Questions about the branch of abstract algebra that deals with groups.

**12**

votes

**2**answers

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### Generalization of a theorem of Øystein Ore in group theory

Theorem (Øystein Ore, 1938): A finite group $G$ is cyclic iff its lattice of subgroups $\mathcal{L}(G)$ is distributive.
Proof: see below.
Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups and ...

**53**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### when is A isomorphic to A^3?

this is totally elementary, but I have no idea how to solve it: let $A$ be an abelian group such that $A$ is isomorphic to $A^3$. is then $A$ isomorphic to $A^2$? probably no, but how construct a ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

480 views

### Jordan-Hölder theorem for subfactors?

All the subfactors $(N\subset M)$ are irreducible and finite index inclusions of II$_1$ factors.
First recall that in this paper, D. Bisch characterizes the Jones projections $e_K$ of the ...

**119**

votes

**7**answers

9k views

### Does $\mathrm{Aut}(\mathrm{Aut}(…\mathrm{Aut}(G)…))$ stabilize?

Purely for fun, I was playing around with iteratively applying $\DeclareMathOperator{\Aut}{Aut}\Aut$ to a group $G$; that is, studying groups of the form
$$ {\Aut}^n(G):= \Aut(\Aut(...\Aut(G)...)) $$
...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is there a purely group-theoretic reformulation of an equivalence of subgroups?

There is an equivalence relation between inclusion of finite groups coming from the world of subfactors:
Definition: $(H_{1} \subset G_{1}) \sim(H_{2} \subset G_{2})$ if $(R^{G_{1}} \subset R^{H_{1}...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

165 views

### Products of maximal inclusions of finite groups with a non-obvious intermediate

Let $(H_1 \subset G_1)$ and $(H_2 \subset G_2)$ be core-free maximal inclusions of finite groups.
Their product, the inclusion $(H_1 \times H_2 \subset G_1 \times G_2)$, admits four obvious ...

**84**

votes

**2**answers

7k views

### Does every non-empty set admit a group structure (in ZF)?

It is easy to see that in ZFC, any non-empty set $S$ admits a group structure: for finite $S$ identify $S$ with a cyclic group, and for infinite $S$, the set of finite subsets of $S$ with the binary ...

**39**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### What is the current status of the Kaplansky zero-divisor conjecture for group rings?

Let $K$ be a field and $G$ a group. The so called zero-divisor conjecture for group rings asserts that the group ring $K[G]$ is a domain if and only if $G$ is a torsion-free group.
A couple of good ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Examples of finite groups with “good” bijection(s) between conjugacy classes and irreducible representations?

For symmetric group conjugacy classes and irreducible representation both are parametrized by Young diagramms, so there is a kind of "good" bijection between the two sets. For general finite groups ...

**25**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Generating finite simple groups with $2$ elements

Here is a very natural question:
Q: Is it always possible to generate a finite simple group with only $2$ elements?
In all the examples that I can think of the answer is yes.
If the answer is ...

**15**

votes

**0**answers

652 views

### Groups generated by 3 involutions

Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$.
Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition
$\tau_{r_1(m_1),r_2(m_2)}$ be the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

548 views

### Abelian subfactors, a relevant concept?

Through the questions below, this post asks whether the concept of abelian subfactor is relevant.
Remark : here abelian qualifies an inclusion of II$_1$ factors $(N \subset M)$, $N$ is not an abelian ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

858 views

### A dual version of a theorem of Øystein Ore in group theory

Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups.
This post is a dual version for the Generalization of a theorem of Øystein Ore in which it's proved:
Theorem: $\mathcal{L}(H\subset G)$ ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

902 views

### Orbit structures of conjugacy class set and irreducible representation set under automorphism group

let G be a [EDIT: FINITE] group. Suppose C is the set of conjugacy classes of G and R is the set of (equivalence classes of) irreducible representations of G over the complex numbers.
The ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

928 views

### Number of isomorphism types of finite groups

Are there some good asymptotic estimations for the number $F(n)$ of non-isomorphic finite groups of size smaller than $n$?

