**70**

votes

**9**answers

11k views

### Is Fourier analysis a special case of representation theory or an analogue?

I'm asking this question because I've been told by some people that Fourier analysis is "just representation theory of $S^1$."
I've been introduced to the idea that Fourier analysis is related to ...

**56**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### How Does My Radio Work?

Bear with me for a moment while I invoke the real world; the main question at the end is purely mathematical.
I live in an area with $n$ AM radio stations and $m$ FM radio stations.
AM station ...

**48**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Square root of dirac delta function

Is there a measurable function $ f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}^+ $ so that $ f*f(x)=1 $ for all $ x\in \mathbb{R} $, i.e $$\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(t)f(x-t) dt=1 $$ for all $ x\in \mathbb{R} $.

**47**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Quasicrystals and the Riemann Hypothesis

Let $0 < k_1 < k_2 < k_3 < \cdots $ be all the zeros of the Riemann zeta function on the critical line:
$$ \zeta(\frac{1}{2} + i k_j) = 0 $$
Let $f$ be the Fourier transform of the sum ...

**40**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### What are fixed points of the Fourier Transform

The obvious ones are 0 and $e^{-x^2}$ (with annoying factors), and someone I know suggested hyperbolic secant. What other fixed points (or even eigenfunctions) of the Fourier transform are there?

**39**

votes

**6**answers

6k views

### How does one use the Poisson summation formula?

While reading the answer to another Mathoverflow question, which mentioned the Poisson summation formula, I felt a question of my own coming on. This is something I've wanted to know for a long time. ...

**34**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### Is there an “elegant” non-recursive formula for these coefficients? Also, how can one get proofs of these patterns?

Not sure if this is a "good" question for this forum or if it'll get panned, but here goes anyway...
Consider this problem. I've been trying to find a formula to expand the "regular iteration" of ...

**31**

votes

**10**answers

19k views

### Fourier transform for dummies [closed]

So ... what is the Fourier transform? What does it do? Why is it useful (both in math and in engineering, physics, etc)?
(Answers at any level of sophistication are welcome.)

**31**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### How should an analytic number theorist look at Bessel functions?

(And a related question: Where should an analytic number theorist learn about Bessel functions?)
Bessel functions occur quite frequently in analytic number theory. One example, Corollary 4.7 of ...

**31**

votes

**1**answer

809 views

### For which maps $S^1\to S^1$ is the winding number defined?

There are two classes of maps $S^1\to S^1$ for which I know how to define the winding number:
• Continuous maps:
Using the unique path lifting property of the universal covering map $\mathbb R\to ...

**30**

votes

**9**answers

19k views

### Is square of Delta function defined somewhere?

Hello, every one. I am wondering whether any one knows that whether the square of Dirac Delta function is defined some where?
In the beginning, this question might look strange. But by restricting ...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Is the set of primes “translation-finite”?

The definition in the title probably needs explaining. I should say that the question itself was an idea I had for someone else's undergraduate research project, but we decided early on it would be ...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Fourier transform on the discrete cube

Notation: identify an element of $\{-1,1\}^n$ with the set $S \subseteq \{1, \ldots, n\}$ on which it takes the value $-1$.
The following is an asymptotic question. "Close to one" means "more than ...

**29**

votes

**6**answers

6k views

### What does Mellin inversion “really mean”?

Given a function $f: \mathbb{R}^+ \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ satisfying suitable conditions (exponential decay at infinity, continuous, and bounded variation) is good enough, its Mellin transform is ...

**28**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Do convolution and multiplication satisfy any nontrivial algebraic identities?

For (suitable) real- or complex-valued functions f and g on a (suitable) abelian group G, we have two bilinear operations: multiplication -
(f.g)(x) = f(x)g(x),
and convolution -
(f*g)(x) = ...

**27**

votes

**6**answers

6k views

### Intuition for Integral Transforms

It is well known that the operations of differentiation and integration are reduced to multiplication and division after being transformed by an integral transform (like e.g. Fourier or Laplace ...

**27**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Why is Fourier analysis so handy for proving the isoperimetric inequality?

I have just completed an introductory course on analysis, and have been looking over my notes for the year. For me, although it was certainly not the most powerful or important theorem which we ...

