Fractals deal with special sets that exhibit complicated patterns in every scale. Fractal sets usually have a Hausdorff dimension different from its topological dimension. Examples include Julia sets, the Sierpinski triangle, the Cantor set. Fractals naturally appear in dynamical system, such as ...

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5answers
2k views

How to define a differential form on a fractal?

It is well known how to construct a Laplacian on a fractal using the Dirichlet forms (see e.g. the survey article by Strichartz). This implies, in particular, that a fractal can be "heated", i.e. one ...
27
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3answers
808 views

A point set of power series with coefficients in {-1, 1}. Connected or not?

Let $z$ be a fixed complex number with $|z|<1$ and consider the set $$X_z := \Big\{\sum\limits_{i=1}^{\infty} a_i z^i \ \Big|\ a_i\in \{-1,1\} \forall i\Big\}.$$ What can be said about the set $M$ ...
25
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2answers
1k views

Fractal-like structures arising from the action of a group on $\mathbb{Z}^2$

Let $G := \langle a, b, c \rangle < {\rm Sym}(\mathbb{Z}^2)$ be the group generated by the permutation $$ a: \ (m,n) \ \mapsto \ (m-n,m) $$ of order $6$ and the involutions $$ b: \ (m,n) \ ...
22
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6answers
5k views

How might M.C. Escher have designed his patterns?

I realize this question isn't strictly mathematical, and if it doesn't fit with the content on this site then feel free (moderators/high-rep users) to close it. But when I thought up the question it ...
18
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6answers
2k views

Parametrization of the boundary of the Mandelbrot set

Does anyone know how to parametrize the boundary of the Mandelbrot set? I am not a fractal-geometer or a dynamical systems person. I just have some idle curiosity about this question. The ...
16
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1answer
663 views

Are the algebraic numbers dense everywhere on the boundary of the Mandelbrot set?

Let $\mathcal{B}$ denote the boundary of the Mandelbrot set, and let $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$ denote the algebraic closure of the rationals. Further put $\mathcal{B}_{\overline{\mathbb{Q}}} := ...
15
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7answers
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Unexpected Occurences of the Sierpinski Triangle

The probably most wellknown occurance of the Sierpinski Triangle is as the odd entries of the Pascal triangle Some month ago however, there was an article about mathematical models of sandpiles along ...
15
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1answer
985 views

Relation between math and piano music

What, if any, is the relation between Cantor's function and Ligeti studio: Devil's Staircase?
14
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2answers
1k views

Area of the boundary of the Mandelbrot set ?

My second question about Shishikura's result : Shishikura (1991) proved that the Hausdorff Dimension of the boundary of the Mandelbrot set equals 2, in this paper 1. In a sense, could we consider it ...
14
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2answers
1k views

Does “Algebraic numbers coloured by degree” form a fractal?

This picture from Wikipedia's article on Algebraic numbers shows a visualization of Algebraic numbers coloured by degree. I'm wondering if this is a fractal?
13
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3answers
899 views

Is there an intrinsic definition of fractal (i.e. not embedded in euclidean space)?

Long ago, manifolds were embedded subsets of euclidean space defined by polynomials. Later, using the gluing of open sets, people realized they could define manifolds intrinsically. And in certain ...
13
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3answers
554 views

Julia sets using other fields

I hope I am forgiven for my noob question. But, does it make sense to think of Julia sets using other fields? More precisely I would like to think of fields in which closed and bounded isn't ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there some known way to create the Mandelbrot set (the boundary), with an iterated function system?

Is there some known way to create the Mandelbrot set (the boundary), with an iterated function system (IFS)? Julia sets can be formed by iterating the two functions $z \mapsto \pm \sqrt{z-c},$ and ...
12
votes
2answers
615 views

What is the Hausdorff dimension of this fractal?

Let $\sum_{i=h}^\infty d_i/b^i $ be the base $b$ representation of $x \geq 0,$ where $b>1$ and the $d_i$ are uniquely determined by the greedy algorithm. For fixed $c>1,$ let $f(x)= ...
12
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1answer
1k views

Analysis of the boundary of the Mandelbrot set

Motivation: The Mandlebrot set is a simply connected set with an infinitely complex boundary, but CAN one move from interior to the exterior of this topological space by just crossing over a finite ...
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Fourier decay rate of Cantor measures

For $0<\theta<\frac{1}{2}$, denote by $C_\theta$ the Cantor set with dissection ratio $\theta$, i.e. the Cantor set obtained from dissection parttern $(\theta, 1-2\theta,\theta)$. It is known ...
12
votes
3answers
495 views

