The galois-theory tag has no wiki summary.

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### Multiplication of matrices in GF(2) and R

$H$ is an $n \times n$ matrix with elements in $ \{ -1,1 \}$
$G$ is an $n \times k$ matrix with elements in $GF(2)$ and also upper triangular, invertable
$m$ is an $k \times 1$ vector with elements ...

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### more on “Transalgebraic Theories” (a 19th century yoga)?

Among the talks at occasion of the Galois Bicentennial, one is about "Transalgebraic Theories". Unfortunately I found only this article describing that fascinating idea as " an extremely powerful ...

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### Searching for polynomials with squarefree discriminant

In connection with the Galois theoretic results surrounding the irreducibility of $f(x)= x^{N}-x-1$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, I've been trying to prove for a while that the discriminant of $f$ is actually ...

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### Is there an alternative formula for solving cubic equations?

It is known that Cardano's formula for solving cubic equations is not good in the case of positive discriminants. In this case it expresses the solution through cubic roots of complex numbers. ...

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### $Q(\sqrt{2})=Q((\sqrt{2}+1)^n)$

Observe that we have $Q(\sqrt{2})=Q((\sqrt{2}+1)^n)$.
More generally, assume that $K$ is a finite extension of Q. Is there any $\alpha \in K$ such that $K=Q(\alpha^n)$ for every $n \in N$?

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### A family of polynomials with symmetric galois group

Consider the following family of polynomials in $K[x,y]$, where $K$ has characteristic zero:
$f_n(x,y)=(x+y)^n+(x-1)y^n,$
for $n\geq 3$. I can prove that $f_n(x,y)$ has an irreducible factor of ...

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### Motivation for the proof of Hilbert's Theorem 90

The proof of Hilbert's Theorem 90 about cyclic extensions goes like this: Let $\sigma$ be the generator of the Galois group of order $n$ and let $b$ have norm $1$, i.e. $b \sigma(b) \cdots ...

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### What Dirichlet doesn't tell…

Let $n>1$ be an integer, and let us consider the set $P(n)$ of all prime numbers $p$ such that $p$ is not congruent to $1$ modulo $n$. Dirichlet's Density Theorem tells us that $P(n)$ has a natural ...

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### Galois connections

I've been experiencing minor qualms about my preprint "A Galois Connection in the Social Network" (accepted by Mathematics Magazine, pending revisions), and one of them involves the way I describe the ...

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### What are the different theories that the motivic fundamental group attempts to unify?

I must preface by confessing complete ignorance in the subject. I've read introductory texts about the theory of motives, but I am certainly no expert.
In ...

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### What is the purpose of tangential base-points?

Let $V$ be an affine complex variety. Let $x \in V$ be a closed point. Then a tangential base-point at $x$ is $x$ together with a regular function $t$ on $V$ that is zero exactly on $x$ (to degree ...

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### Expressing Galois actions on fundamental groups explicitly

Let $X$ be some variety over $\mathbb{Q}$, and let $\pi_1(X\times_{\mathbb{Q}}\mathbb{C},x)$ denote its (topological) fundamental group. As is well known $Gal(\mathbb{Q})$ acts on this fundamental ...

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### In Riemann Existence, what is the interpretation of the space of complex-geometric points?

I've been thinking recently about moduli spaces defined over $\mathbb{Z}$, and this led me to the following question:
Question
Riemann existence says that if we have a variety over $\mathbb{C}$, ...

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### Grothendieck's Galois theory without finiteness hypotheses

This is motivated by the discussion here. The usual definition of the etale fundamental group (as in SGA 1) gives automatic profiniteness: Grothendieck's formulation of Galois theory states that any ...

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### On the inverse Galois problem

Q: What is the "simplest" finite group $G$ for which we don't know how to realise it as a Galois group over $\mathbf{Q}$ ?
So here the word simplest might be interpreted in a broad sense. If you ...

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### Splitting a polynomial with one root

Suppose we have an irreducible polynomial $f\in K[x]$. Is there some way to sometimes tell whether $f$ splits completely after adjoining just one root of $f$ to $K$?
I am mostly interested in the ...

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### Extensions obtained adding torsion points of an elliptic curve

When adding to the rational the $p$-torsion points $E[p]$ of an elliptic curve we obtain an extension containing the $p$-th roots of the unity, and whose Galois group can be embedded in $GL(2, ...