**15**

votes

**1**answer

808 views

### Number of conjugacy classes in GL(n,Z)

Like every other group also $\mbox{GL}(n,\mathbb{Z})$ acts on the set of all its subgroups, by conjugation: if $\phi \in \mbox{GL}(n,\mathbb{Z})$, then $\phi$ acts by $H \mapsto \phi H \phi^{-1}$, ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

283 views

### Are the homogeneous single chain subfactors, Dedekind?

Background: See here and there.
Recall that a subfactor is Dedekind if all its intermediate subfactors are normal.
A subfactor $(N \subset M)$ is Homogeneous Single Chain (HSC) if its lattice ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

450 views

### Possible orders of products of 2 involutions which interchange disjoint residue classes of the integers

Definition / Question
Definition: Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where
$0 \leq r < m$.
Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition
$...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

276 views

### Normal intermediate subgroup and normal core

Let $G$ be a finite group and $H$ a subgroup.
The normal core of $H$ in $G$ is $core_G(H) := \bigcap_{g \in G}g^{-1}Hg$
Definition: $K$ is a normal intermediate subgroup of the inclusion $(H \...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

111 views

### Minimal number of defining relators of a finite $p$-group on a minimal generating set

What is the state-of-art of the following question?
Let $p$ be any prime number. For any finite $p$-group $G$, let $r_G$ denote the minimum number of defining relators in all presentations of $G$ ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

217 views

### Relatively free algebras in a variety generated by a single algebra

Suppose $A$ is an algebra of signature $\mathcal{L}$ and $V=Var(A)$ is the variety generated by $A$. I want to know is it possible to classify relatively free elements of $V$? As a special case, for a ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

395 views

### A second isomorphism theorem for the inclusions of groups

The usual second isomorphism theorem for groups is: let $G$ be a group, $S$ and $N$ subgroups with $N$ normal, then $SN$ is a subgroup of $G$, $S\cap N$ is a normal subgroup of $S$ and $SN/N \simeq ...

**60**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Nontrivial finite group with trivial group homologies?

I stumbled across this question in a seminar-paper a long time ago:
Does there exist a positive integer $N$ such that if $G$ is a finite group with $\bigoplus_{i=1}^NH_i(G)=0$ then $G=\lbrace 1\...

**36**

votes

**14**answers

5k views

### Fantastic properties of Z/2Z

Recently I gave a lecture to master's students about some nice properties of the group with two elements $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$. Typically, I wanted to present simple, natural situations where the ...

**29**

votes

**7**answers

5k views

### The finite subgroups of SU(n)

This question is inspired by the recent question "The finite subgroups of SL(2,C)". While reading the answers there I remembered reading once that identifying the finite subgroups of SU(3) is still an ...

**24**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Can the unsolvability of quintics be seen in the geometry of the icosahedron?

Q1. Is it possible to somehow "see" the unsolvability of quintic polynomials
in the $A_5$ symmetries of the icosahedron (or dodecahedron)?
Perhaps this is too vague a question.
Q2. Are there ...

**64**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### How feasible is it to prove Kazhdan's property (T) by a computer?

Recently, I have proved that Kazhdan's property (T) is theoretically provable
by computers (arXiv:1312.5431,
explained below), but I'm quite lame with computers and have
no idea what they actually ...

**30**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Fundamental groups of noncompact surfaces

I got fantastic answers to my previous question (about modern references for the fact that surfaces can be triangulated), so I thought I'd ask a related question. A basic fact about surface topology ...

**25**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Measures of non-abelian-ness

Let $G$ be a finite non-abelian group of $n$ elements.
I would like a measure that intuitively captures the
extent to which $G$ is non-commutative.
One easy measure is a count of the non-commutative ...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Relationship between the cohomology of a group and the cohomology of its associated Lie algebra.

Let $G$ be a group and let $k$ be a field (characteristic 0 if you want). Let $L$ be the graded Lie ring associated to the lower central series of $G$, that is, $L$, as a graded abelian group is $\...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Criteria for irreducibility of polynomial

If $f, g\in \mathbb C[a,b]$ are polynomials in two variables, are there easy criteria that allow to see if $f(x,y)-g(t,z)\in \mathbb C[x,y,t,z]$ is irreducible?
Thank you very much,
best

**33**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Where are the second- (and third-)generation proofs of the classification of finite simple groups up to?

According the the Wikipedia page, the second generation proof is up to at least nine volumes: six by Gorenstein, Lyons and Solomon dated 1994-2005, two covering the quasithin business by Aschbacher ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Definition of “finite group of Lie type”?

The list of finite simple groups of Lie type has been understood for half a century, modulo some differences in notation (and identifications between some of the very small groups coming from ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### (co)homology of symmetric groups

Let $S_n=\{\text{bijections }[n]\to[n]\}$ be the n-th symmetric group. Its (co)homology will be understood with trivial action. What are the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules $H_k(S_n;\mathbb{Z})$? Using GAP, we ...

