The gm.general-mathematics tag has no usage guidance.

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### Publishing in math journals without having an adviser [migrated]

Is it possible publishing original work in math research without having an adviser?
I had some thought of matrix multiplication which I posted in this forum which wasn't welcomed that well, I plan to ...

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**1**answer

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### Correction symbols used for mathematical texts [closed]

When proof reading and correcting a mathematical text, I sometimes see people use special notation symbols in the margin to indicate correction, deletion, replacement and so on. Is there any standard ...

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**1**answer

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### On the parity of $[x^n]$

I am trying to find a problem which appeared years ago in the American Mathematical Monthly. It went something like this: There was a Putnam Competition question which asked to show that there is a ...

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**4**answers

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### Expert, Intuitive, Organizing Analogies

In learning a new area it is very helpful to have high-level intuitive analogies that keep track of the various parts of an important argument or strategy. Experts have a store of such things, and ...

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### Where can square roots come from when they are not distances?

In a recent survey "Supergeometry in Mathematics and Physics", Kapranov points out cases in which observable quantities of immediate interest are represented as bilinear combinations of more ...

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### A search for theorems which appear to have very few, if any hypotheses [closed]

I'm interested in theorems which appear to have very few, if any hypotheses. Essentially a search for unexpected regularity or pattern in a relatively unstructured situation.
By "few hypotheses" I ...

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**1**answer

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### Idempotent solutions to the implict function theorem other than the identity?

I am interested in the following problem. Assume that an (anti)symmetric function $g:\mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfies the implicit function theorem. That is, $g(x,y) = \pm g(y,x)$ and $g(x,y)=0$ ...

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**2**answers

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### A logarithmic cotangent inequality

I must be a terrible googling searcher but I cannot find a reference to the following inequality:
$$ \forall_{\phi\in(0;\frac \pi 4)}\ \ln(\cot(\phi)))\, <\, \cot(2\!\cdot\!\phi) $$
I have just ...

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### Sophisticated treatments of topics in school mathematics

Sophisticated mathematical concepts typically shed light on sophisticated mathematics. But in a few cases they also apply to elementary mathematics in an interesting way. I find such examples ...

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**1**answer

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### Conic sections in high dimensions

Can every $n$-dimensional ellipsoid be obtained as a (spherical) conic section?
This is false for generic quadrics but seems true for ellipsoid.
Does anybody have any references?

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### How does a mathematician choose on which problem to work?

Main question:
How does a mathematician choose on which problem to work?
An example approach to framing one's answer:
What is a mathematical problem - big or small - that you solved or are ...

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### Discrete summation of Gaussian functions. Decay time problem

I am facing the following problem. I have a function which is defined through a discrete sum of Gaussians
$$F_M(t) = 2\sum\limits_{n=1}^{M}e^{-t^2 \sigma^2 n^2}\times \sum\limits_{k=n}^{M}p_k p_{k-n} +...

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### What is the term for combining functions $f_1,f_2,\dots,f_n$ into a tuple $(f_1,\dots,f_n)$?

This is an embarrassingly simple question, but I was not able to find a definitive answer from literature search.
Suppose one has some collection of functions $f_1: X \to Y_1, \dots, f_n: X \to Y_n$ ...

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**1**answer

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### Geometric meaning of unimodular matrix

Rotations are given by unitary matrices.
What is the geometric meaning of unimodular matrices that are not unitary?

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### Find Moment condition for generalized method of moments

Consider a scalar system with 2K outputs and K+2 unknowns
$y_{k,1}=x_ka_1+n_{k,1} \quad y_{k,2}=x_ka_2+n_{k,1}$.
The variables $n_{k,\ell}$ are zero mean noise variables.
To estimate $a_1$ and $a_2$, ...

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**1**answer

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### Windows into new mathematical worlds [closed]

Yitang Zhang's Annals of Mathematics primes-gap result
opened a new window, which
Polymath's reduction from $70\times 10^6$ to $246$ attests.
Perhaps
Harald Helfgott's
celebrated proof of the odd ...