Dimensions of self-affine sets

Let $A$ be a $2\times 2$ matrix which we assume to be contracting, i.e., the exists $\alpha\in(0,1)$ such that $$ \|A {\mathbf x}\|_2\le \alpha\|{\mathbf x}\|_2,\quad \forall {\mathbf x}\in\mathbb ...
11
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1answer
285 views

Cantor set intersecting a geometric sequence

I was working on a problem involving finding all points in the intersection of the Cantor set $C$ and the geometric sequence $\{ (2/3)^i \}_{i=1}^\infty$. The only points I have in this intersection ...
11
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2answers
516 views

On the boundary of the twindragon

Let $\mathcal T$ be the famous twindragon, i.e., $$ \mathcal T=\left\{\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n\left(\frac{1+i}2\right)^n : a_n\in\{0,1\}\right\}. $$ Then, as is well known, $\mathcal T$ has a ...
10
votes
3answers
559 views

Self-Similar Graphs

Many fractals can be generated using and infinite sequence of graphs. For example, Sierpinski's Gasket could be generated by the following sequence of graphs. Many definitions of fractal dimensions ...
10
votes
2answers
378 views

Nim and the Sierpinski Gasket

(I discovered this in high school, sent it off to a journal, never heard back, and forgot about it. I've never found anyone else who appeared to know about it; the combinatorial game theorists I've ...
10
votes
2answers
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sequences with a fractal dimension

This is inspired by the self-similarity of the celebrated Golay-Rudin-Shapiro sequence, more exactly, of its alternating partial sums. (This latter one is oeis 020990). The pictures show the 550 first ...
10
votes
1answer
345 views

Are there any exact results for Hausdorff Measure?

The computation of the Hausdorff measure is extremely difficult due to the infinum appearing in its definition. This has made the calculation of the Hausdorff measure for nearly all fractals difficult ...
9
votes
5answers
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Hausdorff dimension for invariant measure?

A fractal set has a Hausdorff dimension. In some cases, we may generate a fractal by iterating $f,$ and let the fractal be the set of starting points $x$ such that $|f^{\circ n}(x)|$ is bounded as ...
9
votes
5answers
485 views

Iterated function system on the plane

Let $r_1, r_2, r_3$ be three nonnegative real numbers with $r_1^2+r_2^2+r_3^2 <1$. Can you find three similitudes $f_1,f_2,f_3$ on $\mathbb{R}^2$ with similarity ratios $r_1,r_2,r_3$ resp. and a ...
9
votes
2answers
529 views

local behavior of a finite Borel measure

Let $\mu$ be a finite Borel measure on $\mathbb{R}^n$. I am interested in how does $\mu(B(x,r))$ behave, where $B(x,r)$ is the open ball of radius $r$ centered at $x$. For instance, as far as I ...
9
votes
0answers
159 views

Decay rate of measures on Cantor set

I've read that Kahane and Salem show that if $\mu$ is any measure supported on the ternary Cantor set, then $\hat{\mu}(\xi) \not\to 0$ as $|\xi| \to \infty$, however I have been unable to find a ...
8
votes
2answers
768 views

Fractal Tiling of Rhombic Dodecahedra

Hello, this is my first question on Math Overflow... Rhombic dodecahedra can be tiled in 3-space, leaving no gaps. This tiling corresponds to the close-packing of spheres. Consider a "nucleus" ...
8
votes
2answers
635 views

Shortest Paths on fractals

How can one find shortest paths between 2 specified points on fractals, or (since I'm pretty sure this is quite complicated) make useful generalizations about them? Since the above question is broad, ...
8
votes
2answers
201 views

Isometrically-invariant measures and dilation of the Cantor set

Let $C$ be the Cantor middle-thirds set. Let $\mu$ be a finitely-additive isometrically-invariant measure on all subsets of $\mathbb R$. Then $\mu(3C)=2\mu(C)$, where $aB = \{ ax : x \in B \}$. ...
7
votes
2answers
308 views

What one really can do with fractals built from L-systems?

For any L-system one can naturally associate a fractal. Why these fractals are (mathematically) useful apart that they are a source of nice pictures?
7
votes
1answer
3k views

Relationship between fractal dimension and Hurst exponent

For many basic random processes (like fractional Brownian motion) Hurst exponent "H" and fractal dimensions ( Hausdorf = Minkoswki typically) "D" are realated by simple formula D = 2-H. I want to ...
7
votes
2answers
192 views

Angles and proportions occurring in L-system fractals

This is about properties of certain fractals defined by Lindenmayer systems, a.k.a. L-systems. Unlike “classical” fractals like Julia sets or the Mandelbrot set (the name “set” says it all), these ...
7
votes
1answer
279 views

Fractal dimension of scaling limits of discrete structures

Let $S$ be the set of positive integers whose base-three expansion contains only the digits 0 and 2. The discrete set $S$ in a sense has (negative) fractal dimension $(\log 1/2)/(\log 3)$, since if ...
7
votes
1answer
292 views

For a 3D Apollonian packing, do we really know that the Hausdorff dimension of the complement is approximated by the growth rate of curvature?