**29**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Feit-Thompson Theorem: The Odd Order Paper

For reference, the Feit-Thompson Theorem states that every finite group of odd order is necessarily solvable. Equivalently, the theorem states that there exist no non-abelian finite simple groups of ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

878 views

### Nilpotency of a group by looking at orders of elements

For any finite group $G$, let
$$\theta(G) := \sum_{g \in G} \frac{o(g)}{\phi(o(g))},$$
where $o(g)$ denotes the order of the element $g$ in $G$, and where $\phi$ is the Euler totient function.
It is ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### A general formula for the number of conjugacy classes of $\mathbb{S}_n \times \mathbb{S}_n$ acted on by $ \mathbb{S}_n$

$\def\S{\mathbb{S}}$ Dear all,
So I have $\S_n$ acting on $\S_n \times \S_n$ via conjugacy. That is:
for $g \in \S_n, (x,y) \in \S_n \times \S_n$: $g(x,y) = (gxg^{-1},gyg^{-1}).$
Is there a general ...

**28**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is every abelian group a colimit of copies of Z?

More precisely, is every abelian group a colimit $\text{colim}_{j \in J} F(j)$ over a diagram $F : J \to \text{Ab}$ where each $F(j)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}$?
Note that this does not follow ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Non-vanishing of group cohomology in sufficiently high degree

Atiyah in his famous paper , Characters and cohomology of finite groups, after proving completion of representation ring in augmentation ideal is the same as $ K(BG)$, gives bunch of corollaries of ...

**28**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### when is Aut(G) abelian

let $G$ be a group such that $Aut(G)$ is abelian. is then $G$ abelian?
this is a sort of generalization of the well-known exercise, that $G$ is abelian when $Aut(G)$ is cyclic. but I have no idea. at ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### How can classifying irreducible representations be a “wild” problem?

Let $q$ be a prime power and $U_n(\mathbb{F}_q)$ be the group of unitriangular $n\times n$-matrices. I've read and heard in several places (see e.g. this mathoverflow question) that classifying ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Elements of infinite order in a profinite group

Say G is a profinite group with elements of arbitrarily large order. Do elements of infinite order exist (A) if we assume G is abelian? (B) in general?
A start for (A): we can ask the same question ...

**8**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### What are the normal subgroups of a direct product?

Let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G \times H$, and let $\pi_1: G \times H \to G$ and $\pi_2: G \times H \to H$ be the canonical projections. Then $\pi_1(N)$ is normal in $G$ and $\pi_2(N)$ is normal in ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

855 views

### Hopfian property

Let $G$ be a group which is Hopfian and given a short exact sequence $1\to F \to H \to G \to 1$
with $F$ a finite normal subgroup of $H$. Is $H$ Hopfian?

**12**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is there any criteria for whether the automorphism group of G is homomorphic to G itself?

In the elementary group theory we know that for the symmetric groups $S_n$, except $S_6$, we have $Aut(S_n) \cong S_n$. Then the following question is natural:
What is the necessary and sufficient ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

768 views

### Are the inner automorphisms the only ones that extend to every overgroup?

Let H be a group. Can we find an automorphism $\phi :H\rightarrow H$ which is not an inner automorphism, so that given any inclusion of groups $i:H\rightarrow G$ there is an automorphism $\Phi: G\...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### What is the largest Laver table which has been computed?

Richard Laver proved that there is a unique binary operation $*$ on $\{1,\ldots,2^n\}$ which satisfies $$a*1 \equiv a+1 \mod 2^n$$
$$a* (b* c) = (a* b) * (a * c).$$
This is the $n$th Laver table $(A_n,...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Does subgroup structure of a finite group characterize isomorphism type?

Question
Suppose there is a bijection between the underlying sets of two finite groups $G, H$, such that every subgroup of $G$ corresponds to a subgroup of $H$, and that every subgroup of $H$ ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

847 views

### Which commutative groups are the group of units of some field?

Inspired by a recent question on the multiplicative group of fields. Necessary conditions include that there are at most $n$ solutions to $x^n = 1$ in such a group and that any finite subgroup is ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### A problem on a specific integer partition

Let $n$ be a positive integer, we consider partitions of the following form :
$$n = d^{2}_{1} + d^{2}_{2} + ... + d^{2}_{r}$$ such that :
$d_{i}\vert n$
$1=d_{1}<d_{2} \le d_{3} \le ... \le d_{r}...