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**1**answer

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### Solution to $(A+x^2)e^x=B$ with Lambert W function

Is it possible to obtain a analytical solution for $(A+x^2)e^x=B$, where we want to solve for $x$ with $A,B$ as constants?

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**1**answer

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### What is the rate of convergence? [closed]

How quickly does the series defined by $$x_0 = 0, \ x_{n+1} = \frac{x_n^2+1}{2}$$ converge to $1$?

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### Is this a rational function?

Is $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{z^n}{2^n-1} \in \mathbb{C}(z)\ ?$$
In a slightly different vein, given a sequence of real numbers $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^\infty$, what are some necessary and sufficient ...

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**2**answers

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### Find the expansion of the exact solution (beyond Taylor)

In a paper by Kitagawa & Ueda Squeezed spin states they give an argument that the minimum variance in one-axis twisting Hamiltonian scales like $V_{min} \propto S^{-2/3}$. I will shortly describe ...

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### Why do people use “formal calculation” to describe informal calculations?

Many times, I see the word formal being used to describe a calculation that is not rigorous. I would think that such calculations should rather be termed informal than formal. What is the explanation ...

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### General procedure to find the determinant of an operator?

I want to learn to find the determinant of an operator.
I am given an operator like
$\Sigma _{\alpha\beta}=-k^2g_{\alpha\beta}+i\theta\epsilon_{\alpha\beta\gamma} k^\gamma$
$k^2=k^μk_μ$, $g^{αβ}$ ...

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### Which way for reading the proofs?

I am a master student in mathematics. For me a large part of doing mathematics is thinking about, reading and verifying the proof of theorems that I find them in my field of study. I can do this ...

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### What are the applications of operator algebras to other areas?

Question: What are the applications of operator algebras to other areas?
More precisely, I would like to know the results in mathematical areas outside of operator algebras which were proved by ...

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**1**answer

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### Mathematics of Computer science and AI [closed]

Computer science and Artificial Intelligence have been fertile grounds for research for decades, not only for Engineers but particularly for Mathematicians. What kinds of Mathematics have emerged ...

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**2**answers

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### Popular books written by great mathematicians [closed]

I read:
H. Poincare. Value of science
F. Klein. Development of Mathematics in the 19th Century
J.E. Littlewood. A Mathematicians Miscellany
G.H. Hardy. A Mathematician’s Apology
R. Courant, H....

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### Compiling self-referential forms

Fix $1\leq d\in\mathbb{N}$ and set $D:=\{0,1,\ldots,d-1\}$.
Consider the system of equations
\begin{equation}
x_i=c_i + \sum_{j\in D}\delta_{x_j,i}
\end{equation}
with $c_i\in D$ given and $x_i\in D$ ...

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### Collaboration or acknowledgment?

This post is a sequel of: When should a supervisor be a co-author?
This time the topic is about the interaction between two professional mathematicians (in particular junior-senior, but not ...

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### Extension of an involutive automorphism

Suppose that $g$ is a complex semi-simple Lie algebra and $g'$ its reductive subalgebra.
If $\tau$ is an involutive automorphism of $g'$, can $\tau$ be extended to an involutive automorphism of $g$ ...

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### Websites for Math Shopping [closed]

I was wondering if anyone knows about good websites or stores to buy math related products. On etsy there are normal distribution plushes and famous mathematicians in coasters. However when I search ...

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### iterative solution better than analytic solution? [closed]

My supervisor and I were discussing a specific optimisation problem this afternoon.
To be simple: solve for $R$ in the equation $Rx=y$, where $x$, $y$ are made of samples in two difference ...

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**1**answer

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### Concept of synchronizability

This thread is about the concept of synchronizability. It's a concept I tried to formalize in its most general sense but without success. The goal of this thread is therefore to try to formalize it in ...