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### Effective Chebotarev density results for arbitrary number fields

So let $f(x)\in\mathbf{Z}[x]$ be a monic polynomial of degree $d$ and let $K$ be the splitting field of $f$. Let us define
the "heigt of $f$" $:=||f||$ to be the maximum of the abolute values of
the ...

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### On the field of invariants of a finite group

So let $G$ be a finite group and let $\iota:G\rightarrow S_n$ be an embedding of $G$ in a symmetric group of degree $n$ for some fixed integer $n$. Let $K$ be a fixed field of characteristic $0$. The ...

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### What is a “best” transcendence basis for R/Q ?

It is easy to show, using the axiom of Zorn, that there exists a transcendence basis for $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Q}$, i.e. a set $S$, algebraically independent over $\mathbb{Q}$, such that ...

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### nth-powers and degree n polynomials with coefficients in field extensions

Hi,
Suppose that $E/F$ is a Galois extension. If $P(X)\in E[X]$ is a (EDIT: monic) polynomial of
degree $n > 0$, such that $P(X)^n\in F[X]$, does it follow that $P(X)\in F[X]$?
Thanks

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### Elementary Luroth theorem proof?

Hi, everyone!
I'm trying to explain the proof of Luroth theorem (every field $L$, s.t. $K\subset L\subset K(t)$, is isomorphic to $K(t)$) to the high-school audience. I'm not going to use such ...

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### Is the Leopoldt conjecture almost always true?

The famous Leopoldt conjecture asserts that for any number field $F$ and any prime $p$, the $p$-adic regulator of $F$ is nonzero. This is known to be equivalent to the vanishing of ...

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### Is the etale fundamental group of Spec(Z)\{p_1,…,p_n} finitely presented?

(of course not, it's usually uncountable; I really mean is it the profinite completion of a finitely presented group).
By definition, $\pi_1^{\operatorname{et}}(\operatorname{Spec}(\mathbb ...

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### Norms in Galois extensions

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic 0, and $\overline k$ be a fixed algebraic closure of $k$.
Let $k\subset F\subset E$ be a tower of finite Galois extensions in $\overline k$,
where both ...

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### Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture

(1) In "Esquisse d'un programme", Grothendieck conjectures
Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture: the morphism
$$
G_{\mathbb{Q}} \longrightarrow Aut(\widehat{T})
$$
is an isomorphism.
Here ...

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### Where is a good place to start learning about the Grothendieck-Teichmuller group?

I've had a desire to get some sort of handle on the Grothendeick-Teichmuller group for years now, but I've always felt that I could never find a source that was introductory and readable.
The obvious ...

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### Given a branched cover with branch cycle description $(g_1,…,g_r)$, does $g_i$ generate some decomposition group?

Classically:
Let $a_1,...,a_r$ be points in $\mathbb{P}^1_{\mathbb{C}}$, and let $\alpha_1,...,\alpha_r$ be simple loops around the $a_i$, all counterclockwise, and none touching (so ...

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### Finite topological generation of Galois groups

Let $F/\mathbf{Q}$ be an extension of finite degree, and let $S$ be a finite set of places of $F$. Let $F_S/F$ be the maximal extension unramified outside $S$; what is the most natural way to see ...

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### Is there a Galois correspondence for ring extensions?

Given an ring extension of a (commutative with unit) ring, Is it possible to give a "good" notion of "degree of the extension"?. By "good", I am thinking in a degree which allow us, for instance, to ...

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### Finitely generated Galois groups

It is well-known that for a given natural number $n$ there is only finite number of extensions of $\mathbb Q_p$ of degree $n$. This result appears in many introductory books on algebraic number ...

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### Centralizers of elements in free profinite groups

I believe, although I can't say that I've given a rigorous proof, that for a free group $F_r$, and an element of it $a$, $C_{F_r}(\langle a \rangle)=$ the group generated by the elements $b \in F_r$ ...

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### Using higher-order Bring radicals to solve arbitrary polynomials

It is well known that there is no general formula for the solution of the quintic. Of course, what this really means is that there is no general formula that only involves addition, subtraction, ...

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### What is the size of the smallest rigid extension field of the complex numbers?

Suppose we consider a rigid extension field $F$, i.e., $\text{Aut}(F) = 1$ over the complex numbers $\mathbb C$. What is the minimal cardinality of $F$? In particular it should hold that in this case ...

