# Tagged Questions

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### Do graphs with $\omega(G) = \chi(G)$ grow “common” as $|V|$ grows large?

On the set $[n]:= \{1,\ldots,n\}$ we consider the set $${\cal P}_2([n]) = \big\{\{a,b\}: a,b \in [n], a\neq b\big\}.$$ Since $$|{\cal P}_2([n])| =2^{n \choose 2}$$ there are exactly $2^{n\choose 2}$ ...
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### A conjectured criterion for 4-colorable graphs

I tried to find a solution to this in the web but couldn't. Can you tell me if the following sentence is correct or else give me a counterexample? $G$ is $4$-colorable if and only if each sub-graph ...
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### Graphs with a coloring that majorizes all other colorings

By a coloring of a graph $G = (V,E)$ I mean a map $\kappa:V\to\mathbb{N}$ such that $\kappa(u)\ne \kappa(v)$ whenever $u$ and $v$ are adjacent. (Sometimes this is called a proper coloring but I am ...
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### Coloring a Ferrers diagram

I've shopped the problem below around a bit and it seems like it might be known, or not that hard to resolve, but so far I've come up empty-handed. Say that a coloring of the dots of a Ferrers ...
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### Weak Erdos graphs

We call a finite, simple, undirected graph $G=(V,E)$ an $n$-Erdos graph if there are $n$ subsets $S_1,\ldots, S_n$ of $V$ such that $V = \bigcup_{n=1}^n S_n$; each $S_k$ has $n$ elements for ...
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### Node-edge coloring of graphs

There must be work on this concept, but I am not finding it through searches, perhaps using the wrong terminology.           Define a node-edge coloring of a graph ...
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### Algorithm for 2-coloring classes of 3-uniform hypergraphs

Hi all and thanks in advance for your efforts. I'm interested in 2-coloring 3-uniform hypergraphs. I know that in general, the problem of deciding if a 3-uniform hypergraph is 2-colorable is ...
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### Can one make Erdős's Ramsey lower bound explicit?

Erdős's 1947 probabilistic trick provided a lower exponential bound for the Ramsey number $R(k)$. Is it possible to explicitly construct 2-colourings on exponentially sized graphs without large ...
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### Performance guarantee of RLF [closed]

I cannot manage to find the performance guarantee of the Recursive Largest First (RLF) algorithm for approximating the chromatic number of a graph. I know DSATUR has a $\mathcal{O}(n)$ guarantee, ...
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### Generalizations of the Four-Color theorem

The four color theorem asserts that every planar graph can be properly colored by four colors. The purpose of this question is to collect generalizations, variations, and strengthenings of the four ...
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### Why is “P vs. NP” necessarily relevant?

I want to start out by giving two examples: 1) Graham's problem is to decide whether a given edge-coloring (with two colors) of the complete graph on vertices $\lbrace-1,+1\rbrace^n$ contains a ...
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### A relaxation of proper coloring

I am wondering if the following relaxation of proper coloring appears somewhere. I have tried some searching and have found a few relaxations of proper coloring, but none the coincides with what I ...
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### Bipartite Graphs arising from two k-partitions of a given Graph

Let $G$ be an $n$-chromatic connected graph. Let $(V_1, V_2, \cdots, V_n)$ and $(U_1, U_2, \cdots, U_n)$ be two partitions of $V(G)$ corresponding to proper n-colorings of $G$. Consider the bipartite ...
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### Bounds on chromatic number of $k$-planar graphs

A $1$-planar graph can be drawn in the plane so that each arc is crossed at most once by another arc. A $k$-planar graph can be drawn so that each arc is crossed at most $k$ times. Planar graphs are ...
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### The numbers of edge colorings and partitions into vertex covers

Let $G = \langle X \cup Y, E\rangle$ be a $d$-regular bipartite graph such that $|U|=|V|=n$, and assume that $d$ divides $n$. Let $F(G)$ denote the number of proper edge colorings of $G$ using $d$ ...
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### Simpler proofs of certain Ramsey numbers

The reason for the gorgeous simplicity of the classic proofs of $R(3,3)$, $R(4,4)$, $R(3,4)$ and $R(3,5)$ is that essentially all you need is the trivial bound and a picture. But for bigger Ramsey ...
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### Graph such that edge contraction increases chromatic number

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a simple, undirected graph with the following properties: Contracting any edge increases the chromatic number by $1$; For each minor $M$ of $G$ we have $\chi(M) \leq \chi(G) + 1$. ...
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### Where can I find a catalog of known Ramsey numbers?