**26**

votes

**6**answers

8k views

### Learning roadmap for harmonic analysis

In short, I am interested to know of the various approaches one could take to learn modern harmonic analysis in depth. However, the question deserves additional details. Currently, I am reading Loukas ...

**25**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Explicit formula for Riemann zeros counting function

I've often seen it stated (in vague terms) that there's a Fourier duality between the set of prime numbers and the set of nontrivial Riemann zeta zeros.
Because there are various explicit formulae ...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Is this Riemann zeta function product equal to the Fourier transform of the von Mangoldt function?

Mathematica knows that:
$$\log(n) = \lim\limits_{s \rightarrow 1} \zeta(s)\left(1 - \frac{1}{n^{(s - 1)}}\right)\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; (1)$$
The von Mangoldt function should then be:
...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Furstenberg's Conjecture on 2-3-invariant continuous probability measures on the circle

Hillel Furstenberg conjectured that the only $2$-$3$-invariant probability measure on the circle without atoms is the Lebesgue measure. More precisely:
Question: (Furstenberg) Let $\mu$ be a ...

**23**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Can Hölder's Inequality be strengthened for smooth functions?

Is there an $\epsilon>0$ so that for every nonnegative integrable function $f$ on the reals,
$$\frac{\| f \ast f \|_\infty \| f \ast f \|_1}{\|f \ast f \|_2^2} > 1+\epsilon?$$
Of course, we ...

**20**

votes

**3**answers

493 views

### In what ways is the standard Fourier basis optimal?

Is there any convincing sense in which the standard trigonometric basis for
the space $V$ of square-integrable real-valued functions on $[-\pi,\pi]$ is
optimal among all the orthonormal bases?
(If ...

**20**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### How do I compare the different notions of Fourier transform for sheaves?

There is a close but not perfect relationship between algebraic D-modules on C^n, constructible sheaves on C^n in the analytic topology, and \ell-adic sheaves on an n-dimensional vector space over a ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

659 views

### Uncertainty principle for Mellin transform

Let $f:\mathbb{R}^+\to \mathbb{C}$. Let $Mf$ be its Mellin transform: $Mf(s) = \int_0^\infty f(x) x^{s-1} dx$.
(a) Some time ago, I convinced myself that
$f(t)$, $Mf(\sigma+it)$ and $Mf(\sigma-it)$ ...

**18**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Parametrization of the boundary of the Mandelbrot set

Does anyone know how to parametrize the boundary of the Mandelbrot set? I am not a fractal-geometer or a dynamical systems person. I just have some idle curiosity about this question.
The ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### Truth of the Poisson summation formula

The Poisson summation says, roughly, that summing a smooth $L^1$-function of a real variable at integral points is the same as summing its Fourier transform at integral points(after suitable ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Range of the Fourier transform on L^1

It is well known that the Fourier transform $\mathcal{F}$ maps
$L^1(\mathbb{R}^d)$ into, but not onto, $\overline{C_0^0}(\mathbb{R}^d)$, where the closure is taken in the $L^\infty$ norm. This is a ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### What's the relationship between Gauss sums and the normal distribution?

Let $p$ be an odd prime and $\left( \frac{a}{p} \right)$ the Legendre symbol. The Gauss sum
$\displaystyle g_p(a) = \sum_{k=0}^{p-1} \left( \frac{k}{p} \right) \zeta^{ak},$
where $\zeta_p = e^{ ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

911 views

### What can be said about the Fourier transforms of characteristic functions?

What can be said about the Fourier transform of the characteristic function $1_A$, where $A\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is of finite Lebesgue measure? In particular,
What properties are common to ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Is this statement which relates the Fourier transform of a function to its singularities correct?

I am working on a problem, which would possibly relate the Fourier transform/series with the jump singularities of the function where the function itself or one of its derivatives jump. ((some kind of ...

**17**

votes

**3**answers

923 views

### Is there an L^p tauberian theorem?

From Wiener's tauberian theorem we know that linear combinations of translates of f \in L^1(R) are dense in L^1(R) if and only if the Fourier transform of f never vanishes. It is also known that ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### FFTs over finite fields?

I'm trying to understand how to compute a fast Fourier transform over a finite field. This question arose in the analysis of some BCH codes.
Consider the finite field $F$ with $2^n$ elements. It is ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

885 views

### Image of L^1 under the Fourier Transform

The Fourier Transform $\mathcal{F}:L^1(\mathbb{R})\to C_0(\mathbb{R})$ is an injective, bounded linear map that isn't onto. It is known (if I remember correctly) that the range isn't closed, but is ...