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**1**answer

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### How to solve $e^{f(x)} + a f(x) + bx = 0$ [closed]

How should determine solutions to equations of this form?
$$e^{-f(x)} + b f(x) = ax$$
Here $f(x)>0$ is real valued. Also $a>0$, $b>0$.

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### The impact of large cardinals in mathematics [closed]

What are the main applications of large cardinals in ordinary mathematics, and what is the philosophy behind using them. In particular:
Question 1. What is the philosophy behind accepting large ...

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**1**answer

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### Constructing a function from preimages

This question was inspired by Can we build a continuous function from "fibers"/preimages defined over a topological base?
Let $X,Y$ be sets and $L\subseteq \mathcal{P}(Y)$. Suppose $L$ has ...

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### geometry formula adjacent neighbour of a N dimensional cube [closed]

A question from a curious.
How many adjacent N dimensional cube there is when they are regularly distributed on a "grid".
By N dimensional cube I mean:
a point is a OD cube
a segment is a 1D cube
...

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### Negative impact of wrong or non-rigorous proofs

The recent talks of Voevodsky (for example, http://www.math.ias.edu/~vladimir/Site3/Univalent_Foundations_files/2014_IAS.pdf), which describe subtle errors in proofs by him as well as others, as well ...

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### Proof or citation?

I'm writing an article. I suppose that I'll submit it to a more or less decent journal (in English). I have doubts about the following: I have a lemma (with quite a trivial proof). I don't want to ...

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### Conjectures on fractions where each digit appears once in numerator and denominator

This is a highly redacted version of a question that was asked before. Please see Criteria of considering relevance of the question to the domain of research topics for details.
Some numerical ...

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### Do you have examples of such “transitive” elements?

(I've asked the same question at the MSE, so far with no answers, so I thought I'd try it here as well. If there's some clash with any site rules, please let me know and I'll abide.)
Let $A$ be a set ...

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**2**answers

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### Are there any organized websites for seminar/conference videos?

These days, there are many conference centers and universities recording seminars and conference talks and make them available on the web. Some examples:
http://www.fields.utoronto.ca/video-archive
...

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### Have you solved problems in your sleep?

I have hit upon major (for me—relative to my trivial accomplishments)
insights in my research
in various sleep-deprived altered states of consciousness,
e.g., long solo car-drives extending ...

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### Jacobi triple product for multidimensional lattices

The Jacobi triple product identity gives as a special case a product formula for the theta function of a 1-dimensional lattice. Is there a more general product formula for the theta function of an ...

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### Sources of Theorem drafts by the original author

When I look at first time to a theorem and I try to understand it or when I try to memorise a useful theorem I always have difficulties (I am not the only one. For example: I read a question: I always ...

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### What is an example of a non-axiomatic mathematical system? [closed]

In this wikipedia article on the foundations of mathematics, it says:
In practice, most mathematicians ... do not work from axiomatic systems
Is this correct? If so, what is an example of this?

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### Structures that turn out to exhibit a symmetry even though their definition doesn't

Sometimes (often?) a structure depending on several parameters turns out to be symmetric w.r.t. interchanging two of the parameters, even though the definition gives a priori no clue of that symmetry. ...

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### Talking about properties of “random” elements

I asked this in MSE but did not get a satisfying answer. I apologize in advance if this is not appropriate for MO.
Suppose that we have some set X and we want to say that a "random" (or generic) ...

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### Accessible proofs of contemporary results in mathematics

Are there strong results in contemporary mathematical research (last 20 years) which have a proof which every mathematician (holding a PhD) can completely understand within a few days? -- If yes, ...

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### Equal signs with fancy marks

Some people use $\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}$, $:=$ or $\stackrel{\Delta}{=}$ for definitions.
In more informal contexts, I have also seen $\stackrel{?}{=}$, for "I wish to prove this equality, which ...

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### Is there any monoid in which the product of two non-invertible elements could be invertible?

I think the title speaks for itself. Thus I just explain the story behind the question. Of course, you may want to skip the story.
Story: Currently, I teach a course in linear algebra and matrices ...