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### Decomposing anticyclotomic characters

Suppose $K/\mathbf{Q}$ is an imaginary quadratic field and $\chi$ is a finite-order character of $G_K=\mathrm{Gal}(\overline{K}/K)$ which is anticyclotomic, i.e. $\chi^{\sigma}:=\chi(\sigma g ...

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### Behaviour of Primes under Regular Coefficient Extensions

Let $K\hookrightarrow K'$ be a regular extension of fields, and $K[x_{1},\cdots,x_{n}]\hookrightarrow K'[x_{1},\cdots,x_{n}]$ the corresponding ring extension. Does every prime ideal of the first ring ...

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### Solvability in differential Galois theory

It is well known that the function $f(x) = e^{-x^2}$ has no elementary anti-derivative.
The proof I know goes as follows:
Let $F = \mathbb{C}(X)$. Let $F \subseteq E$ be the Picard-Vessiot extension ...

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### Polynomial with Galois Group $D_{2n}$

How does one construct a polynomial with Galois Group $D_{2n}$? A general method would be preferable or if that's impractical then an example of it being done for any n would be appreciated.
Thanks!

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### The Galois group of a random polynomial

Intuitively, the Galois group (of a splitting field over $\mathbb Q$ of) a polynomial $f\in\mathbb Q[X]$ taken at random is most probably the full permutation group on the roots of $f$. This intuition ...

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### Branch locus of the Galois closure of a Belyi morphism

A morphism of curves is said to be Galois if the corresponding extension of function fields is Galois.
Let $f:X\longrightarrow Y$ be a finite morphism of smooth projective connected curves over ...

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### Involution on sextic polynomials?

The strangeness of $Aut(S_{6})$ suggests the following question:
Let $a_{1}, a_{2}, a_{3}, a_{4}, a_{5}, a_{6}$ be the zeros of a 6th degree polynomial $P$ over a field $F$.
Let ...

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### Image of spliting of short exact sequence of algebraic fundamental groups

If we have a variety X , over a field k, and x is a geometric point of X, and let $\bar x $be a geometric point of $X_{k^s} := X \times_k k^s $above x then we have the following short exact sequence:
...

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### Rank of sum of Galois conjugates of a matrix

Given an invertible square matrix $M$ with entries from some number field $K$ which is Galois over $\mathbb{Q}$, sum the Galois conjugates of $M$ to form a new matrix $M' = \Sigma_{\sigma \in ...

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### Hurewicz theorem related to Galois group (or Tannakian categories)?

Is there a proof of the Hurewicz theorem $\pi_1(X)^{ab} = H_1(X, \mathbf Z)$ ($X$ a connected topological space) expressing $\pi_1(X)$ as the "Galois" group of $X$, i.e., group of deck transformations ...

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### Image of norm map for local field

Let $F$ be a finite extension of $Q_2$ (2-adic field) or $F_2((x))$ (function field). Let $E/F$ be a separable extension of degree $2$.
What is the image of the norm map $N_{E/F}$?
In particular - ...

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### Infinite simple Galois groups

Conjecturally, every finite group is the Galois group of some extension of the rationals.
This question made me wonder what is known about infinite
simple groups occurring as Galois groups.
What ...

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### Which polynomials arise as formulas for a conjugate

For any integer $r \geq 2$, et $V_r$ be the set of polynomials $Q \in {\mathbb Q}[X]$ of degree $r-1$ such that there is an algebraic number $\alpha$ of degree $r$ , such that
$Q(\alpha)$ is a ...

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### Is H^2(W_p,C^times) well-known?

Let $W_p$ be the Weil group of $\mathbf{Q}_p$. What is the Galois cohomology group $H^2(W_p,\mathbf{C}^{\times} )$ (with trivial action)? Is it zero, or something huge and complicated?
(This group ...

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### What are Galois Categories used for?

Galois categories are introduced (for the first time?) in SGA1, but here's an English introduction that's available online: http://www.math.uchicago.edu/~may/VIGRE/VIGRE2009/REUPapers/Lynn.pdf
It ...

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### What is an example of a regular realization of $C_5$ over $\mathbb{Q}(x)$?

It's known that all abelian groups are regularly realizable over $\mathbb{Q}(x)$, but it occurred to me that I don't even have an example of a cyclic regular extension of $\mathbb{Q}(x)$ handy.
So: ...