

The lattice $\mathbb{Z}^n$ has an essentially unique (up to permutation) minimal periodic coloring for all $n$, namely the "checkerboard" 2-coloring. Here a coloring of a lattice $L$ is a coloring of ...
9
votes
1answer
599 views

Finding Two Rainbow Spanning Trees

Suppose we have a graph whose edges are coloured. It's not necessarily a proper colouring: a given node may have 0, 1, or several incident edges of a given colour. Is the following problem ...
8
votes
5answers
933 views

Can one make Erdős's Ramsey lower bound explicit?

Erdős's 1947 probabilistic trick provided a lower exponential bound for the Ramsey number R(k). Is it possible to explicitly construct 2-colourings on exponentially sized graphs without large ...
8
votes
3answers
375 views

Edge-coloring of the complete graph without any rainbow paths

For a given $2k-1$ edge coloring of the complete graph $K_{2k}$, say a Hamiltonian path $P$ is a rainbow path if every color appears exactly once in $P$. My question is "For each $2k (k \geq 2)$, is ...
8
votes
2answers
488 views

Derivative of Tutte polynomial at -1

Let Tutte polynomial on graph with edge-set $E$ be defined as follows $$f(q,v)=\sum_{A\subseteq E} q^{\kappa(A)} v^{|A|}$$ Here the sum is over all subgraphs $A$, $\kappa(A)$ is the number of ...
8
votes
0answers
1k views

a new lower bound for the chromatic number of a graph?

Let S+(G) denote the sum of the squares of the positive eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of a graph G. Let S-(G) denote the sum of the squares of the negative eigenvalues and q the chromatic ...
7
votes
2answers
404 views

Simple proof that these graphs are perfect

I recently came across a family of infinite graphs (in the context of two-dimensional convexity) that don't have induced 4-paths (paths with 4 vertices). Note that the complement of a 4-path is again ...
7
votes
1answer
409 views

Graphs with the same chromatic symmetric function

Does anyone know more examples of two nonisomorphic connected graphs with the same chromatic symmetric function? The only pair I know is the one in Stanley's paper on c.s.f.'s ...
7
votes
0answers
132 views

Colouring a graph whose edge set is a special union of cliques

I am trying to show that a certain family of graphs can always be properly coloured with at most $6$ colours (where "properly coloured" means that each vertex gets a colour and no edge has both ends ...
7
votes
0answers
214 views

A maximum discrepancy hypergraph 2-colouring problem

This is sort of a hypergraph-ish question that I feel should be easy to prove or disprove but I can't see it right now. The setup is as follows. We have a vertex set partitioned in to sets ...
6
votes
5answers
1k views

Highly symmetric 6-regular graph with 20 vertices

I'm interested in (node/edge-)symmetric 6-regular graphs on 20 vertices and 60 edges, especially ones with a A5/icosahedral/dodecahedral symmetry group and especially their chromatic number. So far I ...
6
votes
1answer
226 views

coloring in lattice

This is a mathematical question raised from engineering and physics: Is there some established mathematical approach in filling a physical lattice with some colored basis (black and white here)? For ...
6
votes
1answer
199 views

coincidence between minimal triangulation numbers and chromatic numbers

A friend and I were reading up on the classification of compact surfaces when we realized that the minimal number of triangles in a triangulation of the sphere, torus, and projective plane are 4 ...
6
votes
1answer
212 views

What is the status of this strong form of Hedetniemi's conjecture?

In this question, a graph is a finite, undirected graph without loops or multiple edges, and a colouring of a graph is a proper vertex colouring. The product $G \times H$ of graphs $G$ and $H$ is the ...
6
votes
0answers
221 views

Maximum fractional chromatic number of a 4-regular triangle-free graph (updated)

Let $G$ be a graph with maximum degree 4 and clique number 2. The fractional version of Reed's Conjecture tells us that $\chi_f(G) \leq 7/2$. But how high can $\chi_f(G)$ be? The Chvátal graph has ...
6
votes
0answers
322 views

What is this subclass of $k$-colorable graphs called?