The fractal dimension of the 3D Apollonian packing is computed in this paper. In the introduction, the authors cite three of Boyd's paper (Ref 2, 5, 6) to support that the fractal dimension ...
7
votes
2answers
314 views

Minimum number of contractions needed to obtain a particular invariant set

Consider the Koch curve $G \subseteq \mathbb{R}^2$. Clearly $G$ is the invariant set (IS) of the iterated function system (IFS) $\lbrace \phi_1, \phi_2, \phi_3, \phi_4 \rbrace$. Where (not wanting to ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Measure 0 sets on the line with Hausdorff dimension 1

I use $\dim_H(E)$ to denote the Hausdorff dimension of a set $E \subseteq \mathbb{R}$ and $|E|$ to denote its Lebesgue measure. It is easy to see from the definition of Hausdorff dimension that if ...
6
votes
1answer
441 views

Arithmetic products of Cantor sets.

Let $A,B\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ be two Cantor sets. What is known about the arithmetic product $AB=\lbrace ab|a\in A, b\in B\rbrace$? In particular, what is known in the case that the sets are ...
6
votes
2answers
325 views

function that is the average of affine transformations of itself

Consider the function $f : \mathbb{R} \to [-1,1]$ with $$ f(x) = \begin{cases} -1 & x \le -1 \\ +1 & x \ge +1 \\ \frac{f(\frac32 (x-\frac13)) + f(\frac32 ...
6
votes
2answers
659 views

Symmetries of the Julia sets for $z^2+c$

The julia set seems to have symmetries roughly corresponding to translation, rotation and scaling. In the following image You can see the horizontal translation, which leaves the extremal left and ...
6
votes
1answer
185 views

Spirals in Apollonian circle-packings

Given mutually (externally) tangent circles $C_1,C_2,C_3$, let $C_n$ be the unique circle externally tangent to $C_{n-1}$, $C_{n-2}$, and $C_{n-3}$ for $n \geq 4$. Let $P_{\infty}$ be the point toward ...
6
votes
1answer
273 views

Precise density estimates for Cantor sets

Let $C_\lambda$ be the classical Cantor set associated to a real number $0<\lambda<\frac{1}{2}$, as defined for example in the book of K. J. Falconer The geometry of fractal sets. I recall ...
6
votes
1answer
217 views

Isotropy of Apollonian disk-packing

Is there any sense in which the "epsilon-tail" of an Apollonian disk-packing (by which I mean the union of the disks of radius less than epsilon) exhibits more and more statistical isotropy as epsilon ...
6
votes
1answer
677 views

Is Gouvêa-Mazur's “Infinite Fern” a fractal?

[EDIT]: Following Qiaochu Yuan's comment, it is better to clarify that I do not know what the right definition of a fractal in the following question should be. But a nice answer might contain such a ...
6
votes
0answers
134 views

Does the Mandelbrot set have infinite VC dimension?

Define a binary classifier for points in the complex plane, whose parameter $\theta$ is an isometry of $\mathbb{C}$, and which classifies $z \in \mathbb{C}$ based on whether or not $\theta(z)$ is in ...
5
votes
3answers
957 views

Estimating the fractal dimension of a point cloud

I have finite set of geolocation point data, and I'd like to estimate the fractal dimension. I know there are several ways to do this, and some of them give different numbers. What is the most ...
5
votes
4answers
685 views

Determining a lower bound on the Hausdorff dimension of a set

Does anyone know of a good method for finding a lower bound of the Hausdorff dimension of a set $G$? The only method I could find is to find an $\alpha$-Hölder function $f \colon G \to H$ then ...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Integral over the Cantor's set Hausdorff dimension

As can be seen in the David Morin's Classical Mechanics, there are some scaling strategies in order to calculate the moments of inertia of certain fractals, for example, the Cantor's set has a moment ...
5
votes
1answer
353 views

Smallest positive zero of Weierstrass nowhere differentiable function

Consider the Weierstrass nowhere differentiable function $f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{2^n} \cos(4^n \pi x)$. It seems that the smallest positive zero of $f(x)$ occurs at $x=\frac{1}{5}$, but I ...
5
votes
1answer
152 views

Is there a survey of recent work relating to the Hausdorff dimension of sets defined through some restriction of digits?

I am familiar with the work of Helmut Cajar, but his book is thirty years old and it's clear that there has been substantial progress since then. I have been spending a lot of time looking through ...