Is there an online catalog available of Ramsey numbers, preferably one that for unknown values documents the known upper/lower bounds?
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### How can I prove that these two graph coloring problems are polynomial time equivalent?

Given a graph $G(V,E)$. The standard $k$-coloring problem consists in finding a feasible coloring (no two adjacent nodes share the same color) of the nodes with $k$ colors. Let this problem be $P_1$. ...
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### Graphs in which any two odd cycle have a common vertex

Let $G$ be a graph in which any two odd cycles have a common vertex. It is easy to see that $\chi(G)\leq 5$ (choose minimal odd cycle $C$, use two colors for $G\setminus C$ and three colors for $C$). ...
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### Chromatic numbers of nowhere dense graphs

Given $c\in (0,1)$ and a graph $G=(V,E)$ such that any subset $U\subset V$ contains an independent subset of cardinality at least $c|U|$. Does it allow to bound the chromatic number $\chi(G)$ by the ...
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### Edge-colorings of plane graphs: do you know references where the following questions are studied?

Let $G$ be a plane graph (or more generally, a graph embedded on a surface) with a proper edge-coloring of $G$ with $k$ colors $\{1,\ldots,k\}$. I am interested in studying the cyclic permutations of ...
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### Graph homomorphisms and line graph

If $G,H$ are simple, undirected graphs, we say that they are in a hom(omorphism)-relation if there is a graph homomorphism from $G$ to $H$ or from $H$ to $G$. For any graph $G$ let $L(G)$ denote its ...
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### What is the chromatic number of the “conic hypergraph” on a non-singular plane cubic?

Can we color the points of a complex non-singular plane cubic curve with finitely many colors so that no conic intersects the curve at 6 distinct points of the same color? If so, what is the smallest ...
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### Cardinality of maximum independent set for a given degree distribution

Consider an undirected graph $G(V,E)$. Let $f_n(k)$ be the probability mass function of the degree of a vertex in $G$. Further, assume that $f_n(k)$ is a strictly decreasing function of $k$ with very ...
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### Complexity of edge coloring graphs of sufficiently large maximum degree

I am interested in the complexity of edge coloring graphs with $\Delta(G) > |V(G)|/3$. This is closely related to the Overfull conjecture (OC). Conjecture/Question: If a simple graph G with n ...
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### Prime labelling of graphs

A prime labeling of a graph is an injective function $f: V(G) \to \{1, 2, ..., |V(G)|\}$ such that for every pair of adjacent vertices $u$ and $v$, $\text{gcd}(f(u), f(v)) = 1$ (labels of any two ...
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### Algebraic Proof of 4-Colour Theorem?

4-Colour Theorem. Every planar graph is 4-colourable. This theorem of course has a well-known history. It was first proven by Appel and Haken in 1976, but their proof was met with skepticism ...
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### Colorings of triangulations as a generalization of the four-color problem

My question can be viewed as a generalization of the four-color problem. Instead of a planar graph, consider a triangulation of a d-sphere. One wants to color vertices with N colors so that no two ...
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### Strengthening the Induction Hypothesis

Suppose you are trying to prove result $X$ by induction and are getting nowhere fast. One nice trick is to try to prove a stronger result $X'$ (that you don't really care about) by induction. This ...
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### Algorithm to determine isomorphism of 2 maximal planar graphs

I read on wikipedia that there are efficient algorithms to answer the question whether 2 (maximal) planar graphs F and G are isomorphic. However, after some (IMHO) substantial searching I don't seem ...
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### A new lower bound for the chromatic number of a graph?

Let $S_{+}(G)$ denote the sum of the squares of the positive eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of a graph $G$. Let $S_{-}(G)$ denote the sum of the squares of the negative eigenvalues and $q$ the ...
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### Coloring algorithm maximising color difference between neighbors

Consider a graph and a set of ordered colors ${\cal C} = \{1,2,\cdots,C\}$. I want to color each node $i$ with a color $c_i\in{\cal C}$ so as to maximize the minimum color difference between two ...
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### Has anyone seen this graph?

