# Tagged Questions

**4**

votes

**1**answer

119 views

### Class theory with support for self-application of class functions?

To every natural number $n$, we can assign its Church numeral $\underline{n}.$ A formal definition would be:
$\underline{0}(f)=\mathrm{id}_{\mathrm{dom}(f)}$
$\underline{n+1}(f) = ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

595 views

### Consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic)

Is there a proof of the consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic), which is similar to Gentzen's proof of the consistency of arithmetic?
Update:
Which (different) methods can be used to ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

106 views

### What references cover finitary systems of Ramified Analysis with transfinite levels?

The ramified theory of types, invented by Bertrand Russell, is a way of dealing with impredicativity by breaking the comprehension schema of second-order logic into levels. The comprehension schema ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Who introduced the terms “equivalence relation” and “equivalence class”?

Consider that the question does not concern the origin of the ideas of equivalence relation and equivalence class. It exactly concerns the origin of the terms "equivalence relation" and "equivalence ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

425 views

### Surreal numbers and large cardinals

This is a question in two parts about the interaction of surreal numbers and large cardinals, in both cases just a request for references on the subject.
Part 1 is about foundations. Much of the ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

491 views

### Monte Carlo integration

As probably many other people here, I learned integration, as an undergrad, from Rudin's books. I recently realized, however, that I don't quite use Lebesgue integration in my work, or at least I use ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

442 views

### Evolution of the Mapping/Function Concept

Hello! I'm looking for a survey (of the history) of the concept of mapping/function. How the concept was evolving. Especially I'm interested in what it turned into during the last 50 years.
So ...