**16**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Does there exist a continuous function of compact support with Fourier transform outside L^1?

Let f be a complex-valued function of one real variable, continuous and compactly supported. Can it have a Fourier transform that is not Lebesgue integrable?

**16**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Convergence of Fourier Series of $L^1$ Functions

I recently learned of the result by Carleson and Hunt (1968) which states that if $f \in L^p$ for $p > 1$, then the Fourier series of $f$ converges to $f$ pointwise-a.e. Also, Wikipedia informs me ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

531 views

### An algebraic approach to the thermodynamic limit $N\rightarrow\infty$?

In physics one studies quite often the thermodynamic limit or what we call the $N\rightarrow \infty$ behavior of a system of $N\rightarrow\infty$ particles. This is of particular relevance in the ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What is the shortest route to Roth's theorem?

Roth first proved that any subset of the integers with positive density contains a three term arithmetic progression in 1953. Since then, many other proofs have emerged (I can think of eight off the ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Fast Fourier Transform for Graph Laplacian?

In the case of a regularly-sampled scalar-valued signal $f$ on the real line, we can construct a discrete linear operator $A$ such that $A(f)$ approximates $\partial^2 f / \partial x^2$. One way to ...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

59k views

### Fourier vs Laplace transforms

In solving a linear system, when would I use a Fourier transform versus a Laplace transform? I am not a mathematician, so the little intuition I have tells me that it could be related to the boundary ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

771 views

### A question in Fourier analysis

I recently came across this problem:
Let $T=\mathbb R /2 \pi \mathbb Z$ the circle, with its proabability Haar measure $\mu$. Any integrable function $f : T \rightarrow \mathbb C$
has Fourier ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

426 views

### What geometric information is carried by the Fourier coefficients of the components of a closed curve?

Let $\gamma$ be a smooth closed curve in the plane and let $(x(t), y(t))$ be a parametrization. The functions $x(t)$ and $y(t)$ are smooth and periodic, so each has a uniformly convergent Fourier ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Let a function f have all moments zero. What conditions force f to be identically zero?

Throughout, let $f$ be a Lebesgue measurable function (or continuous if you wish, but this is probably no easier). (Questions with distributions etc. are possible also but I want to keep things simple ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

363 views

### Can a continuous function on a compact group $G$ be interpreted as the sum in $C(G)$ of its Fourier series?

I asked this in math.stackexchange, but it disappeared from the "main list" almost immediately, so I hope it will be appropriate as a separate question in MO.
For a given function $f\in C(G)$ on a ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

944 views

### On the $L^1$-norm of certain exponential sums.

I am stuck with an elementary-looking problem, which does not belong to my usual field of research so I eventually decided to ask it on MO.
Let $S$ be a finite set of integers. For $P$ a subset of ...

**13**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### complex fourier coefficients, introduced by?

I remember reading somewhere that the complex Fourier coefficients were introduced by an engineer sometime around 1900, but I can't find anymore this information.
Does anyone know the name of this ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

373 views

### Is there a $C_c^{\infty}( \mathbb{R}^d)$ function whose Fourier transform we can explicitly write down?

I noticed that although $C_c^{\infty}$-functions are dense in some quite large spaces and well understood (especially their Fourier transform) I have never encountered an explicit example of a ...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

427 views

### Completeness of nonharmonic Fourier Series

I have the following question:
The Exponential System $(\exp(2\pi i n \cdot ))_{n\in \mathbb{Z}}$ constitutes an orthonormal basis of $L^2([-1/2,1/2])$.
Thus, certainly the oversampled system ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### A Fourier-analytic inequality used by Jean Bourgain

I am currently reading Jean Bourgain's 1986 paper A Szemerédi type theorem for sets of positive density in $R^k$ and would appreciate some help in understanding a Fourier-analytic estimate used in ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Fourier decay rate of Cantor measures

For $0<\theta<\frac{1}{2}$, denote by $C_\theta$ the Cantor set with dissection ratio $\theta$, i.e. the Cantor set obtained from dissection parttern $(\theta, 1-2\theta,\theta)$. It is known ...