I recently constructed the graph shown below in the process of investigating some problems regarding line graphs and homomorphisms, and then happened to see it on wikipedia. I was wondering if anyone ...
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### A constrained minimum edge coloring

Is minimum number of colors needed to color edges of complete graph $K_n$ so that every even simple cycle contains at least one color assigned to odd number of edges at most $\beta n$ where ...
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### Minimal edge color on constraints

Is minimum colors needed to assign colors to edges of complete graph $K_n$ so that every even simple cycle contains an odd number ($>1$) of colors much larger than $(\log n)^\beta$ or ...
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### Even cycle constrained edge coloring

Is minimum colors needed to assign colors to edges of complete graph $K_n$ so that every $2t$ simple cycle where $t\in\Big\{1,\dots,2\Big\lfloor\frac{n}2\Big\rfloor\Big\}$ contains atleast $t+1$ ...
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### Images of interval edge coloring

I found out the definition of interval edge colorings, concept put by Kamalian in various papers but could not find a graph depicting an example. Where can I find pictures of explicit examples of ...
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### Existence of certain graph gadget related to coloring odd hole free graph

Wondering about the existence of graph gadget related to coloring (or 3-coloring) odd hole free graphs. Let $G$ be simple $k$-chromatic connected graph with two vertices $u,v$. Is it possible $G$ to ...
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If $G$ is a (finite) graph, denote with $\mu(G)$ the size of any maximum matching in $G$ (this number is also called the "matching number" of $G$). For odd integers $n$ we have $n=\chi(K_n) = ... 0answers 34 views ### Stochastically coloring a graph in a local way Suppose you are assigning values in$S$(assume$|S|<\infty$) to nodes of a (directed) graph in a stochastic way. At the beginning, none of the node is assigned values. At the$i^{th}$step, you ... 1answer 105 views ### Is it true that any$3$-uniform hypergraph that is not$k$-colorable must have$\Omega(k^3)$edges? What is the best lower bound in terms of$k$on the number of edges in a$3$-uniform hypergraph that is not$k$-colorable? Thanks in advance. 0answers 59 views ### Proper edge colorings with no bi-colored 5-paths Consider you want to properly edge color a graph such that it has no bi-colored cycle. Denote by$\alpha'(G)$the least number of colors required to color the edges of$G$in such a way. It is well ... 1answer 93 views ### How does deletion-contraction affect chromatic number? Can it increase chromatic number? [closed] Question: In graph theory, contracting an edge or deleting an edge are basic operations in many topics such as graph minors or Wagner's theorem on planar graphs. And I'm interested in how these ... 1answer 2k views ### Algebraic proof of Five-Color Theorem using chromatic polynomials by Birkhoff and Lewis in 1946 I'm guessing everyone is familiar with Four Color Theorem which was proved by Appel and Haken using computers. A weaker version of this theorem is Five Color Theorem which states that a planar graph ... 9answers 6k views ### The “sensitivity” of 2-colorings of the d-dimensional integer lattice Consider the$d$-dimensional integer lattice,$Z^d$. Call two points in$Z^d$"neighbors" if their Euclidean distance is 1 (i.e., if they differ by 1 on exactly one coordinate). Let$C$be a ... 1answer 952 views ### A Question on 1, 2 ,3 Conjecture The 1, 2, 3 conjecture is well-known: If$G$is a simple graph which is not$K_2$then one can assign a number among$1, 2, 3$to every edge such that if we label each vertex with the sum of the ... 0answers 666 views ### 3-colorings of the unit distance graph of$\Bbb R^3$Let$\Gamma$be the unit distance graph of$\Bbb R^3$: points$(x,y)$form an edge if$|x,y|=1$. Let$(A,B,C,D)$be a unit side rhombus in the plane, with a transcendental diagonal, e.g.$A = ...
The famous Nelson-Hadwiger problem asks about the chromatic number of the graph $G$, with the vertex set $V(G)={\mathbb R}^2$ where $a_1=(x_1,y_1), a_2=(x_2,y_2) \in V(G) \$ form an edge iff ...