The following property emerged naturally when I was playing with certain generalizations of Kneser graphs. Let $k>0$ be a natural number. Consider a property $P_k$ of graphs defined as follows. ...
5
votes
4answers
965 views

Coloring Points in the Plane

Suppose one wants to color the points in the plane so any two points at distance one apart are different colors. How many colors are needed? I heard this problem when I was a kid. Back then the most ...
5
votes
2answers
441 views

The Problem about 2-coloring finite plane

Suppose we color a $X \times X$ finite plane by red and blue arbitrarily. How large does X need to be to guarantee a monochromatic combinatorial square $k \times k$ 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...
5
votes
2answers
339 views

How are graph automorphisms are affected by transformations?

I have a heavily symmetric regular graph whose automorphisms I know. I remove one subgraph and insert another one in a consistent manner; for example, this could be a Delta-Y transformation ...
5
votes
1answer
229 views

Minimal graphs of prescribed girth and chromatic number

The well known result of Erdős, states that Given integers $g > 2$ and $k > 1$ there exist a graph $G$ with $\chi(G) \geq k$ and girth at least $g.$ What I am wondering is When can we ...
5
votes
2answers
491 views

4-coloring maps of pentagons

Is there a simple proof for the 4-color theorem when restricted to (finite) maps all of whose regions are pentagons? I am in fact most interested in convex pentagons, if that additional structure ...
5
votes
2answers
233 views

Fractional chromatic number, find reference to a particular alternate definition for

I'm searching for a reference to a particular alternate definition of the fractional chromatic number of graphs. Let me review the most common definition and basic properties first. Let $ G $ be ...
5
votes
1answer
184 views

Probability that a random edge coloring of the complete graph is proper

This is a repost of this math.se question that I am posting here since it received no attention there. What is the probability that a random edge coloring of $K_n$ with $m \geq n$ colors ...
5
votes
1answer
251 views

Edge Colorings of Directed Graphs which Respect an Involution

Let G be a graph and let C be a set of coloring. Suppose that there is an involution $\phi$ from C to C. We can think about the element of C as the nonzero elements of some Abelian group and ...
5
votes
1answer
851 views

Has anyone seen this graph?

I recently constructed the graph shown below in the process of investigating some problems regarding line graphs and homomorphisms, and then happened to see it on wikipedia. I was wondering if anyone ...
5
votes
1answer
215 views

Bipartite Graphs arising from two k-partitions of a given Graph

Let $G$ be an $n$-chromatic connected graph. Let $(V_1, V_2, \cdots, V_n)$ and $(U_1, U_2, \cdots, U_n)$ be two partitions of $V(G)$ corresponding to proper n-colorings of $G$. Consider the bipartite ...
4
votes
7answers
2k views

Suggest effective heuristic (not precise) graph colouring algorithm

Can you suggest a good rough graph colouring algorithm? What are the best such algorithms nowadays?
4
votes
1answer
257 views

Is the chromatic number of the real plane invariant under the norm?

Recall that chromatic number of $\mathbb{R}^2$ is the least $n$ such that there exists a function $f$ from $\mathbb{R}^2$ into a set of colors ${C_1,\ldots,C_n}$ with $f(x)\neq f(y)$ for ...
4
votes
2answers
112 views

Is There a Graph that is Ramsey for $P_{2n}$ but is $C_{2n+1}-$free

Write $F\to G$ to mean that for every two coloring of the edges of $F$, there exists a monochromatic copy of $G$. Nesetril and Rodl proved that for a graph $G$, there exists a graph $F\to G$ with ...
4
votes
3answers
165 views

Crystal structure, lattice, Graph and coloring

I am working across mathematics, physics and engineering. And I am looking for whether there exists already formally established knowledge in the field. Given a periodic graph (actually a physical ...
4
votes
2answers
470 views

Tractably Partitioning the possible vertex k-colorings of a graph by local stability and instability.

A k-coloring or k-labeling of the vertices of a single-component undirected graph G with $n$ vertices can be a proper coloring or not. If it is not a proper coloring, such that each vertex has ...